Skip to main content

Full text of "The past and present of Lake County, Illinois, containing a history of the county ... a biographical directory ... war record ... early settlers ... statistics ... history of Illinois ... the Northwest ... etc., etc .."

See other formats

.  ■ 





Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2017 





A  History  of  the  County — Its  Cities,  Towns,  &c.,  A  Biographical 
Directory  of  its  Citizens,  War  Record  of  its  Volunteers  in 


Prominent  Men,  General  and  Local  Statistics,  Map  of 
Lake  County,  History  of  Illinois,  Illustrated, 

History  of  the  Northwest,  Illustrated,  Con¬ 
stitution  of  the  United  States,  Mis¬ 
cellaneous  Matters,  Etc.,  Etc. 



WM.  LE  BARON  &  CO., 
186  Dearborn  Street, 

Entered,  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1877,  by 

WM.  LE  BARON  &  CO., 

In  tile  Office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington,  1).  <3. 



In  presenting  our  Past  and  Present  of  Lake  County  in  historical  form,  we  deem 
a  few  prefatory  words  necessary.  We  have  spared  neither  pains  nor  expense  to  fulfill 
our  engagement  with  our  patrons  and  make  the  work  as  complete  as  possible.  We 
have  acted  upon  the  principle  that  justice  to  those  who  have  subscribed,  be  they  few 
or  many,  requires  that  the  work  should  be  as  well  done  as  if  it  was  patronized  by  every 
citizen  in  the  county.  We  do  not  claim  that  our  work  is  entirely  free  from  errors  ;  such 
a  result  could  not  be  attained  by  the  utmost  care  and  foresight  of  ordinary  mortals. 
Some  of  the  Township  Histories  are  indeed  longer  than  others,  as  the  townships  are 
larger  and  older,  containing  larger  cities  and  towns,  and  have  been  the  scenes  of  more 
important  and  interesting  events.  While  fully  recognizing  this  important  difference, 
the  historian  has  sought  to  write  up  each  township  with  equal  fidelity  to  the  facts  and 
information  within  his  reach.  We  take  this  occasion  to  present  our  thanks  to  all  our 
numerous  subscribers  for  their  patronage  and  encouragement  in  the  publication  of  the 
work.  In  this  confident  belief  we  submit  it  to  the  enlightened  judgment  of  those  for 
whose  benefit  it  has  been  prepared,  believing  that  it  will  be  received  as  a  most  valuable 
and  complete  work. 





Wisconsin . 104 

Minnesota . ,.106 

Nebraska . 107 

History  of  Illinois . 109 

Coal . 125 

Compact  of  1787 . ..117 

Chicago . 182 

Early  Discoveries . 109 

Early  Settlements . lift 

Education . 129 

First  French  Occupation . 112 

Genius  of  La  Salle . 113 

Material  Resources . 124 

Massacre  ot  Fort  Dearborn . 141 

Physical  Features . 121 

Progress  of  Development . 123 

Religion  and  Morals . 128 

War  Record  of  Illinois . 130 


History  of  Lake  County . 219 

The  County  at  Large . 219 

Township  of  Antioch . 241 

Avon  . 245 

Benton . 250 

Cuba . 255 

Deerfield . 259 

Ela . 269 

Fremont . 277 

Grant . 286 

Liberty  ville . 294 

Newport . 299 

Shields . 301 

Vernon . 313 

Warren . . . 316 

Wauconda . 318 

Waukegan . 320 

City  of  Waukegan . 450 


History  Northwest  Territory .  19 

Geographical .  19 

Early  Exploration .  20 

Discovery  of  the  Ohio .  33 

English  Explorations  and  Settle¬ 
ments  .  35 

American  Settlements .  60 

Division  of  the  Northwest  Terri¬ 
tory .  66 

Tecumseh  and  the  war  of  1812 .  70 

Black  Hawk  and  the  Black  Hawk 

War .  74 

Other  Indian  Troubles .  79 

Present  Condition  of  the  Northwest  87 

Illinois . 99 

Indiana . 101 

Towa . 102 

Michigan . 103 


Mouth  of  the  Mississippi .  21 

Source  of  the  Mississippi .  21 

Wild  Prairie .  23 

La  Salle  Landing  on  the  Shore  of 

Green  Bay . 25 

Buffalo  Hunt . . 27 

Trapping .  29 

Hunting .  32 

Iroquois  Chief. .  34 

Pontiac,  the  Ottawa  Chieftain .  43 

Indians  Attacking  Frontiersmen...  56 

A  Prairie  Storm .  59 

A  Pioneer  Dwelling .  61 

Breaking  Prairie .  63 



Tecumseh,  the  Shawnee  Chieftain...  69 

Indians  Attacking  a  Stockade .  72 

Black  Hawk,  the  Sac  Chieftain .  75 

Big  Eagle .  80 

Captain  Jack,  the  Modoc  Chieftain..  83 

Kinzie  House .  85 

Village  Residence .  86 

A  Represen tatrve  Pioneer .  87 

Lincoln  Monument,  Springfield,  Ill.  88 

A  Pioneer  School  House .  89 

Farm  View  in  the  Winter .  90 

Spring  Scene .  91 

Pioneers’  First  Winter .  92 

Apple  Harvest . 94 


Great  Iron  Bridge  of  Chicago,  Rock 
Island  &  Pacific  Railroad,  Cross¬ 
ing  the  River  at  Davenport,  Iowa  96 

A  Western  Dwelling . 100 

Hunting  Prairie  Wolves  at  an 

Early  Day . 108 

Starved  Rock,  on  the  Illinois  River, 

La  Salle  County,  Ill . 110 

An  Early  Settlement . 116 

Chicago  in  1833 . 133 

Old  Fort  Dearborn  in  1830 . 136 

Ruins  of  Chicago . 142 

View  of  the  City  of  Chicago . 144 

Shabbona . 149 



Bradbury,  Samuel  1 . 253 

Cook,  Ansel  B . 307 

Farwell,  C.  B . 218 


Partridge,  Chas.  A . 235 

Partridge,  H.  E . 289 

Robertson,  Jno . 325 


Waterman,  Amos  S . 271 








Page,  j 

....492  Artillery 





Antioch . 350 

Avon . 361 

Benton . 376 

Cuba . 367 

Deerfield . 382 


Ela . 371 

Fremont . 389 

Grant . 398 

Libertyville . 401 

Newport . 412 


Shields . 424 

Vernon . 429 

Warren . 433 

Wauconda . 439 

Waukegan . 327 





Adoption  of  Children . 160 

Bills  of  Exchange  and  Promissory 

Notes . 151 

County  Courts . 155 

Conveyances . 164 

Church  Organizations . 189 

Descent . 151 

Deeds  and  Mortgages . 157 

Drainage .  163 

Damages  from  Trespass . 169 

Definition  of  Commercial  Terms . 173 

Exemptions  from  Forced  Sale . 156 

Estrays . 157 

Fences . 168 

Forms : 

Articles  of  Agreement . 175 

Bills  of  Purchase . 174 

Bills  of  Sale . 176 

Bonds . 176 


Chattel  Mortgages . 177 

Codicil . 189 

Lease  of  Farm  and  Build¬ 
ings . 179 

Lease  of  House . 180 

Landlord’s  Agreement . 180 

Notes . 174 

Notice  Tenant  to  Quit . t81 

Orders . 174 

Quit  Claim  Deed . 185 

Receipt . 174 

Real  Estate  Mortgaged  to  Secure 

Payment  of  Money . 181 

Release . 186 

Tenant’s  Agreement . 180 

Tenant’s  Notice  to  Quit . 181 

Warranty  Deed . 182 

Will . 187 

Game . 158 


Map  of  Lake  County . Front 

Constitution  of  the  U.  S . 192 

Electors  of  President  and  Vice  Pres¬ 
ident . 206 

Practical  Rules  for  Every  Day  Use.207 
U.  S.  Government  Land  Measure. ..210 
Agricultural  Productions  of  Illi¬ 
nois  by  Counties,  1870 . 210 

Surveyors’  Measure . 211 



How  to  Keep  Accounts . 211 

Interest  Table . 212 

Miscellaneous  Tables . 212 

Names  of  the  States  of  the  LTnion 

and  their  Signification . 213 

Population  of  the  United  States . 214 

Population  of  Fifty  Principal  Cities 

of  the  United  States . 214 

Population  and  Area  of  the  United 



Interest . 151 

Jurisdiction  of  Courts . 154 

Limitation  of  Action . 155 

Landlord  and  Tenant . 169 

Liens . 172 

Married  Women . 155 

Millers  . 159 

Marks  and  Brands . 159 

Paupers  . 164 

Roads  and  Bridges . 161 

Surveyors  and  Surveys . 160 

Suggestions  to  Persons  Purchasing 
Books  by  Subscription . 190 

Tflwti  1  ^4- 

Wills  and  Estates.’.".' 3".V.V.V.V.V.V.*.V.’l52 

Weights  and  Measures . 158 

Wolf  Scalps  . 164 


States . 215 

Population  of  the  Principal  Coun¬ 
tries  in  the  World .  215 

Popu'ation  of  Illinois . 216-217 

Business  Directory . 446 

Assessors’  Report . 500 

Population  of  Lake  County . 499 

Official  Vote  of  Lake  County . 499 

Lodges  and  Associations . 497 



Ihe  frontage  of  Lake  Bluff  Grounds  on  Lake  Michigan,  with  one  hundred  and  seventy  feet  of 

gradual  ascent. 

,4  ptf* 


...  ■« 





■v>I’v,I-«g>I-C-I  -C»l  -S 

3  1833  02281  0144 

The  Northwest  Territory. 


When  the  Northwestern  Territory  was  ceded  to  the  United  States 
by  Virginia  in  1784,  it  embraced  only  the  territory  lying  between  the 
Ohio  and  the  Mississippi  Rivers,  and  north  to  the  northern  limits  of  the 
United  States.  It  coincided  with  the  area  now  embraced  in  the  States 
of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Michigan,  Illinois,  Wisconsin,  and  that  portion  of 
Minnesota  lying  on  the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi  River.  The  United 
States  itself  at  that  period  extended  no  farther  west  than  the  Mississippi 
River  ;  but  by  the  purchase  of  Louisiana  in  1808,  the  western  boundary 
of  the  United  States  was  extended  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  the 
Northern  Pacific  Ocean.  The  new  territory  thus  added  to  the  National 
domain,  and  subsequently  opened  to  settlement,  has  been  called  the 
“New  Northwest,”  in  contradistinction  from  the  old  “Northwestern 
Territory.  ” 

In  comparison  with  the  old  Northwest  this  is  a  territory  of  vast 
magnitude.  It  includes  an  area  of  1,887,850  square  miles  ;  being  greater 
in  extent  than  the  united  areas  of  all  the  Middle  and  Southern  States, 
including  Texas.  Out  of  this  magnificent  territory  have  been  erected 
eleven  sovereign  States  and  eight  Territories,  with  an  aggregate  popula¬ 
tion,  at  the  present  time,  of  18,000,000  inhabitants,  or  nearly  one  third  of 
the  entire  population  of  the  United  States. 

Its  lakes  are  fresh-water  seas,  and  the  larger  rivers  of  the  continent 
flow  for  a  thousand  miles  through  its  rich  alluvial  valleys  and  far- 
stretching  prairies,  more  acres  of  which  are  arable  and  productive  of  the 
highest  percentage  of  the  cereals  than  of  any  other  area  of  like  extent 
on  the  globe. 

For  the  last  twenty  years  the  increase  of  population  in  the  North¬ 
west  has  been  about  as  three  to  one  in  any  other  portion  of  the  United 





In  the  year  1541,  DeSoto  first  saw  the  Great  West  in  the  New 
World.  He,  however,  penetrated  no  farther  north  than  the  35th  parallel 
of  latitude.  The  expedition  resulted  in  his  death  and  that  of  more  than 
half  his  army,  the  remainder  of  whom  found  their  way  to  Cuba,  thence 
to  Spain,  in  a  famished  and  demoralized  condition.  DeSoto  founded  no 
settlements,  produced  no  results,  and  left  no  traces,  unless  it  were  that 
he  awakened  the  hostility  of  the  red  man  against  the  white  man,  and 
disheartened  such  as  might  desire  to  follow  up  the  career  of  discovery 
for  better  purposes.  The  French  nation  were  eager  and  ready  to  seize 
upon  any  news  from  this  extensive  domain,  and  were  the  first  to  profit  by 
DeSoto’s  defeat.  Yet  it  was  more  than  a  century  before  any  adventurer 
took  advantage  of  these  discoveries. 

In  1616,  four  years  before  the  pilgrims  “  moored  their  bark  on  the 
wild  New  England  shore,*’  Le  Caron,  a  French  Franciscan,  had  pene¬ 
trated  through  the  Iroquois  and  Wyandots  (Hurons)  to  the  streams  which 
run  into  Lake  Huron  ;  and  in  1634,  two  Jesuit  missionaries  founded  the 
first  mission  among  the  lake  tribes.  It  was  just  one  hundred  years  from 
the  discovery  of  the  Mississippi  by  DeSoto  (1541)  until  the  Canadian 
envoys  met  the  savage  nations  of  the  Northwest  at  the  Falls  of  St.  Mary, 
below  the  outlet  of  Lake  Superior.  This  visit  led  to  no  permanent 
result;  yet  it  was  not  until  1659  that  any  of  the  adventurous  fur  traders 
attempted  to  spend  a  Winter  in  the  frozen  wilds  about  the  great  lakes, 
nor  was  it  until  1660  that  a  station  was  established  upon  their  borders  by 
Mesnard,  who  perished  in  the  woods  a  few  months  after.  In  1665,  Claude 
Allouez  built  the  earliest  lasting  habitation  of  the  white  man  among  the 
Indians  of  the  Northwest.  In  1668,  Claude  Dablon  and  James  Marquette 
founded  the  mission  of  Sault  Ste.  Marie  at  the  Falls  of  St.  Mary,  and  two 
years  afterward,  Nicholas  Perrot,  as  agent  for  M.  Talon,  Governor  Gen¬ 
eral  of  Canada,  explored  Lake  Illinois  (Michigan)  as  far  south  as  the 
present  City  of  Chicago,  and  invited  the  Indian  nations  to  meet  him  at  a 
grand  council  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie  the  following  Spring,  where  they  were 
taken  under  the  protection  of  the  king,  and  formal  possession  was  taken 
of  the  Northwest.  This  same  year  Marquette  established  a  mission  at 
Point  St.  Ignatius,  where  was  founded  the  old  town  of  Michillimackinac. 

During  M.  Talon’s  explorations  and  Marquette’s  residence  at  St. 
Ignatius,  they  learned  of  a  great  river  away  to  the  west,  and  fancied 
— as  all  others  did  then — that  upon  its  fertile  banks  whole  tribes  of  God's 
children  resided,  to  whom  the  sound  of  the  Gospel  had  never  come. 
Filled  with  a  wish  to  go  and  preach  to  them,  and  in  compliance  with  a 






request  of  M.  Talon,  who  earnestly  desired  to  extend  the  domain  of  his 
king,  and  to  ascertain  whether  the  river  flowed  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico 
or  the  Pacific  Ocean,  Marquette  with  Joliet,  as  commander  of  the  expe¬ 
dition,  prepared  for  the  undertaking. 

On  the  13th  of  May,  1673,  the  explorers,  accompanied  by  five  assist¬ 
ant  French  Canadians,  set  out  from  Mackinaw  on  their  daring  voyage  of 
discovery.  The  Indians,  who  gathered  to  witness  their  departure,  were 
astonished  at  the  boldness  of  the  undertaking,  and  endeavored  to  dissuade 
them  from  their  purpose  by  representing  the  tribes  on  the  Mississippi  as 
exceedingly  savage  and  cruel,  and  the  river  itself  as  full  of  all  sorts  of 
frightful  monsters  ready  to  swallow  them  and  their  canoes  together.  But, 
nothing  daunted  by  these  terrific  descriptions,  Marquette  told  them  he 
was  willing  not  only  to  encounter  all  the  perils  of  the  unknown  region 
they  were  about  to  explore,  but  to  lay  down  his  life  in  a  cause  in  which 
the  salvation  of  souls  was  involved;  and  having  prayed  together  they 
separated.  Coasting  along  the  northern  shore  of  Lake  Michigan,  the 
adventurers  entered  Green  Bay,  and  passed  thence  up  the  Fox  River  and 
Lake  Winnebago  to  a  village  of  the  Miamis  and  Kickapoos.  Here  Mar¬ 
quette  was  delighted  to  find  a  beautiful  cross  planted  in  the  middle  of  the 
town  ornamented  with  white  skins,  red  girdles  and  bows  and  arrows, 
which  these  good  people  had  offered  to  the  Great  Manitou,  or  God,  to 
thank  him  for  the  pity  he  had  bestowed  on  them  during  the  Winter  in 
giving  them  an  abundant  “  chase.’ '  This  was  the  farthest  outpost  to 
which  Dablon  and  Allouez  had  extended  their  missionary  labors  the 
year  previous.  Here  Marquette  drank  mineral  waters  and  was  instructed 
in  the  secret  of  a  root  which  cures  the  bite  of  the  venomous  rattlesnake. 
He  assembled  the  chiefs  and  old  men  of  the  village,  and,  pointing  to 
Joliet,  said:  “  My  friend  is  an  envoy  of  France,  to  discover  new  coun¬ 
tries,  and  I  am  an  ambassador  from  God  to  enlighten  them  with  the  truths 
of  the  Gospel.*’  Two  Miami  guides  were  here  furnished  to  conduct 
them  to  the  Wisconsin  River,  and  they  set  out  from  the  Indian  village  on 
the  10th  of  June,  amidst  a  great  crowd  of  natives  who  had  assembled  to 
witness  their  departure  into  a  region  where  no  white  man  had  ever  vet 
ventured.  The  guides,  having  conducted  them  across  the  portage, 
returned.  The  explorers  launched  their  canoes  upon  the  Wisconsin, 
which  they  descended  to  the  Mississippi  and  proceeded  down  its  unknown 
waters.  What  emotions  must  have  swelled  their  breasts  as  they  struck 
out  into  the  broadening  current  and  became  conscious  that  they  were 
now  upon  the  bosom  of  the  Father  of  Waters.  The  mystery  was  about 
to  be  lifted  from  the  long-sought  river.  The  scenery  in  that  locality  is 
beautiful,  and  on  that  delightful  seventeenth  of  June  must  have  been 
clad  in  all  its  primeval  loveliness  as  it  had  been  adorned  by  the  hand  of 



Nature.  Drifting  rapidly,  it  is  said  that  the  bold  bluffs  on  either  hand 
“  reminded  them  of  the  castled  shores  of  their  own  beautiful  rivers  of 
France.”  By-and-by,  as  they  drifted  along,  great  herds  of  buffalo  appeared 
on  the  banks.  On  going  to  the  heads  of  the  valley  they  could  see  a 
country  of  the  greatest  beauty  and  fertility,  apparently  destitute  of  inhab¬ 
itants  }~et  presenting  the  appearance  of  extensive  manors,  under  the  fas¬ 
tidious  cultivation  of  lordly  proprietors. 


On  June  25,  they  went  ashore  and  found  some  fresh  traces  of  men  upon 
the  sand,  and  a  path  which  led  to  the  prairie.  The  men  remained  in  the 
boat,  and  Marquette  and  Joliet  followed  the  path  till  they  discovered  a 
village  on  the  banks  of  a  river,  and  two  other  villages  on  a  hill,  within  a 
half  league  of  the  first,  inhabited  by  Indians.  They  were  received  most 
hospitably  by  these  natives,  who  had  never  before  seen  a  white  person. 
After  remaining  a  few  days  they  re-embarked  and  descended  the  river  to 
about  latitude  33°,  where  they  found  a  village  of  the  Arkansas,  and  being 
satisfied  that  the  river  flowed  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  turned  their  course 



up  the  river,  and  ascending  the  stream  to  the  mouth  of  the  Illinois, 
rowed  up  that  stream  to  its  source,  and  procured  guides  from  that  point 
to  the  lakes.  “  Nowhere  on  this  journey,”  says  Marquette,  “did  we  see 
such  grounds,  meadows,  woods,  stags,  buffaloes,  deer,  wildcats,  bustards, 
swans,  ducks,  parroquets,  and  even  beavers,  as  on  the  Illinois  River.” 
The  party,  without  loss  or  injury,  reached  Green  Bay  in  September,  and 
reported  their  discovery— one  of  the  most  important  of  the  age,  but  of 
which  no  record  was  preserved  save  Marquette’s,  Joliet  losing  his  by 
the  upsetting  of  his  canoe  on  his  way  to  Quebec.  Afterward  Marquette 
returned  to  the  Illinois  Indians  by  their  request,  and  ministered  to  them 
until  1675.  On  the  18th  of  May,  in  that  year,  as  he  was  passing  the 
mouth  of  a  stream — going  with  his  boatmen  up  Lake  Michigan — he  asked 
to  land  at  its  mouth  and  celebrate  Mass.  Leaving  his  men  with  the  canoe, 
he  retired  a  short  distance  and  began  his  devotions.  As  much  time 
passed  and  he  did  not  return,  his  men  went  in  search  of  him,  and  found 
him  upon  his  knees,  dead.  He  had  peaceful^  passed  away  while  at 
prayer.  He  was  buried  at  this  spot.  Charlevoix,  who  visited  the  place 
fifty  years  after,  found  the  waters  had  retreated  from  the  grave,  leaving 
the  beloved  missionary  to  repose  in  peace.  The  river  has  since  been 
called  Marquette. 

While  Marquette  and  his  companions  were  pursuing  their  labors  in 
the  West,  two  men,  differing  widely  from  him  and  each  other,  were  pre¬ 
paring  to  follow  in  his  footsteps  and  perfect  the  discoveries  so  well  begun 
by  him.  These  were  Robert  de  LaSalle  and  Louis  Hennepin. 

After  La  Salle’s  return  fr-om  the  discovery  of  the  Ohio  River  (see 
the  narrative  elsewhere),  he  established  himself  again  among  the  French 
trading  posts  in  Canada.  Here  he  mused  long  upon  the  pet  project  of 
those  ages — a  short  way  to  China  and  the  East,  and  was  busily  planning  an 
expedition  up  the  great  lakes,  and  so  across  the  continent  to  the  Pacific, 
when  Marquette  returned  from  the  Mississippi.  At  once  the  vigorous  mind 
of  LaSalle  received  from  his  and  his  companions’  stories  the  idea  that  by  fol¬ 
lowing  the  Great  River  northward,  or  by  turning  up  some  of  the  numerous 
western  tributaries,  the  object  could  easily  be  gained.  He  applied  to 
Frontenac,  Governor  General  of  Canada,  and  laid  before  him  the  plan, 
dim  but  gigantic.  Frontenac  entered  warmly  into  his  plans,  and  saw  that 
LaSalle’s  idea  to  connect  the  great  lakes  by  a  chain  of  forts  with  the  Gulf 
of  Mexico  would  bind  the  country  so  wonderfully  together,  give  un¬ 
measured  power  to  France,  and  glory  to  himself,  under  whose  adminis¬ 
tration  he  earnestly  hoped  all  would  be  realized. 

LaSalle  now  repaired  to  France,  laid  his  plans  before  the  King,  who 
warmly  approved  of  them,  and  made  him  a  Chevalier.  He  also  received 
from  all  the  noblemen  the  warmest  wishes  for  his  success.  The  Chev- 



alier  returned  to  Canada,  and  busily  entered  upon  his  work.  He  at 
once  rebuilt  Fort  Frontenac  and  constructed  the  first  ship  to  sail  on 
these  fresh-water  seas.  On  the  7th  of  August,  1679,  having  been  joined 
by  Hennepin,  he  began  his  voyage  in  the  Griffin  up  Lake  Erie.  He 
passed  over  this  lake,  through  the  straits  beyond,  up  Lake  St.  Clair  and 
into  Huron.  In  this  lake  they  encountered  heavy  storms.  They  were 
some  time  at  Michillimackinac,  where  LaSalle  founded  a  fort,  and  passed 
on  to  Green  Bay,  the  “  Baie  des  Puans  ”  of  the  French,  where  he  found 
a  large  quantity  of  furs  collected  for  him.  He  loaded  the  Griffin  with 
these,  and  placing  her  under  the  care  of  a  pilot  and  fourteen  sailors, 


started  her  on  her  return  voyage.  The  vessel  was  never  afterward  heard 
of.  He  remained  about  these  parts  until  early  in  the  Winter,  when,  hear¬ 
ing  nothing  from  the  Griffin,  he  collected  all  his  men — thirty  working 
men  and  three  monks — and  started  again  upon  his  great  undertaking. 

By  a  short  portage  they  passed  to  the  Illinois  or  Kankakee,  called  by 
the  Indians,  “  Theakeke,”  wolf ’,  because  of  the  tribes  of  Indians  called 
by  that  name,  commonly  known  as  the  Mahingans,  dwelling  there.  I  be 
French  pronounced  it  Kiakiki ,  which  became  corrupted  to  Kankakee. 
“Falling  down  the  said  river  by  easy  journeys,  the  better  to  observe  the 
country,”  about  the  last  of  December  they  reached  a  village  of  the 
Illinois  Indians,  containing  some  five  hundred  cabins,  but  at  that  moment 



no  inhabitants.  The  Seur  de  LaSalle  being  in  want  of  some  breadstuffs, 
took  advantage  of  the  absence  of  the  Indians  to  help  himself  to  a  suffi¬ 
ciency  of  maize,  large  quantities  of  which  he  found  concealed  in  holes 
under  the  wigwams.  This  village  was  situated  near  the  present  village 
of  Utica  in  LaSalle  County,  Illinois.  The  corn  being  securely  stored, 
the  voyagers  again  betook  themselves  to  the  stream,  and  toward  evening, 
on  the  4th  day  of  January,  1680,  they  came  into  a  lake  which  must  have 
been  the  lake  of  Peoria.  This  was  called  by  the  Indians  Pim-i-te-wi ,  that 
is,  a  place  where  there  are  many  fat  beasts .  Here  the  natives  were  met 
with  in  laige  numbers,  but  they  were  gentle  and  kind,  and  having  spent 
some  time  with  them,  LaSalle  determined  to  erect  another  fort  in  that 
place,  for  he  had  heard  rumors  that  some  of  the  adjoining  tribes  were 
tiying  to  disturb  the  good  feeling  which  existed,  and  some  of  his  men 
were  disposed  to  complain,  owing  to  the  hardships  and  perils  of  the  travel. 
He  called  this  fort  “  Crevecoeur  ’  (broken-heart),  a  name  expressive  of  the 
very  natural  sorrow  and  anxiety  which  the  pretty  certain  loss  of  his  ship, 
Griffin,  and  his  consequent  impoverishment,  the  danger  of  hostility  on  the 
part  of  the  Indians,  and  of  mutiny  among  his  own  men,  might  well  cause 
him.  His  fears  were  not  entirely  groundless.  At  one  time  poison  was 
placed  in  his  food,  but  fortunately  was  discovered. 

While  building  this  fort,  the  Winter  wore  away,  the  prairies  began  to 
look  green,  and  LaSalle,  despairing  of  any  reinforcements,  concluded  to 
return  to  Canada,  raise  new  means  and  new  men,  and  embark  anew  in 
the  enterprise.  For  this  purpose  he  made  Hennepin  the  leader  of  a  party 
to  explore  the  head  waters  of  the  Mississippi,  and  he  set  out  on  his  jour¬ 
ney.  This  journey  was  accomplished  with  the  aid  of  a  few  persons,  and 
was  successfully  made,  though  over  an  almost  unknown  route,  and  in  a 

bad  season  of  the  year.  He  safely  reached  Canada,  and  set  out  again  for 
the  object  of  his  search. 

Hennepin  and  his  party  left  Fort  Crevecoeur  on  the  last  of  February, 
1680.  When  LaSalle  reached  this  place  on  his  return  expedition,  he 
found  the  fort  entirely  deserted,  and  he  was  obliged  to  return  again  to 
Canada.  He  embarked  the  third  time,  and  succeeded.  Seven  days  after 
lea  zing  the  fort,  Hennepin  reached  the  Mississippi,  and  paddling  up  the 
icy  stream  as  best  he  could,  reached  no  higher  than  the  Wisconsin  River 
b\  the  11th  ol  April.  Here  he  and  his  followers  were  taken  prisoners  by  a 
band  ol  Northern  Indians,  who  treated  them  with  great  kindness.  Hen¬ 
nepin’s  comrades  were  Anthony  Auguel  and  Michael  Ako.  On  this  voy¬ 
age  they  found  several  beautiful  lakes,  and  “saw  some  charming  prairies.” 
Their  captors  were  the  Isaute  or  Sauteurs,  Chippewas,  a  tribe  of  the  Sioux 
nation,  who  took  them  up  the  river  until  about  the  first  of  May,  when 
they  leached  some  falls,  which  Hennepin  christened  Falls  of  St.  Anthony 



in  honor  of  his  patron  saint.  Here  they  took  the  land,  and  traveling 
nearly  two  hundred  miles  to  the  northwest,  brought  them  to  their  villages. 
Here  they  were  kept  about  three  months,  were  treated  kindly  by  their 
captors,  and  at  the  end  of  that  time,  were  met  by  a  band  of  Frenchmen, 


headed  by  one  Seur  de  Luth,  who,  in  pursuit  of  trade  and  game,  had  pene¬ 
trated  thus  far  by  the  route  of  Lake  Superior;  and  with  these  fellow- 
countrymen  Hennepin  and  his  companions  were  allowed  to  return  to  die 
borders  of  civilized  life  in  November,  1680,  just  alter  LaSalle  had 
returned  to  the  wilderness  on  his  second  trip.  Hennepin  soon  alter  vcn 
to  France,  where  he  published  an  account  of  his  adventures. 



The  Mississippi  was  first  discovered  by  De  Soto  in  April,  1541,  in  his 
vain  endeavor  to  find  gold  and  precious  gems.  In  the  following  Spring, 
De  Soto,  weary  with  hope  long  deferred,  and  worn  out  with  his  wander¬ 
ings,  he  fell  a  victim  to  disease,  and  on  the  21st  of  May  died.  His  followers, 
i educed  by  fatigue  and  disease  to  less  than  three  hundred  men,  wandered 
about  the  country  nearly  a  year,  in  the  vain  endeavor  to  rescue  them¬ 
selves  by  land,  and  finally  constructed  seven  small  vessels,  called  brigan¬ 
tines,  in  which  they  embarked,  and  descending  the  river,  supposing  it 
would  lead  them  to  the  sea,  in  July  they  came  to  the  sea  (Gulf  of 
Mexico),  and  by  September  reached  the  Island  of  Cuba. 

1  hey  y  ei  e  the  fiist  to  see  the  great  outlet  of  the  Mississippi;  but, 
being  so  weary  and  discouraged,  made  no  attempt  to  claim  the  country, 
and  hardly  had  an  intelligent  idea  of  what  they  had  passed  through. 

To  La  Salle,  the  intrepid  explorer,  belongs  the  honor  of  giving  the 
first  account  of  the  mouths  of  the  river.  His  great  desire  was  to  possess 
this  entire  country  for  his  king,  and  in  January,  1682,  he  and  his  band  of 
explorers  left  the  shores  of  Lake  Michigan  on  their  third  attempt,  crossed 
the  portage,  passed  down  the  Illinois  River,  and  on  the  6tli  of  February, 
reached  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi. 

On  the  18th  they  commenced  their  downward  course,  which  they 
pursued  with  but  one  interruption,  until  upon  the  6th  of  March  they  dis- 
coveied  the  three  great  passages  by  which  the  river  discharges  its  waters 
into  the  gulf.  La  Salle  thus  narrates  the  event: 

“  landed  on  the  bank  of  the  most  western  channel,  about  three 
leagues  (nine  miles)  from  its  mouth.  On  the  seventh,  M.  de  LaSalle 
vent  to  reconnoiter  the  shores  of  the  neighboring  sea,  and  M.  de  Tonti 
meanwhile  examined  the  great  middle  channel.  "  They  found  the  main 
outlets  beautiful,  large  and  deep.  On  the  8th  we  reascended  the  river,  a 
little  above  its  confluence  with  the  sea,  to  find  a  dry  place  beyond  the 
reach  of  inundations.  The  elevation  of  the  North  Pole  was  here  about 
twenty-seven  degrees.  Here  we  prepared  a  column  and  a  cross,  and  to 
the  column  v  ere  affixed  the  arms  of  France  with  this  inscription: 

Louis  Le  Grand,  Roi  De  France  et  de  Navarre,  regne  ;  Le  neuvieme  Avril,  1682. 

*  The  whole  party,  under  arms,  chanted  the  Te  Deum ,  and  then,  after 
a  salute  and  cries  ot  Vive  le  Roi,''  the  column  was  erected  by  M.  de 
LaSalle,  who,  standing  near  it,  proclaimed  in  a  loud  voice  the  authority  of 
the  King  of  F ranee.  LaSalle  returned  and  laid  the  foundations  of  the  Mis¬ 
sissippi  settlements  in  Illinois,  thence  he  proceeded  to  France,  where 
anothei  expedition  was  fitted  out,  of  which  he  was  commander,  and  in  two 
succeeding  voyages  failed  to  find  the  outlet  of  the  river  by  sailing  along 
the  shore  of  the  gulf.  On  his  third  voyage  he  was  killed,  through  the 



treachery  of  his  followers,  and  the  object  of  his  expeditions  was  not 
accomplished  until  1699,  when  D'Iberville,  under  the  authority  of  the 
crown,  discovered,  on  the  second  of  March,  by  way  of  the  sea,  the  mouth 
of  the  “Hidden  River.”  This  majestic  stream  was  called  by  the  natives 
“ Malbouchia”  and  by  the  Spaniards,  “ la  Paliasade ,”  from  the  great 



number  of  trees  about  its  mouth.  After  traversing  the  several  outlets, 
and  satisfying  himself  as  to  its  certainty,  he  erected  a  tort  near  its 
western  outlet,  and  returned  to  France. 

An  avenue  of  trade  was  now  opened  out  which  was  lully  improved. 
In  1718,  New  Orleans  was  laid  out  and  settled  by  some  European  colon¬ 
ists.  In  1762,  the  colony  was  made  over  to  Spain,  to  be  regained  by 
France  under  the  consulate  of  Napoleon.  In  1803,  it  was  purchased  by 



the  United  States  for  the  sum  of  fifteen  million  dollars,  and  the  territory 
of  Louisiana  and  commerce  of  the  Mississippi  River  came  under  the 
charge  of  the  United  States.  Although  LaSalle's  labors  ended  in  defeat 
and  death,  he  had  not  worked  and  suffered  in  vain.  He  had  thrown 
open  to  France  and  the  world  an  immense  and  most  valuable  country ; 
had  established  several  ports,  and  laid  the  foundations  of  more  than  one 
settlement  there.  “  Peoria,  Kaskaskia  and  Cahokia,  are  to  this  day  monu¬ 
ments  of  LaSalle’s  labors ;  for,  though  he  had  founded  neither  of  them 
(unless  Peoria,  which  was  built  nearly  upon  the  site  of  Fort  Crevecoeur,) 
it  was  by  those  whom  he  led  into  the  West  that  these  places  were 
peopled  and  civilized.  He  was,  if  not  the  discoverer,  the  first  settler  of 
the  Mississippi  Valley,  and  as  such  deserves  to  be  known  and  honored.” 

The  French  early  improved  the  opening  made  for  them.  Before  the 
year  1698,  the  Rev.  Father  Gravier  began  a  mission  among  the  Illinois, 
and  founded  Kaskaskia.  For  some  time  this  was  merely  a  missionary 
station,  where  none  but  natives  resided,  it  being  one  of  three  such  vil¬ 
la  ges,  the  other  two  being  Cahokia  and  Peoria.  What  is  known  of 
these  missions  is  learned  from  a  letter  written  bv  Father  Gabriel  Marest, 
dated  “  Aux  Cascaskias,  autrement  dit  de  lTmmaculate  Conception  de 
la  Sainte  Vierge,  le  9  Novembre,  1712.”  Soon  after  the  founding  of 
Kaskaskia,  the  missionary,  Pinet,  gathered  a  flock  at  Cahokia,  while 
Peoria  arose  near  the  ruins  of  Fort  Crevecoeur.  This  must  have  been 
about  the  year  1700.  The  post  at  Vincennes  on  the  Oubache  river, 
(pronounced  Wa-ba,  meaning  summer  cloud  moving  swiftly )  was  estab¬ 
lished  in  1702,  according  to  the  best  authorities.*  It  is  altogether  prob¬ 
able  that  on  LaSalle’s  last  trip  he  established  the  stations  at  Kaskaskia 
and  Cahokia.  In  July,  1701,  the  foundations  of  Fort  Ponchartrain 
were  laid  by  De  la  Motte  Cadillac  on  the  Detroit  River.  These  sta¬ 
tions,  with  those  established  further  north,  were  the  earliest  attempts  to 
occupy  the  Northwest  Territory.  At  the  same  time  efforts  were  being 
made  to  occupy  the  Southwest,  which  finally  culminated  in  the  settle¬ 
ment  and  founding  of  the  City  of  New  Orleans  by  a  colony  from  England 
in  1718.  This  was  mainly  accomplished  through  the  efforts  of  the 
famous  Mississippi  Company,  established  by  the  notorious  John  Law, 
who  so  quickly  arose  into  prominence  in  France,  and  who  with  his 
scheme  so  quickly  and  so  ignominiously  passed  away. 

From  the  time  of  the  founding  of  these  stations  for  fifty  3rears  the 
French  nation  were  engrossed  with  the  settlement  of  the  lower  Missis¬ 
sippi,  and  the  war  with  the  Chicasaws,  who  had,  in  revenge  for  repeated 

*  There  is  considerable  dispute  about  this  date,  some  asserting  it  was  founded  as  late  as  1742.  When 
the  new  court  house  at  Vincennes  was  erected,  all  authorities  on  the  subject  were  carefully  examined,  and 
1702  fixed  upon  as  the  correct  date.  It  was  accordingly  engraved  on  the  corner-stone  of  the  court  house. 



injuries,  cut  off  the  entire  colony  at  Natchez.  Although  the  company 
did  little  for  Louisiana,  as  the  entire  West  was  then  called,  yet  it  opened 
the  trade  through  the  Mississippi  River,  and  started  the  raising  of  grains 
indigenous  to  that  climate.  Until  the  year  1750,  but  little  is  known  of 
the  settlements  in  the  Northwest,  as  it  was  not  until  this  time  that  the 
attention  of  the  English  was  called  to  the  occupation  of  this  portion  of  the 
New  World,  which  they  then  supposed  they  owned.  Vivier,  a  missionary 
among  the  Illinois,  writing  from  “  Aux  Illinois,"  six  leagues  from  Fort 
Chartres,  June  8,  1750,  says:  “We  have  here  whites,  negroes  and 
Indians,  to  say  nothing  of  cross-breeds.  There  are  five  French  villages, 
and  three  villages  of  the  natives,  within  a  space  of  twenty-one  leagues 
situated  between  the  Mississippi  and  another  river  called  the  Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias).  In  the  five  French  villages  are,  perhaps,  eleven  hundred 
whites,  three  hundred  blacks  and  some  sixty  red  slaves  or  savages.  The 
three  Illinois  towns  do  not  contain  more  than  eight  hundred  souls  all 
told.  Most  of  the  French  till  the  soil;  they  raise  wheat,  cattle,  pigs  and 
horses,  and  live  like  princes.  Three  times  as  much  is  produced  as  can 
be  consumed;  and  great  quantities  of  grain  and  flour  are  sent  to  New 
Orleans.”  This  city  was  now  the  seaport  town  of  the  Northwest,  and 
save  in  the  extreme  northern  part,  where  only  furs  and  copper  ore  were 
found,  almost  all  the  products  of  the  country  found  their  way  to  France 
by  the  mouth  of  the  Father  of  Waters.  In  another  letter,  dated  Novem¬ 
ber  7,  1750,  this  same  priest  says:  “For  fifteen  leagues  above  the 
mouth  of  the  Mississippi  one  sees  no  dwellings,  the  ground  being  too  low 
to  be  habitable.  Thence  to  New  Orleans,  the  lands  are  only  partially 
occupied.  New  Orleans  contains  black,  white  and  red,  not  more,  I 
think,  than  twelve  hundred  persons.  To  this  point  come  all  lumber, 
bricks,  salt-beef,  tallow,  tar,  skins  and  bear’s  grease  ;  and  above  all,  pork 
and  flour  from  the  Illinois.  These  things  create  some  commerce,  as  forty 
vessels  and  more  have  come  hither  this  year.  Above  New  Orleans, 
plantations  are  again  met  with ;  the  most  considerable  is  a  colony  of 
Germans,  some  ten  leagues  up  the  river.  At  Point  Coupee,  thirty-five 
leagues  above  the  German  settlement,  is  a  fort.  Along  here,  within  live 
or  six  leagues,  are  not  less  than  sixty  habitations.  Fifty  leagues  1  art  her 
up  is  the  Natchez  post,  where  we  have  a  garrison,  who  are  kept  prisoners 
through  fear  of  the  Chickasaws.  Here  and  at  Point  Coupee,  they  raise 
excellent  tobacco.  Another  hundred  leagues  brings  us  to  the  Arkansas, 
where  we  have  also  a  fort  and  a  garrison  for  the  benefit  of  the  river 
traders.  *  *  *  From  the  Arkansas  to  the  Illinois,  nearly  five  hundred 

leagues,  there  is  not  a  settlement.  There  should  be,  however,  a  fort  at 
the  Oubache  (Ohio),  the  only  path  by  which  the  English  can  reach  the 
Mississippi.  In  the  Illinois  country  are  numberless  mines,  but  no  one  to 



work  them  as  they  deserve.  Father  Marest,  writing  from  the  post  at 
Vincennes  in  181 2,  makes  the  same  observation.  Vivier  also  says  :  “  Some 
individuals  dig  lead  near  the  surface  and  supply  the  Indians  and  Canada. 
Two  Spaniards  now  here,  who  claim  to  be  adepts,  say  that  our  mines  are 
like  those  of  Mexico,  and  that  if  we  would  dig  deeper,  we  should  find 
silver  under  the  lead  ;  and  at  any  rate  the  lead  is  excellent.  There  is  also 
in  this  country,  beyond  doubt,  copper  ore,  as  from  time  to  time  large 
pieces  are  found  in  the  streams. ” 


At  the  close  of  the  year  1750,  the  French  occupied,  in  addition  to  the 
lower  Mississippi  posts  and  those  in  Illinois,  one  at  Du  Quesne,  one  at 
the  Maumee  in  the  country  of  the  Miamis,  and  one  at  Sanduskv  in  what 
may  be  termed  the  Ohio  Valley.  In  the  northern  part  of  the  Northwest 
they  had  stations  at  St.  Joseph’s  on  the  St.  Joseph  s  of  Lake  Michigan, 
at  Fort  Ponchartrain  (Detroit),  at  Michillimackanac  or  Massillimacanac, 
Fox  River  of  Green  Bay,  and  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie.  The  fondest  dreams  of 
LaSalle  were  now  fully  realized.  The  French  alone  were  possessors  of 
this  vast  realm,  basing  their  claim  on  discovery  and  settlement.  Another 
nation,  however,  was  now  turning  its  attention  to  this  extensive  country, 


and  hearing  of  its  wealth,  began  to  lay  plans  for  occupying  it  and  for 
securing  the  great  profits  arising  therefrom. 

The  French,  however,  had  another  claim  to  this  country,  namely,  the 


This  “  Beautiful”  river  was  discovered  by  Robert  Cavalier  de  La¬ 
Salle  in  1669,  four  years  before  the  discovery  of  the  Mississippi  by  Joliet 
and  Marquette. 

While  LaSalle  was  at  his  trading  post  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  he  found 
leisure  to  study  nine  Indian  dialects,  the  chief  of  which  was  the  Iroquois. 
He  not  only  desired  to  facilitate  his  intercourse  in  trade,  but  he  longed 
to  travel  and  explore  the  unknown  regions  of  the  West.  An  incident 
soon  occurred  which  decided  him  to  fit  out  an  exploring  expedition. 

While  conversing  with  some  Senecas,  he  learned  of  a  river  called  the 
Ohio,  which  rose  in  their  country  and  flowed  to  the  sea,  but  at  such  a 
distance  that  it  required  eight  months  to  reach  its  mouth.  In  this  state¬ 
ment  the  Mississippi  and  its  tributaries  were  considered  as  one  stream. 
LaSalle  believing,  as  most  of  the  French  at  that  period  did,  that  the  great 
rivers  flowing  west  emptied  into  the  Sea  of  California,  was  anxious  to 
embark  in  the  enterprise  of  discovering  a  route  across  the  continent  to 
the  commerce  of  China  and  Japan. 

He  repaired  at  once  to  Quebec  to  obtain  the  approval  of  the  Gov¬ 
ernor.  His  eloquent  appeal  prevailed.  The  Governor  and  the  Intendant, 
Talon,  issued  letters  patent  authorizing  the  enterprise,  but  made  no  pro¬ 
vision  to  defray  the  expenses.  At  this  juncture  the  seminary  of  St.  Sul- 
pice  decided  to  send  out  missionaries  in  connection  with  the  expedition, 
and  LaSalle  offering  to  sell  his  improvements  at  LaChine  to  raise  money, 
the  offer  was  accepted  by  the  Superior,  and  two  thousand  eight  hundred 
dollars  were  raised,  with  which  LaSalle  purchased  four  canoes  and  the 
necessary  supplies  for  the  outfit. 

On  the  6th  of  July,  1669,  the  party,  numbering  twenty- four  persons, 
embarked  in  seven  canoes  on  the  St.  Law'rence ;  two  additional  canoes 
carried  the  Indian  guides.  In  three  days  they  were  gliding  over  the 
bosom  of  Lake  Ontario.  Their  guides  conducted  them  directly  to  the 
Seneca  village  on  the  bank  of  the  Genesee,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  present 
City  of  Rochester,  New  York.  Here  they  expected  to  procure  guides  to 
conduct  them  to  the  Ohio,  but  in  this  they  were  disappointed. 

The  Indians  seemed  unfriendly  to  the  enterprise.  LaSalle  suspected 
that  the  Jesuits  had  prejudiced  their  minds  against  his  plans.  Alter 
waiting  a  month  in  the  hope  of  gaining  their  object,  they  met  an  Indian 



from  the  Iroquois  colony  at  the  head  of  Lake  Ontario,  who  assured  them 
that  they  could  there  find  guides,  and  offered  to  conduct  them  thence. 

On  their  way  they  passed  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara  River,  when  they 
heard  for  the  first  time  the  distant  thunder  of  the  cataract.  Arriving 


among  the  Iroquois,  they  met  with  a  friendly  reception,  and  learned 
from  a  Shawanee  prisoner  that  they  could  reach  the  Ohio  in  six  weeks. 
Delighted  with  the  unexpected  good  fortune,  they  made  ready  to  resume 
their  journey ;  but  just  as  they  wrere  about  to  start  they  heard  of  the 
arrival  of  two  Frenchmen  in  a  neighboring  village.  One  of  them  proved 
to  be  Louis  Joliet,  afterwards  famous  as  an  explorer  in  the  West.  He 



had  been,  sent  by  the  Canadian  Government  to  explore  the  copper  mines 
on  Lake  Superior,  but  had  failed,  and  was  on  his  way  back  to  Quebec. 
He  gave  the  missionaries  a  map  of  the  country  he  had  explored  in  the 
lake  region,  together  with  an  account  of  the  condition  of  the  Indians  in 
that  quarter.  This  induced  the  priests  to  determine  on  leaving  the 
expedition  and  going  to  Lake  Superior.  LaSalle  warned  them  that  the 
Jesuits  were  probably  occupying  that  field,  and  that  they  would  meet 
with  a  cold  reception.  Nevertheless  they  persisted  in  their  purpose,  and 
after  worship  on  the  lake  shore,  parted  from  LaSalle.  On  arriving  at 
Lake  Superior,  they  found,  as  LaSalle  had  predicted,  the  Jesuit  Fathers, 

Marquette  and  Dablon,  occupying  the  field.  1356310 

These  zealous  disciples  of  Loyola  informed  them  that  they  wanted 
no  assistance  from  St.  Sulpice,  nor  from  those  who  made  him  their  patron 
saint;  and  thus  repulsed,  they  returned  to  Montreal  the  following  June 
without  having  made  a  single  discovery  or  converted  a  single  Indian. 

After  parting  with  the  priests,  LaSalle  went  to  the  chief  Iroquois 
village  at  Onondaga,  where  he  obtained  guides,  and  passing  thence  to  a 
tributary  of  the  Ohio  south  of  Lake  Erie,  he  descended  the  latter  as  far 
as  the  falls  at  Louisville.  Thus  was  the  Ohio  discovered  by  LaSalle,  the 
persevering  and  successful  French  explorer  of  the  West,  in  1669. 

The  account  of  the  latter  part  of  his  journey  is  found  in  an  anony¬ 
mous  paper,  which  purports  to  have  been  taken  from  the  lips  of  LaSalle 
himself  during  a  subsequent  visit  to  Paris.  In  a  letter  written  to  Count 
Frontenac  in  1667,  shortly  after  the  discovery,  he  himself  says  that  he 
discovered  the  Ohio  and  descended  it  to  the  falls.  This  was  regarded  as 
an  indisputable  fact  by  the  French  authorities,  who  claimed  the  Ohio 
Valley  upon  another  ground.  When  Washington  was  sent  by  the  colony 
of  Virginia  in  1753,  to  demand  of  Gordeur  de  St.  Pierre  why  the  French 
had  built  a  fort  on  the  Monongahela,  the  haughty  commandant  at  Quebec 
replied:  “We  claim  the  country  on  the  Ohio  by  virtue  of  the  discoveries 
of  LaSalle,  and  will  not  give  it  up  to  the  English.  Our  orders  are  to 
make  prisoners  of  every  Englishman  found  trading  in  the  Ohio  Valley.” 


When  the  new  year  of  1750  broke  in  upon  the  Father  of  Waters 
and  the  Great  Northwest,  all  was  still  wild  save  at  the  French  posts 
already  described.  In  1749,  when  the  English  first  began  to  think  seri¬ 
ously  about  sending  men  into  the  West,  the  greater  portion  of  the  States 
of  Indiana,  Ohio,  Illinois,  Michigan,  Wisconsin,  and  Minnesota  were  yet 
under  the  dominion  of  the  red  men.  The  English  knew,  however,  pretty 



conclusively  of  the  nature  of  the  wealth  of  these  wilds.  As  early  as 
1710,  Governor  Spotswood,  of  Virginia,  had  commenced  movements  to 
secure  the  country  west  of  the  Alleghenies  to  the  English  crown.  In 
Pennsylvania,  Governor  Keith  and  James  Logan,  secretary  of  the  prov¬ 
ince,  from  1719  to  1731,  represented  to  the  powers  of  England  the  neces¬ 
sity  of  securing  the  Western  lands.  Nothing  was  done,  however,  by  that 
power  save  to  take  some  diplomatic  steps  to  secure  the  claims  of  Britain 
to  this  unexplored  wilderness. 

England  had  from  the  outset  claimed  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific, 
on  the  ground  that  the  discovery  of  the  seacoast  and  its  possession  was  a 
discovery  and  possession  of  the  country,  and,  as  is  well  known,  her  grants 
to  the  colonies  extended  “  from  sea  to  sea.”  This  was  not  all  her  claim. 
She  had  purchased  from  the  Indian  tribes  large  tracts  of  land.  This  lat¬ 
ter  was  also  a  strong  argument.  As  early  as  1684,  Lord  H  oward,  Gov¬ 
ernor  of  Virginia,  held  a  treaty  with  the  six  nations.  These  were  the 
great  Northern  Confederacy,  and  comprised  at  first  the  Mohawks,  Onei- 
das,  Onondagas,  Cavugas,  and  Senecas.  Afterward  the  Tuscaroras  were 
taken  into  the  confederacy,  and  it  became  known  as  the  Six  Nations. 
They  came  under  the  protection  of  the  mother  country,  and  again  in 
1701,  they  repeated  the  agreement,  and  in  September,  1726,  a  formal  deed 
was  drawn  up  and  signed  by  the  chiefs.  The  validity  of  this  claim  has 
often  been  disputed,  but  never  successfully.  In  1744,  a  purchase  was 
made  at  Lancaster,  Pennsylvania,  of  certain  lands  within  the  “  Colony  of 
Virginia,”  for  which  the  Indians  received  £200  in  gold  and  a  like  sum  in 
goods,  with  a  promise  that,  as  settlements  increased,  more  should  be  paid. 
The  Commissioners  from  Virginia  were  Colonel  Thomas  Lee  and  Colonel 
William  Beverly.  As  settlements  extended,  the  promise  of  more  pay  was 
called  to  mind,  and  Mr.  Conrad  Weiser  was  sent  across  the  mountains  with 
presents  to  appease  the  savages.  Col.  Lee,  and  some  Virginians  accompa¬ 
nied  him  with  the  intention  of  sounding  the  Indians  upon  their  feelings 
regarding  the  English.  They  were  not  satisfied  with  their  treatment, 
and  plainly  told  the  Commissioners  why.  The  English  did  not  desire  the 
cultivation  of  the  country,  but  the  monopoly  of  the  Indian  trade.  In 
1748,  the  Ohio  Company  was  formed,  and  petitioned  the  king  for  a  grant 
of  land  beyond  the  Alleghenies.  This  was  granted,  and  the  government 
of  Virginia  was  ordered  to  grant  to  them  a  half  million  acres,  two  hun¬ 
dred  thousand  of  which  were  to  be  located  at  once.  Upon  the  12th  of 
June,  1749,  800,000  acres  from  the  line  of  Canada  north  and  west  was 
made  to  the  Loyal  Company,  and  on  the  29th  of  October,  1751,  100,000 
acres  were  given  to  the  Greenbriar  Company.  All  this  time  the  French 
were  not  idle.  They  saw  that,  should  the  British  gain  a  foothold  in  the 
West,  especially  upon  the  Ohio,  they  might  not  only  prevent  the  French 




settling  upon  it,  but  in  time  would  come  to  the  lower  posts  and  so  gain 
possession  of  the  whole  country.  Upon  the  10th  of  May,  1774,  Vaud- 
reuil,  Governor  of  Canada  and  the  French  possessions,  well  knowing  the 
consequences  that  must  arise  from  allowing  the  English  to  build  trading 
posts  in  the  Northwest,  seized  some  of  their  frontier  posts,  and  to  further 
secure  the  claim  of  the  French  to  the  West,  he,  in  1749,  sent  Louis  Cel¬ 
eron  with  a  party  of  soldiers  to  plant  along  the  Ohio  River,  in  the  mounds 
and  at  the  mouths  of  its  principal  tributaries,  plates  of  lead,  on  which 
were  inscribed  the  claims  of  France.  These  were  heard  of  in  1752,  and 
within  the  memory  of  residents  now  living  along  the  “  Oyo,”  as  the 
beautiful  river  was  called  by  the  French.  One  of  these  plates  was  found 
with  the  inscription  partly  defaced.  It  bears  date  August  16,  1749,  and 
a  copy  of  the  inscription  with  particular  account  of  the  discoverv  of  the 
plate,  was  sent  by  DeWitt  Clinton  to  the  American  Antiquarian  Society, 
among  whose  journals  it  may  now  be  found.*  These  measures  did  not, 
however,  deter  the  English  from  going  on  with  their  explorations,  and 
though  neither  party  resorted  to  arms,  yet  the  conflict  was  gathering,  and 
it  was  only  a  question  of  time  when  the  storm  would  burst  upon  the 
frontier  settlements.  In  1750,  Christopher  Gist  was  sent  by  the  Ohio 
Company  to  examine  its  lands.  He  went  to  a  village  of  the  Twigtwees, 
on  the  Miami,  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  above  its  mouth.  He 
afterward  spoke  of  it  as  very  populous.  From  there  he  went  down 
the  Ohio  River  nearly  to  the  falls  at  the  present  City  of  Louisville, 
and  in  November  he  commenced  a  survey  of  the  Company's  lands.  Dur¬ 
ing  the  Winter,  General  Andrew  Lewis  performed  a  similar  work  for  the 
Greenbriar  Company.  Meanwhile  the  French  were  busy  in  preparing 
their  forts  for  defense,  and  in  opening  roads,  and  also  sent  a  small  party 
of  soldiers  to  keep  the  Ohio  clear.  This  party,  having  heard  of  the  Eng¬ 
lish  post  on  the  Miami  River,  early  in  1652,  assisted  by  the  Ottawas  and 
Chippewas,  attacked  it,  and,  after  a  severe  battle,  in  which  fourteen  of 
the  natives  were  killed  and  others  wounded,  captured  the  garrison. 
(They  were  probably  garrisoned  in  a  block  house).  The  traders  were 
carried  away  to  Canada,  and  one  account  says  several  were  burned.  This 
fort  or  post  was  called  by  the  English  Pickawillany.  A  memorial  of  the 
king’s  ministers  refers  to  it  as  “  Pickawillanes,  in  the  center  of  the  terri¬ 
tory  between  the  Ohio  and  the  Wabash.  The  name  is  probably  some 
variation  of  Pickawa}'  or  Picqua  in  1773,  written  by  Rev.  David  Jones 

*  The  following  is  a  translation  of  the  inscription  on  the  plate:  “In  the  year  1749.  reign  of  Louis  XV.. 
King  of  France,  we,  Celeron,  commandant  of  a  detachment  by  Monsieur  the  Marquis  of  Gallisonlere,  com¬ 
mander-in-chief  of  New  France,  to  establish  tranquility  in  certain  Indian  villages  of  these  cantons,  have 
buried  this  plate  at  the  confluence  of  the  Toradakoin,  this  twenty-ninth  of  July,  near  the  river  Ohio,  otherwise 
Beautiful  River,  as  a  monument  of  renewal  of  possession  which  we  have  taken  of  the  said  river,  and  all  its 
tributaries;  inasmuch  as  the  preceding  Kings  of  France  have  enjoyed  it,  and  maintained  it  by  their  arms  and 
treaties;  especially  by  those  of  Ryswick,  Utrecht,  and  Aix  La  Chapelle.” 



This  was  the  first  blood  shed  between  the  French  and  English,  and 
occurred  near  the  present  City  of  Piqua,  Ohio,  or  at  least  at  a  point  about 
forty-seven  miles  north  of  Dayton.  Each  nation  became  now  more  inter¬ 
ested  in  the  progress  of  events  in  the  Northwest.  The  English  deter¬ 
mined  to  purchase  from  the  Indians  a  title  to  the  lands  they  wished  to 
occupy,  and  Messrs.  Fry  (afterward  Commander-in-chief  over  Washing¬ 
ton  at  the  commencement  of  the  French  War  of  1775-1763),  Lomax  and 
Patton  were  sent  in  the  Spring  of  1752  to  hold  a  conference  with  the 
natives  at  Logstown  to  learn  what  they  objected  to  in  the  treaty  of  Lan¬ 
caster  already  noticed,  and  to  settle  all  difficulties.  On  the  9th  of  June, 
these  Commissioners  met  the  red  men  at  Logstown,  a  little  village  on  the 
north  bank  of  the  Ohio,  about  seventeen  miles  below  the  site  of  Pitts¬ 
burgh.  Here  had  been  a  trading  point  for  many  years,  but  it  was  aban¬ 
doned  by  the  Indians  in  1750.  At  first  the  Indians  declined  to  recognize 
the  treaty  of  Lancaster,  but,  the  Commissioners  taking  aside  Montour, 
the  interpreter,  who  was  a  son  of  the  famous  Catharine  Montour,  and  a 
chief  among  the  six  nations,  induced  him  to  use  his  influence  in  their 
favor.  This  he  did,  and  upon  the  13th  of  June  they  all  united  in  signing 
a  deed,  confirming  the  Lancaster  treaty  in  its  full  extent,  consenting  to  a 
settlement  of  the  southeast  of  the  Ohio,  and  guaranteeing  that  it  should 
not  be  disturbed  by  them.  These  were  the  means  used  to  obtain  the  first 
treaty  with  the  Indians  in  the  Ohio  Valle}7. 

Meanwhile  the  powers  beyond  the  sea  were  trying  to  out-manoeuvre 
each  other,  and  were  professing  to  be  at  peace.  The  English  generally 
outwitted  the  Indians,  and  failed  in  many  instances  to  fulfill  their  con¬ 
tracts.  They  thereby  gained  the  ill-will  of  the  red  men,  and  further 
increased  the  feeling  by  failing  to  provide  them  with  arms  and  ammuni¬ 
tion.  Said  an  old  chief,  at  Easton,  in  1758:  “  The  Indians  on  the  Ohio 
left  you  because  of  your  own  fault.  When  we  heard  the  French  were 
coming,  we  asked  you  for  help  and  arms,  but  we  did  not  get  them.  The 
French  came,  they  treated  us  kindly,  and  gained  our  affections.  The 
Governor  of  Virginia  settled  on  our  lands  for  his  own  benefit,  and,  when 
we  wanted  help,  forsook  us.” 

At  the  beginning  of  1653,  the  English  thought  they  had  secured  by 
title  the  lands  in  the  West,  but  the  French  had  quietly  gathered  cannon 
and  military  stores  to  be  in  readiness  for  the  expected  blow.  The  Eng¬ 
lish  made  other  attempts  to  ratify  these  existing  treaties,  but  not  until 
the  Summer  could  the  Indians  be  gathered  together  to  discuss  the  plans 
of  the  French.  They  had  sent  messages  to  the  French,  warning  them 
away ;  but  they  replied  that  they  intended  to  complete  the  chain  of  forts 
already  begun,  and  would  not  abandon  the  field. 

Soon  after  this,  no  satisfaction  being  obtained  from  the  Ohio  regard- 


ing  the  positions  and  purposes  of  the  French,  Governor  Dinwiddie  of 
Virginia  determined  to  send  to  them  another  messenger  and  learn  from 
them,  if  possible,  their  intentions.  For  this  purpose  he  selected  a  young 
man,  a  surveyor,  who,  at  the  early  age  of  nineteen,  had  received  the  rank 
of  major,  and  who  was  thoroughly  posted  regarding  frontier  life.  This 
personage  was  no  other  than  the  illustrious  George  Washington,  who  then 
held  considerable  interest  in  Western  lands.  He  was  at  this  time  just 
twenty-two  years  of  age.  Taking  Gist  as  his  guide,  the  two,  accompanied 
by  four  servitors,  set  out  on  their  perilous  march.  They  left  Will’s 
Creek  on  the  10th  of  November,  1753,  and  on  the  22d  reached  the  Monon- 
gahela,  about  ten  miles  above  the  fork.  From  there  they  went  to 
Logstown,  where  Washington  had  a  long  conference  with  the  chiefs  of 
the  Six  Nations.  From  them  he  learned  the  condition  of  the  French,  and 
also  heard  of  their  determination  not  to  come  down  the  river  till  the  fol¬ 
lowing  Spring.  The  Indians  were  non-committal,  as  they  were  afraid  to 
turn  either  way,  and,  as  far  as  they  could,  desired  to  remain  neutral. 
Washington,  finding  nothing  could  be  done  with  them,  went  on  to 
Venango,  an  old  Indian  town  at  the  mouth  of  French  Creek.  Here  the 
French  had  a  fort,  called  Fort  Machault.  Through  the  rum  and  flattery 
of  the  French,  he  nearly  lost  all  his  Indian  followers.  Finding1  nothin^ 
of  importance  here,  he  pursued  his  way  amid  great  privations,  and  on  the 
11th  of  December  reached  the  fort  at  the  head  of  French  Creek.  Here 
he  delivered  Governor  Dinwiddie’s  letter,  received  his  answer,  took  his 
observations,  and  on  the  16tli  set  out  upon  his  return  journey  with  no  one 
but  Gist,  his  guide,  and  a  few  Indians  who  still  remained  true  to  him, 
notwithstanding  the  endeavors  of  the  French  to  retain  them.  Their 
homeward  journey  was  one  of  great  peril  and  suffering  from  the  cold,  yet 
they  reached  home  in  safety  on  the  6th  of  January,  1754. 

From  the  letter  of  St.  Pierre,  commander  of  the  French  fort,  sent  by 
Washington  to  Governor  Dinwiddie,  it  was  learned  that  the  French  would 
not  give  up  without  a  struggle.  Active  preparations  were  at  once  made 
in  all  the  English  colonies  for  the  coming  conflict,  while  the  French 
finished  the  fort  at  Venango  and  strengthened  their  lines  of  fortifications, 
and  gathered  their  forces  to  be  in  readiness. 

The  Old  Dominion  was  all  alive.  Virginia  was  the  center  of  great 
activities  ;  volunteers  were  called  for,  and  from  all  the  neighboring 
colonies  men  rallied  to  the  conflict,  and  everywhere  along  the  Potomac 
men  were  enlisting  under  the  Governor’s  proclamation — which  promised 
two  hundred  thousand  acres  on  the  Ohio.  Along  this  river  they  were 
gathering  as  far  as  Will’s  Creek,  and  far  beyond  this  point,  whither  Trent 
had  come  for  assistance  for  his  little  band  of  forty-one  men,  who  were 



working  away  in  hunger  and  want,  to  fortify  that  point  at  the  fork  of 
the  Ohio,  to  which  both  parties  were  looking  with  deep  interest. 

“  The  first  birds  of  Spring  filled  the  air  with  their  song ;  the  swift 
river  rolled  by  the  Allegheny  hillsides,  swollen  by  the  melting  snows  of 
Spring  and  the  April  showers.  The  leaves  were  appearing  ;  a  few  Indian 
scouts  were  seen,  but  no  enemy  seemed  near  at  hand  ;  and  all  was  so  quiet, 
that  Frazier,  an  old  Indian  scout  and  trader,  who  had  been  left  by  Trent 
in  command,  ventured  to  his  home  at  the  mouth  of  Turtle  Creek,  ten 
miles  up  the  Monongahela.  But,  though  all  was  so  quiet  in  that  wilder¬ 
ness,  keen  eyes  had  seen  the  low  intrenchment  rising  at  the  fork,  and 
swift  feet  had  borne  the  news  of  it  up  the  river ;  and  upon  the  morning 
of  the  17th  of  April,  Ensign  Ward,  who  then  had  charge  of  it,  saw 
upon  the  Allegheny  a  sight  that  made  his  heart  sink— sixty  batteaux  and 
three  hundred  canoes  filled  with  men,  and  laden  deep  with  cannon  and 
stores.  *  *  *  That  evening  he  supped  with  his  captor,  Contrecoeur, 

and  the  next  day  he  was  bowed  off  by  the  Frenchman,  and  with  his  men 
and  tools,  marched  up  the  Monongahela.” 

The  French  and  Indian  war  had  begun.  The  treaty  of  Aix  la 
Chapelle,  in  1748,  had  left  the  boundaries  between  the  French  and 
English  possessions  unsettled,  and  the  events  already  narrated  show  the 
French  were  determined  to  hold  the  country  watered  by  the  Mississippi 
and  its  tributaries  ;  while  the  English  laid  claims  to  the  country  by  virtue 
of  the  discoveries  of  the  Cabots,  and  claimed  all  the  country  from  New¬ 
foundland  to  Florida,  extending  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific.  The 
first  decisive  blow  had  now  been  struck,  and  the  first  attempt  of  the 
English,  through  the  Ohio  Company,  to  occupy  these  lands,  had  resulted 
disastrously  to  them.  The  French  and  Indians  immediately  completed 
the  fortifications  begun  at  the  Fork,  which  they  had  so  easily  captured, 
and  when  completed  gave  to  the  fort  the  name  of  DuQuesne.  Washing¬ 
ton  was  at  Will’s  Creek  when  the  news  of  the  capture  of  the  fort  arrived. 
He  at  once  departed  to  recapture  it.  On  his  way  he  entrenched  him¬ 
self  at  a  place  called  the  “  Meadows,”  where  he  erected  a  fort  called 
by  him  Fort  Necessity.  From  there  he  surprised  and  captured  a  force  of 
French  and  Indians  marching  against  him,  but  was  soon  after  attacked 
in  his  fort  by  a  much  superior  force,  and  was  obliged  to  yield  on  the 
morning  of  July  4th.  He  was  allowed  to  return  to  Virginia. 

The  English  Government  immediately  planned  four  campaigns ;  one 
against  Fort  DuQuesne  ;  one  against  Nova  Scotia ;  one  against  Fort 
Niagara,  and  one  against  Crown  Point.  These  occurred  during  1755-6, 
and  were  not  successful  in  driving  the  French  from  their  possessions. 
The  expedition  against  Fort  DuQuesne  was  led  by  the  famous  General 
Braddock,  who,  refusing  to  listen  to  the  advice  of  Washington  and  those 



acquainted  with  Indian  warfare,  suffered  such  an  inglorious  defeat.  This 
occurred  on  the  morning  of  July  9th,  and  is  generally  known  as  the  battle 
of  Monongahela,  or  “  Braddock’s  Defeat.”  The  war  continued  with 
various  vicissitudes  through  the  years  1756-7  ;  when,  at  the  commence¬ 
ment  of  1758,  in  accordance  with  the  plans  of  William  Pitt,  then  Secre¬ 
tary  of  State,  afterwards  Lord  Chatham,  active  preparations  were  made  to 
carry  on  the  war.  Three  expeditions  were  planned  for  this  year :  one, 
under  General  Amherst,  against  Louisburg  ;  another,  under  Abercrombie, 
against  Fort  Ticonderoga  ;  and  a  third,  under  General  Forbes,  against 
Fort  DuQuesne.  On  the  26th  of  July,  Louisburg  surrendered  after  a 
desperate  resistance  of  more  than  forty  days,  and  the  eastern  part  of  the 
Canadian  possessions  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  British.  Abercrombie 
captured  Fort  Frontenac,  and  when  the  expedition  against  Fort  DuQuesne, 
of  which  Washington  had  the  active  command,  arrived  there,  it  was 
found  in  flames  and  deserted.  The  English  at  once  took  possession, 
rebuilt  the  fort,  and  in  honor  of  their  illustrious  statesman,  changed  the 
name  to  Fort  Pitt. 

The  great  object  of  the  campaign  of  1759,  was  the  reduction  of 
Canada.  General  Wolfe  was  to  lay  siege  to  Quebec ;  Amherst  was  to 
reduce  Ticonderoga  and  Crown  Point,  and  General  Prideaux  was  to 
capture  Niagara.  This  latter  place  was  taken  in  July,  but  the  gallant 
Prideaux  lost  his  life  in  the  attempt.  Amherst  captured  Ticonderoga 
and  Crown  Point  without  a  blow  ;  and  Wolfe,  after  making  the  memor¬ 
able  ascent  to  the  Plains  of  Abraham,  on  September  13th,  defeated 
Montcalm,  and  on  the  18th,  the  city  capitulated.  In  this  engagement 
Montcolm  and  Wolfe  both  lost  their  lives.  De  Levi,  Montcalm’s  successor, 
marched  to  Sillery,  three  miles  above  the  city,  with  the  purpose  of 
defeating  the  English,  and  there,  on  the  28th  of  the  following  April,  was 
fought  one  of  the  bloodiest  battles  of  the  French  and  Indian  War.  It 
resulted  in  the  defeat  of  the  French,  and  the  fall  of  the  City  of  Montreal. 
The  Governor  signed  a  capitulation  by  which  the  whole  of  Canada  was 
surrendered  to  the  English.  This  practically  concluded  the  war,  but  it 
was  not  until  1763  that  the  treaties  of  peace  between  France  and  England 
were  signed.  This  was  done  on  the  10th  of  February  of  that  year,  and 
under  its  provisions  all  the  country  east  of  the  Mississippi  and  north  ol 
the  Iberville  River,  in  Louisiana,  were  ceded  to  England.  At  the  same 
time  Spain  ceded  Florida  to  Great  Britain. 

On  the  13th  of  September,  1760,  Major  Robert  Rogers  was  sent 
from  Montreal  to  take  charge  of  Detroit,  the  only  remaining  French  post 
in  the  territory.  He  arrived  there  on  the  19th  of  November,  and  sum¬ 
moned  the  place  to  surrender.  At  first  the  commander  of  the  post, 
Beletre,  refused,  but  on  the  29th,  hearing  of  the  continued  defeat  ol  the 



French  arms,  surrendered.  Rogers  remained  there  until  December  23d 
under  the  personal  protection  of  the  celebrated  chief,  Pontiac,  to  whom, 
no  doubt,  he  owed  his  safety.  Pontiac  had  come  here  to  inquire  the 
purposes  of  the  English  in  taking  possession  of  the  country.  He  was 
assured  that  they  came  simply  to  trade  with  the  natives,  and  did  not 
desire  their  country.  This  answer  conciliated  the  savages,  and  did  much 
to  insure  the  safety  of  Rogers  and  his  party  during  their  stay,  and  while 
on  their  journey  home. 

Rogers  set  out  for  Fort  Pitt  on  December  23,  and  was  just  one 
month  on  the  way.  His  route  was  from  Detroit  to  Maumee,  thence 
across  the  present  State  of  Ohio  directly  to  the  fort. .  This  was  the  com¬ 
mon  trail  of  the  Indians  in  their  journeys  from  Sandusky  to  the  fork  of 
the  Ohio.  It  went  from  Fort  Sandusky,  where  Sandusky  City  now  is, 
crossed  the  Huron  river,  then  called  Bald  Eagle  Creek,  to  “  Mohickon 
John’s  Town  ’  on  Mohickon  Creek,  the  northern  branch  of  White 
Woman’s  River,  and  thence  crossed  to  Beaver’s  Town,  a  Delaware  town 
on  what  is  now  Sandy  Creek.  At  Beaver’s  Town  were  probably  one 
hundred  and  fifty  warriors,  and  not  less  than  three  thousand  acres  of 
cleared  land.  From  there  the  track  went  up  Sandy  Creek  to  and  across 
Big  Beaver,  and  up  the  Ohio  to  Logstown,  thence  on  to  the  fork. 

The  Northwest  Territory  was  now  entirely  under  the  English  rule. 
New  settlements  began  to  be  rapidly  made,  and  the  promise  of  a  large 
trade  was  speedily  manifested.  Had  the  British  carried  out  their  promises 
with  the  natives  none  of  those  savage  butcheries  would  have  been  perpe¬ 
trated,  and  the  country  would  have  been  spared  their  recital. 

The  renowned  chief,  Pontiac,  was  one  of  the  leading  spirits  in  these 
atrocities.  We  will  now  pause  in  our  narrative,  and  notice  the  leading 
events  in  his  life.  The  earliest  authentic  information  regarding  this 
noted  Indian  chief  is  learned  from  an  account  of  an  Indian  trader  named 
Alexander  Henry,  who,  in  the  Spring  of  1761,  penetrated  his  domains  as 
far  as  Missillimacnac.  Pontiac  was  then  a  great  friend  of  the  French, 
but  a  bitter  foe  of  the  English,  whom  he  considered  as  encroaching  on  his 
hunting  grounds.  Henry  was  obliged  to  disguise  himself  as  a  Canadian 
to  insure  safety,  but  was  discovered  by  Pontiac,  who  bitterly  reproached 
him  and  the  English  for  their  attempted  subjugation  of  the  West.  He 
declared  that  no  treaty  had  been  made  with  them;  no  presents  sent 
them,  and  that  he  would  resent  any  possession  of  the  West  by  that  nation. 
He  was  at  the  time  about  fifty  years  of  age,  tall  and  dignified,  and  was 
civil  and  military  ruler  of  the  Ottawas,  Ojibwas  and  Pottawatamies. 

The  Indians,  from  Lake  Michigan  to  the  borders  of  North  Carolina, 
were  united  in  this  feeling,  and  at  the  time  of  the  treaty  of  Paris,  ratified 
February  10,  1763,  a  general  conspiracy  was  formed  to  fall  suddenly 




upon  the  frontier  British  posts,  and  with  one  blow  strike  every  man  dead. 
Pontiac  was  the  marked  leader  in  all  this,  and  was  the  commander 
of  the  Chippewas,  Ottawas,  Wyandots,  Miamis,  Shawanese,  Delawares 
and  Mingoes,  who  had,  for  the  time,  laid  aside  their  local  quarrels  to  unite 
in  this  enterprise. 

The  blow  came,  as  near  as  can  now  be  ascertained,  on  May  7,  1763. 
Nine  British  posts  fell,  and  the  Indians  drank,  “  scooped  up  in  the  hollow 
of  joined  hands,”  the  blood  of  many  a  Briton. 

Pontiac  s  immediate  field  of  action  was  the  garrison  at  Detroit. 
Here,  however,  the  plans  were  frustrated  by  an  Indian  woman  disclosing 
the  plot  the  evening  previous  to  his  arrival.  Everything  was  carried  out, 
however,  according  to  Pontiac  s  plans  until  the  moment  of  action,  when 
Major  Gladwyn,  the  commander  of  the  post,  stepping  to  one  of  the  Indian 
chiefs,  suddenly  drew  aside  his  blanket  and  disclosed  the  concealed 
musket.  Pontiac,  though  a  brave  man,  turned  pale  and  trembled.  He 
saw  his  plan  was  known,  and  that  the  garrison  were  prepared.  He 
endeavored  to  exculpate  himself  from  any  such  intentions ;  but  the  guilt 
was  evident,  and  he  and  his  followers  were  dismissed  with  a  severe 
reprimand,  and  warned  never  to  again  enter  the  walls  of  the  post. 

Pontiac  at  once  laid  siege  to  the  fort,  and  until  the  treaty  of  peace 
between  the  British  and  the  Western  Indians,  concluded  in  August,  1764, 
continued  to  harass  and  besiege  the  fortress.  He  organized  a  regular 
commissariat  department,  issued  bills  of  credit  written  out  on  bark, 
which,  to  his  credit,  it  may  be  stated,  were  punctually  redeemed.  At 
the  conclusion  of  the  treaty,  in  which  it  seems  he  took  no  part,  he  went 
further  south,  living  many  years  among  the  Illinois. 

He  had  given  up  all  hope  of  saving  his  country  and  race.  After  a 
time  he  endeavored  to  unite  the  Illinois  tribe  and  those  about  St.  Louis 
in  a  war  with  the  whites.  His  efforts  were  fruitless,  and  only  ended  in  a 
quarrel  between  himself  and  some  Kaskaskia  Indians,  one  of  whom  soon 
afterwards  killed  him.  His  death  was,  however,  avenged  by  the  northern 
Indians,  who  nearly  exterminated  the  Illinois  in  the  wars  which  followed. 

Had  it  not  been  for  the  treachery  of  a  few  of  his  followers,  his  plan 
for  the  extermination  of  the  whites,  a  masterly  one,  would  undoubtedly 
have  been  carried  out. 

It  was  in  the  Spring  of  the  year  following  Rogers’  visit  that  Alex¬ 
ander  Henry  went  to  Missillimacnac,  and  everywhere  found  the  strongest 
feelings  against  the  English,  who  had  not  carried  out  their  promises,  and 
were  doing  nothing  to  conciliate  the  natives.  Here  he  met  the  chief, 
Pontiac,  who,  after  conveying  to  him  in  a  speech  the  idea  that  their 
French  father  would  awake  soon  and  utterly  destroy  his  enemies,  said : 
“  Englishman,  although  you  have  conquered  the  French,  you  have  not 



yet  conquered  us  !  We  are  not  your  slaves!  These  lakes,  these  woods, 
these  mountains,  were  left  us  by  our  ancestors.  They  are  our  inheritance, 
and  we  will  part  with  them  to  none.  Your  nation  supposes  that  we,  like 
the  white  people,  can  not  live  without  bread  and  pork  and  beef.  But  you 
ought  to  know  that  He,  the  Great  Spirit  and  Master  of  Life,  has  provided 
food  for  us  upon  these  broad  lakes  and  in  these  mountains.” 

He  then  spoke  of  the  fact  that  no  treaty  had  been  made  with  them, 
no  presents  sent  them,  and  that  he  and  his  people  were  yet  for  war. 
Such  were  the  feelings  of  the  Northwestern  Indians  immediately  after 
the  English  took  possession  of  their  country.  These  feelings  were  no 
doubt  encouraged  by  the  Canadians  and  French,  who  hoped  that  yet  the 
French  arms  might  prevail.  The  treaty  of  Paris,  however,  gave  to  the 
English  the  right  to  this  vast  domain,  and  active  preparations  were  going 
on  to  occupy  it  and  enjoy  its  trade  and  emoluments. 

In  1762,  France,  by  a  secret  treaty,  ceded  Louisiana  to  Spain,  to  pre¬ 
vent  it  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  English,  who  were  becoming  masters 
of  the  entire  West.  The  next  year  the  treaty  of  Paris,  signed  at  Fon- 
tainbleau,  gave  to  the  English  the  domain  of  the  country  in  question. 
Twenty  years  after,  by  the  treaty  of  peace  between  the  United  States 
and  England,  that  part  of  Canada  lying  south  and  west  of  the  Great 
Lakes,  comprehending  a  large  territory  which  is  the  subject  of  these 
sketches,  was  acknowledged  to  be  a  portion  of  the  United  States  ;  and 
twenty  years  still  later,  in  1803,  Louisiana  was  ceded  by  Spain  back  to 
France,  and  by  France  sold  to  the  United  States. 

In  the  half  century,  from  the  building  of  the  Fort  of  Crevecoeur  by 
LaSalle,  in  1680,  up  to  the  erection  of  Fort  Chartres,  many  French  set¬ 
tlements  had  been  made  in  that  quarter.  These  have  already  been 
noticed,  being  those  at  St.  Vincent  (Vincennes),  Kohokia  or  Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia  and  Prairie  du  Rocher,  on  the  American  Bottom,  a  large  tract 
of  rich  alluvial  soil  in  Illinois,  on  the  Mississippi,  opposite  the  site  of  St. 

By  the  treaty  of  Paris,  the  regions  east  of  the  Mississippi,  including 
all  these  and  other  towns  of  the  Northwest,  were  given  over  to  England; 
but  they  do  not  appear  to  have  been  taken  possession  of  until  1765,  when 
Captain  Stirling,  in  the  name  of  the  Majesty  of  England,  established  him¬ 
self  at  Fort  Chartres  bearing  with  him  the  proclamation  of  General  Gage, 
dated  December  30,  1764,  which  promised  religious  freedom  to  all  Cath¬ 
olics  who  worshiped  here,  and  a  right  to  leave  the  country  with  their 
effects  if  they  wished,  or  to  remain  with  the  privileges  of  Englishmen. 
It  was  shortly  after  the  occupancy  of  the  West  by  the  British  that  the 
war  with  Pontiac  opened.  It  is  already  noticed  in  the  sketch  of  that 
chieftain.  By  it  many  a  Briton  lost  his  life,  and  many  a  frontier  settle- 



ment  in  its  infancy  ceased  to  exist.  This  was  not  ended  until  the  year 
1764,  when,  failing  to  capture  Detroit,  Niagara  and  Fort  Pitt,  his  confed¬ 
eracy  became  disheartened,  and,  receiving  no  aid  from  the  French,  Pon¬ 
tiac  abandoned  the  enterprise  and  departed  to  the  Illinois,  among  whom 
he  afterward  lost  his  life. 

As  soon  as  these  difficulties  were  definitely  settled,  settlers  began 
rapidly  to  survey  the  country  and  prepare  for  occupation.  During  the 
year  17  <0,  a  number  of  persons  from  A  irginia  and  other  British  provinces 
explored  and  marked  out  nearly  all  the  valuable  lands  on  the  Mononga- 
hela  and  along  the  banks  of  the  Ohio  as  far  as  the  Little  Kanawha.  This 
was  followed  by  another  exploring  expedition,  in  which  George  Washing¬ 
ton  was  a  party.  The  latter,  accompanied  by  Dr.  Craik,  Capt,  Crawford 
and  others,  on  the  20th  of  October,  1770,  descended  the  Ohio  from  Pitts¬ 
burgh  to  the  mouth  of  the  Kanawha  ;  ascended  that  stream  about  fourteen 
miles,  marked  out  several  large  tracts  of  land,  shot  several  buffalo,  which 
were  then  abundant  in  the  Ohio  Valley,  and  returned  to  the  fort. 

Pittsburgh  was  at  this  time  a  trading  post,  about  which  was  clus¬ 
tered  a  village  of  some  twenty  houses,  inhabited  by  Indian  traders.  This 
same  year,  Capt.  Pittman  visited  Kaskaskia  and  its  neighboring  villages. 
He  found  there  about  sixty-five  resident  families,  and  at  Cahokia  only 
forty-five  dwellings.  At  Fort  Chartres  was  another  small  settlement,  and 
at  Detroit  the  garrison  were  quite  prosperous  and  strong.  For  a  year 
or  two  settlers  continued  to  locate  near  some  of  these  posts,  generally 
F ort  Pitt  or  Detroit,  owing  to  the  fears  of  the  Indians,  who  still  main¬ 
tained  some  feelings  of  hatred  to  the  English.  The  trade  from  the  posts 
was  quite  good,  and  from  those  in  Illinois  large  quantities  of  pork  and 
flour  found  their  way  to  the  New  Orleans  market.  At  this  time  the 
policy  of  the  British  Government  was  strongly  opposed  to  the  extension 
of  the  colonies  west.  In  1763,  the  King  of  England  forbade,  by  royal 
proclamation,  his  colonial  subjects  from  making  a  settlement  beyond  the 
souices  of  the  rivers  which  fall  into  the  Atlantic  Ocean.  At  the  instance 
of  the  Board  of  Trade,  measures  were  taken  to  prevent  the  settlement 
without  the  limits  prescribed,  and  to  retain  the  commerce  within  easy 
reach  of  Great  Britain. 

The  commander-in-chief  of  the  king’s  forces  wrote  in  1769  :  “  In  the 
course  of  a  few  years  necessity  will  compel  the  colonists,  should  they 
extend  their  settlements  west,  to  provide  manufactures  of  some  kind  for 
themselves,  and  when  all  connection  upheld  by  commerce  with  the  mother 
country  ceases,  an  independency  in  their  government  will  soon  follow.’’ 

In  accordance  with  this  policy,  Gov.  Gage  issued  a  proclamation 
in  1772,  commanding  the  inhabitants  of  Vincennes  to  abandon  their  set¬ 
tlements  and  join  some  of  the  Eastern  English  colonies.  To  this  they 



strenuously  objected,  giving  good  reasons  therefor,  and  were  allowed  to 
remain.  The  strong  opposition  to  this  policy  of  Great  Britain  led  to  its 
change,  and  to  such  a  course  as  to  gain  the  attachment  of  the  French 
population.  In  December,  1773,  influential  citizens  of  Quebec  petitioned 
the  king  for  an  extension  of  the  boundary  lines  of  that  province,  which 
was  granted,  and  Parliament  passed  an  act  on  June  2,  1774,  extend¬ 
ing  the  boundary  so  as  to  include  the  territory  lying  within  the  present 
States  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois  and  Michigan. 

In  consequence  of  the  liberal  policy  pursued  by  the  British  Govern¬ 
ment  toward  the  French  settlers  in  the  West,  they  were  disposed  to  favor 
that  nation  in  the  war  which  soon  followed  with  the  colonies  ;  but  the 
early  alliance  between  France  and  America  soon  brought  them  to  the  side 
of  the  war  for  independence. 

In  1774,  Gov.  Dunmore,  of  Virginia,  began  to  encourage  emigration 
to  the  Western  lands.  He  appointed  magistrates  at  Fort  Pitt  under  the 
pretense  that  the  fort  was  under  the  government  of  that  commonwealth. 
One  of  these  justices,  John  Connelly,  who  possessed  a  tract  of  land  in  the 
Ohio  Valley,  gathered  a  force  of  men  and  garrisoned  the  fort,  calling  it 
Fort  Dunmore.  This  and  other  parties  were  formed  to  select  sites  for 
settlements,  and  often  came  in  conflict  with  the  Indians,  who  yet  claimed 
portions  of  the  valley,  and  several  battles  followed.  These  ended  in  the 
famous  battle  of  Kanawha  in  July,  where  the  Indians  were  defeated  and 
driven  across  the  Ohio. 

During  the  years  1775  and  1776,  by  the  operations  of  land  companies 
and  the  perseverance  of  individuals,  several  settlements  were  firmly  estab¬ 
lished  between  the  Alleghanies  and  the  Ohio  River,  and  western  land 
speculators  were  busy  in  Illinois  and  on  the  Wabash.  At  a  council  held 
in  Kaskaskia  on  July  5,  1773,  an  association  of  English  traders,  calling 
themselves  the  “Illinois  Land  Company,”  obtained  from  ten  chiefs  of  the 
Kaskaskia,  Cahokia  and  Peoria  tribes  two  large  tracts  of  land  lying  on 
the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi  River  south  of  the  Illinois.  In  1775,  a  mer¬ 
chant  from  the  Illinois  Country,  named  Viviat,  came  to  Post  Vincennes 
as  the  agent  of  the  association  called  the  “  Wabash  Land  Company.”  On 
the  8th  of  October  he  obtained  from  eleven  Piankeshaw  chiefs,  a  deed  for 
37,497,600  acres  of  land.  This  deed  was  signed  by  the  grantors,  attested 
by  a  number  of  the  inhabitants  of  Vincennes,  and  afterward  recorded  in 
the  office  of  a  notary  public  at  Kaskaskia.  This  and  other  land  com¬ 
panies  had  extensive  schemes  for  the  colonization  of  the  West;  but  all 
were  frustrated  by  the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolution.  On  the  20th  ol 
April,  1780,  the  two  companies  named  consolidated  under  the  name  of  the 
“United  Illinois  and  Wabash  Land  Company.”  They  afterward  made 



strenuous  efforts  to  have  these  grants  sanctioned  by  Congress,  but  all 
signally  failed. 

When  the  War  of  the  Revolution  commenced,  Kentucky  was  an  unor¬ 
ganized  country,  though  there  were  several  settlements  within  her  borders. 

In  Hutchins’  Topography  of  Virginia,  it  is  stated  that  at  that  time 
u  Kaskaskia  contained  80  houses,  and  nearly  1,000  white  and  black  in¬ 
habitants  —  the  whites  being  a  little  the  more  numerous.  Cahokia  con¬ 
tains  50  houses  and  300  white  inhabitants,  and  80  negroes.  There  were 
east  of  the  Mississippi  River,  about  the  year  1771  ” — when  these  observa¬ 
tions  were  made  —  “  300  white  men  capable  of  bearing  arms,  and  230 

From  1775  until  the  expedition  of  Clark,  nothing  is  recorded  and 
nothing  known  of  these  settlements,  save  what  is  contained  in  a  report 
made  by  a  committee  to  Congress  in  June,  1778.  From  it  the  following 
extract  is  made  : 

“Near  the  mouth  of  the  River  Kaskaskia,  there  is  a  village  which 
appears  to  have  contained  nearly  eighty  families  from  the  beginning  of 
the  late  revolution.  There  are  twelve  families  in  a  small  village  at  la 
Prairie  du  Rochers,  and  near  fifty  families  at  the  Kahokia  Village.  There 
are  also  four  or  five  families  at  Fort  Chartres  and  St.  Philips,  which  is  five 
miles  further  up  the  river.” 

St.  Louis  had  been  settled  in  February,  1764,  and  at  this  time  con¬ 
tained,  including  its  neighboring  towns,  over  six  hundred  whites  and  one 
hundred  and  fifty  negroes.  It  must  be  remembered  that  all  the  country 
west  of  the  Mississippi  was  now  under  French  rule,  and  remained  so  until 
ceded  again  to  Spain,  its  original  owner,  who  afterwards  sold  it  and  the 
country  including  New  Orleans  to  the  United  States.  At  Detroit  there 
were,  according  to  Capt.  Carver,  who  was  in  the  Northwest  from  1766  to 
1768,  more  than  one  hundred  houses,  and  the  river  was  settled  for  more 
than  twenty  miles,  although  poorly  cultivated — the  people  being  engaged 
in  the  Indian  trade.  This  old  town  has  a  history,  which  we  will  here 

It  is  the  oldest  town  in  the  Northwest,  having  been  founded  by 
Antoine  de  Lamotte  Cadillac,  in  1701.  It  was  laid  out  in  the  form  of  an 
oblong  square,  of  two  acres  in  length,  and  an  acre  and  a  half  in  width. 
As  described  by  A.  D.  Frazer,  who  first  visited  it  and  became  a  permanent 
resident  of  the  place,  in  1778,  it  comprised  within  its  limits  that  space 
between  Mr.  Palmer’s  store  (Conant  Block)  and  Capt.  Perkins’  house 
(near  the  Arsenal  building),  and  extended  back  as  far  as  the  public  barn, 
and  was  bordered  in  front  by  the  Detroit  River.  It  was  surrounded  by 
oak  and  cedar  pickets,  about  fifteen  feet  long,  set  in  the  ground,  and  had 
four  gates  —  east,  west,  north  and  south.  Over  the  first  three  of  these 



gates  were  block  houses  provided  with  four  guns  apiece,  each  a  six- 
pounder.  Two  six-gun  batteries  were  planted  fronting  the  river  and  in  a 
parallel  direction  with  the  block  houses.  There  were  four  streets  running- 
east  and  west,  the  main  street  being  twenty  feet  wide  and  the  rest  fifteen 
feet,  while  the  four  streets  crossing  these  at  right  angles  were  from  ten 
to  fifteen  feet  in  width. 

At  the  date  spoken  of  by  Mr.  Frazer,  there  was  no  fort  within  the 
enclosure,  but  a  citadel  on  the  ground  corresponding  to  the  present 
northwest  corner  of  Jefferson  Avenue  and  Wayne  Street.  The  citadel  was 
inclosed  by  pickets,  and  within  it  were  erected  barracks  of  wood,  two 
stories  high,  sufficient  to  contain  ten  officers,  and  also  barracks  sufficient 
to  contain  four  hundred  men,  and  a  provision  store  built  of  brick.  The 
citadel  also  contained  a  hospital  and  guard-house.  The  old  town  of 
Detroit,  in  1778,  contained  about  sixty  houses,  most  of  them  one  story, 
with  a  few  a  story  and  a  half  in  height.  They  were  all  of  logs,  some 
hewn  and  some  round.  There  was  one  building  of  splendid  appearance, 
called  the  “  King’s  Palace,”  two  stories  high,  which  stood  near  the  east 
gate.  It  was  built  for  Governor  Hamilton,  the  first  governor  commissioned 
by  the  British.  There  were  two  guard-houses,  one  near  the  west  gate  and 
the  other  near  the  Government  House.  Each  of  the  guards  consisted  of 
twenty-four  men  and  a  subaltern,  who  mounted  regularly  every  morning 
between  nine  and  ten  o’clock,  Each  furnished  four  sentinels,  who  were 
relieved  every  two  hours.  There  was  also  an  officer  of  the  day,  who  per¬ 
formed  strict  duty.  Each  of  the  gates  was  shut  regularly  at  sunset ; 
even  wicket  gates  were  shut  at  nine  o’clock,  and  all  the  keys  were 
delivered  into  the  hands  of  the  commanding  officer.  They  were  opened 
in  the  morning  at  sunrise.  No  Indian  or  squaw  was  permitted  to  enter 
town  with  any  weapon,  such  as  a  tomahawk  or  a  knife.  It  was  a  stand¬ 
ing  order  that  the  Indians  should  deliver  their  arms  and  instruments  of 
every  kind  before  they  were  permitted  to  pass  the  sentinel,  and  they  were 
restored  to  them  on  their  return.  No  more  than  twenty-five  Indians  were 
allowed  to  enter  the  town  at  any  one  time,  and  they  were  admitted  only 
at  the  east  and  west  gates.  At  sundown  the  drums  beat,  and  all  the 
Indians  were  required  to  leave  town  instantly.  There  was  a  council  house 
near  the  water  side  for  the  purpose  of  holding  council  with  the  Indians. 
The  population  of  the  town  was  about  sixty  families,  in  all  about  two 
hundred  males  and  one  hundred  females.  This  town  was  destroyed  by 
fire,  all  except  one  dwelling,  in  1805.  After  which  the  present  “new  ” 
town  was  laid  out. 

On  the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolution,  the  British  held  every  post  of 
importance  in  the  West.  Kentucky  was  formed  as  a  component  part  of 
Virginia,  and  the  sturdy  pioneers  of  the  West,  alive  to  their  interests, 



and  recognizing  the  great  benefits  of  obtaining  the  control  of  the  trade  in 
this  part  of  the  New  World,  held  steadily  to  their  purposes,  and  those 
within  the  commonwealth  of  Kentucky  proceeded  to  exercise  their 
civil  privileges,  by  electing  John  Todd  and  Richard  Gallaway, 
burgesses  to  represent  them  in  the  Assembly  of  the  parent  state. 
Early  in  September  of  that  year  (1777)  the  first  court  was  held 
in  Harrodsburg,  and  Col.  Bowman,  afterwards  major,  who  had  arrived 
in  August,  was  made  the  commander  of  a  militia  organization  which 
had  been  commenced  the  March  previous.  Thus  the  tree  of  loyalty 
was  growing.  The  chief  spirit  in  this  far-out  colony,  who  had  represented 
her  the  year  previous  east  of  the  mountains,  was  now  meditating  a  move 
unequaled  in  its  boldness.  He  had  been  watching  the  movements  of  the 
British  throughout  the  Northwest,  and  understood  their  whole  plan.  He 
saw  it  was  through  their  possession  of  the  posts  at  Detroit,  Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia,  and  other  places,  which  would  give  them  constant  and  easy 
access  to  the  various  Indian  tribes  in  the  Northwest,  that  the  British 
intended  to  penetrate  the  country  from  the  north  and  south,  and  annihi¬ 
late  the  frontier  fortresses.  This  moving,  energetic  man  was  Colonel, 
afterwards  General,  George  Rogers  Clark.  He  knew  the  Indians  were  not 
unanimously  in  accord  with  the  English,  and  he  was  convinced  that,  could 
the  British  be  defeated  and  expelled  from  the  Northwest,  the  natives 
might  be  easily  awed  into  neutrality ;  and  by  spies  sent  for  the  purpose, 
he  satisfied  himself  that  the  enterprise  against  the  Illinois  settlements 
might  easily  succeed.  Having  convinced  himself  of  the  certainty  of  the 
project,  he  repaired  to  the  Capital  of  Virginia,  which  place  he  reached  on 
November  5th.  While  he  was  on  his  way,  fortunately,  on  October  17th, 
Burgoyne  had  been  defeated,  and  the  spirits  of  the  colonists  greatly 
encouraged  thereby.  Patrick  Henry  was  Governor  of  Virginia,  and  at 
once  entered  heartily  into  Clark’s  plans.  The  same  plan  had  before  been 
agitated  in  the  Colonial  Assemblies,  but  there  was  no  one  until  Clark 
came  who  was  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  condition  of  affairs  at  the 
scene  of  action  to  be  able  to  guide  them. 

Clark,  having  satisfied  the  Virginia  leaders  of  the  feasibility  of  his 
plan,  received,  on  the  2d  of  January,  two  sets  of  instructions — one  secret, 
the  other  open  —  the  latter  authorized  him  to  proceed  to  enlist  seven 
companies  to  go  to  Kentucky,  subject  to  his  orders,  and  to  serve  three 
months  from  their  arrival  in  the  West.  The  secret  order  authorized  him 
to  arm  these  troops,  to  procure  his  powder  and  lead  of  General  Hand 
at  Pittsburgh,  and  to  proceed  at  once  to  subjugate  the  country. 

With  these  instructions  Clark  repaired  to  Pittsburgh,  choosing  rather 
to  raise  his  men  west  of  the  mountains,  as  he  well  knew  all  were  needed 
in  the  colonies  in  the  conflict  there.  He  sent  Col.  W.  B.  Smith  to  Hoi- 



ston  for  the  same  purpose,  but  neither  succeeded  in  raising  the  required 
number  of  men.  The  settlers  in  these  parts  were  afraid  to  leave  their 
own  firesides  exposed  to  a  vigilant  foe,  and  but  few  could  be  induced  to 
join  the  proposed  expedition.  With  three  companies  and  several  private 
volunteers,  Clark  at  length  commenced  his  descent  of  the  Ohio,  which’he 
navigated  as  far  as  the  Falls,  where  he  took  possession  of  and  fortified 
Corn  Island,  a  small  island  between  the  present  Cities  of  Louisville. 
Kentucky,  and  New  Albany,  Indiana.  Remains  of  this  fortification  may 
yet  be  found.  At  this  place  he  appointed  Col.  Bowman  to  meet  him 
with  such  recruits  as  had  reached  Kentucky  by  the  southern  route,  and 
as  many  as  could  be  spared  from  the  station.  Here  he  announced  to 
the  men  their  real  destination.  Having  completed  his  arrangements, 
and  chosen  his  party,  he  left  a  small  garrison  upon  the  island,  and  on  the 
i4th  of  June,  duiing  a  total  eclipse  of  the  sun,  which  to  them  augured 
no  good,  and  which  fixes  beyond  dispute  the  date  of  starting,  he  with 
his  chosen  band,  fell  down  the  river.  His  plan  was  to  go  by  water  as 
far  as  Fort  Massac  or  Massacre,  and  thence  march  direct  to  Kaskaskia. 
Here  he  intended  to  surprise  the  garrison,  and  after  its  capture  go  to 
Cahokia,  then  to  Vincennes,  and  lastly  to  Detroit.  Should  he  fail,  lie 
intended  to  march  directly  to  the  Mississippi  River  and  cross  it  into  the 
Spanish  country.  Before  his  start  he  received  two  good  items  of  infor¬ 
mation  :  one  that  the  alliance  had  been  formed  between  France  and  the 
United  States ;  and  the  other  that  the  Indians  throughout  the  Illinois 
country  and  the  inhabitants,  at  the  various  frontier  posts,  had  been  led  to 
believe  by  the  British  that  the  u  Long  Knives  ”  or  Virginians,  were  the 
most  fierce,  bloodthirsty  and  cruel  savages  that  ever  scalped  a  foe.  With 
this  impression  on  their  minds,  Clark  saw  that  proper  management  would 
cause  them  to  submit  at  once  from  fear,  if  surprised,  and  then  from  grati¬ 
tude  would  become  friendly  if  treated  with  unexpected  leniency. 

The  march  to  Kaskaskia  was  accomplished  through  a  hot  July  sun, 
and  the  town  reached  on  the  evening  of  July  4.  He  captured  the  fort 
near  the  village,  and  soon  after  the  village  itself  by  surprise,  and  without 
the  loss  of  a  single  man  or  by  killing  any  of  the  enemy.  After  sufficientlv 
working  upon  the  fears  of  the  natives,  Clark  told  them  they  were  at  per¬ 
fect  liberty  to  worship  as  they  pleased,  and  to  take  whichever  side  of  the 
great  conflict  they  would,  also  he  would  protect  them  from  any  barbarity 
from  British  or  Indian  foe.  This  had  the  desired  effect,  and  the  inhab¬ 
itants,  so  unexpectedly  and  so  gratefully  surprised  by  the  unlooked 
for  turn  of  affairs,  at  once  swore  allegiance  to  the  American  arms,  and 
when  Clark  desired  to  go  to  Cahokia  on  the  6th  of  July,  they  accom¬ 
panied  him,  and  through  their  influence  the  inhabitants  of  the  place 
surrendered,  and  gladly  placed  themselves  under  his  protection.  Thus 



the  two  important  posts  in  Illinois  passed  from  the  hands  of  the  English 
into  the  possession  of  Virginia. 

In  the  person  of  the  priest  at  Kaskaskia,  M.  Gibault,  Clark  found  a 
powerful  ally  and  generous  friend.  Clark  saw  that,  to  retain  possession 
of  the  Northwest  and  treat  successfully  with  the  Indians  within  its  boun¬ 
daries,  he  must  establish  a  government  for  the  colonies  he  had  taken. 
St.  Vincent,  the  next  important  post  to  Detroit, remained  yet  to  be  taken 
before  the  Mississippi  Valley  was  conquered.  M.  Gibault  told  him  that 
he  would  alone,  by  persuasion,  lead  Vincennes  to  throw  off  its  connection 
with  England.  Clark  gladly  accepted  his  offer,  and  on  the  14th  of  J uly, 
in  company  with  a  fellow-townsman,  M.  Gibault  started  on  his  mission  of 
peace,  and  on  the  1st  of  August  returned  with  the  cheerful  intelligence 
that  the  post  on  the  44  Oubache  ”  had  taken  the  oath  of  allegiance  to 
the  Old  Dominion.  During  this  interval,  Clark  established  his  courts, 
placed  garrisons  at  Kaskaskia  and  Cahokia,  successfully  re-enlisted  his 
men,  sent  word  to  have  a  fort,  which  proved  the  germ  of  Louisville, 
erected  at  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio,  and  dispatched  Mr.  Rocheblave,  who 
had  been  commander  at  Kaskaskia,  as  a  prisoner  of  war  to  Richmond. 
In  October  the  County  of  Illinois  was  established  by  the  Legislature 
of  Virginia,  John  Todd  appointed  Lieutenant  Colonel  and  Civil  Governor, 
and  in  November  General  Clark  and  his  men  received  the  thanks  of 
the  Old  Dominion  through  their  Legislature. 

In  a  speech  a  few  days  afterward,  Clark  made  known  fully  to  the 
natives  his  plans,  and  at  its  close  all  came  forward  and  swore  alle¬ 
giance  to  the  Long  Knives.  While  he  was  doing  this  Governor  Hamilton, 
having  made  his  various  arrangements,  had  left  Detroit  and  moved  down 
the  Wabash  to  Vincennes  intending  to  operate  from  that  point  in  reducing 
the  Illinois  posts,  and  then  proceed  on  down  to  Kentucky  and  drive  the 
rebels  from  the  West.  Gen.  Clark  had,  on  the  return  of  M.  Gibault, 
dispatched  Captain  Helm,  of  Fauquier  County,  Virginia,  with  an  attend¬ 
ant  named  Henry,  across  the  Illinois  prairies  to  command  the  fort. 
Hamilton  knew  nothing  of  the  capitulation  of  the  post,  and  was  greatly 
surprised  on  his  arrival  to  be  confronted  by  Capt.  Helm,  who,  standing  at 
the  entrance  of  the  fort  by  a  loaded  cannon  ready  to  fire  upon  his  assail¬ 
ants,  demanded  upon  what  terms  Hamilton  demanded  possession  of  the 
fort.  Being  granted  the  rights  of  a  prisoner  of  war,  he  surrendered  to 
the  British  General,  who  could  scarcely  believe  his  eyes  when  he  saw  the 
force  in  the  garrison. 

Hamilton,  not  realizing  the  character  of  the  men  with  whom  he  was 
contending,  gave  up  his  intended  campaign  for  the  Winter,  sent  his  four 
hundred  Indian  warriors  to  prevent  troops  from  coming  down  the  Ohio, 



and  to  annoy  the  Americans  in  all  ways,  and  sat  quietly  down  to  pass  the 
Winter.  Information  of  all  these  proceedings  having  reached  Clark,  he 
saw  that  immediate  and  decisive  action  was  necessary,  and  that  unless 
he  captured  Hamilton,  Hamilton  would  capture  him.  Clark  received  the 
news  on  the  29th  of  January,  1779,  and  on  February  4th,  having  suffi¬ 
ciently  garrisoned  Kaskaskia  and  Cahokia,  he  sent  down  the  Mississippi 
a  “  battoe,”  as  Major  Bowman  writes  it,  in  order  to  ascend  the  Ohio  and 
Wabash,  and  operate  with  the  land  forces  gathering  for  the  fray. 

On  the  next  day,  Clark,  with  his  little  force  of  one  hundred  and 
twenty  men,  set  out  for  the  post,  and  after  incredible  hard  marching 
through  much  mud,  the  ground  being  thawed  by  the  incessant  spring 
rains,  on  the  22d  reached  the  fort,  and  being  joined  by  his  “  battoe,”  at 
once  commenced  the  attack  on  the  post.  The  aim  of  the  American  back¬ 
woodsman  was  unerring,  and  on  the  24th  the  garrison  surrendered  to  the 
intrepid  boldness  of  Clark.  The  French  were  treated  with  great  kind¬ 
ness,  and  gladly  renewed  their  allegiance  to  Virginia.  Hamilton  was 
sent  as  a  prisoner  to  Virginia,  where  he  was  kept  in  close  confinement. 
During  his  command  of  the  British  frontier  posts,  he  had  offered  prizes 
to  the  Indians  for  all  the  scalps  of  Americans  they  would  bring  to  him, 
and  had  earned  in  consequence  thereof  the  title  “  Hair-buyer  General,” 
by  which  he  was  ever  afterward  known. 

Detroit  was  now  without  doubt  within  easy  reach  of  the  enterprising 
Virginian,  could  he  but  raise  the  necessary  force.  Governor  Henry  being 
apprised  of  this,  promised  him  the  needed  reinforcement,  and  Clark  con¬ 
cluded  to  wait  until  he  could  capture  and  sufficiently  garrison  the  posts. 
Had  Clark  failed  in  this  bold  undertaking,  and  Hamilton  succeeded  in 
uniting  the  western  Indians  for  the  next  Spring’s  campaign,  the  West 
would  indeed  have  been  swept  from  the  Mississippi  to  the  Alleghenv 
Mountains,  and  the  great  blow  struck,  which  had  been  contemplated  from 
the  commencement,  by  the  British. 

“  But  for  this  small  army  of  dripping,  but  fearless  Virginians,  the 
union  of  all  the  tribes  from  Georgia  to  Maine  against  the  colonies  might 
have  been  effected,  and  the  whole  current  of  our  history  changed.” 

At  this  time  some  fears  were  entertained  by  the  Colonial  Govern¬ 
ments  that  the  Indians  in  the  North  and  Northwest  were  inclining  to  the 
British,  and  under  the  instructions  of  Washington,  now  Commander-in- 
Chief  of  the  Colonial  army,  and  so  bravely  fighting  for  American  inde¬ 
pendence,  armed  forces  were  sent  against  the  Six  Nations,  and  upon  the 
Ohio  frontier,  Col.  Bowman,  acting  under  the  same  general’s  orders, 
marched  against  Indians  within  the  present  limits  of  that  State.  These 
expeditions  were  in  the  main  successful,  and  the  Indians  were  compelled 
to  sue  for  peace. 



During  this  same  year  (1779)  the  famous  “  Land  Laws”  of  Virginia 
y  ere  passed.  The  passage  of  these  laws  was  of  more  consequence  to  the 
pioneers  of  Kentucky  and  the  Northwest  than  the  gaining  of  a  few  Indian 
conflicts.  These  laws  confirmed  in  main  all  grants  made,  and  guaranteed 
to  all  actual  settlers  their  rights  and  privileges.  After  providing  for  the 
settlers,  the  laws  provided  for  selling  the  balance  of  the  public  lands  at 
forty  cents  per  acre.  To  carry  the  Land  Laws  into  effect,  the  Legislature 
sent  four  Virginians  westward  to  attend  to  the  various  claims,  over  many 
of  which  great  confusion  prevailed  concerning  their  validity.  These 
gentlemen  opened  their  court  on  October  13,  1779,  at  St.  Asaphs,  and 
continued  until  April  26,  1780,  when  they  adjourned,  having  decided 
three  thousand  claims.  They  were  succeeded  by  the  surveyor,  who 
came  in  the  person  of  Mr.  George  May,  and  assumed  his  duties  on  the 
10th  day  of  the  month  whose  name  he  bore.  With  the  opening  of  the 
next  year  (1780)  the  troubles  concerning  the  navigation  of  the  Missis¬ 
sippi  commenced.  The  Spanish  Government  exacted  such  measures  in 
relation  to  its  trade  as  to  cause  the  overtures  made  to  the  United  States 
to  be  rejected.  The  American  Government  considered  they  had  a  right 
to  navigate  its  channel.  To  enforce  their  claims,  a  fort  was  erected  below 
the  mouth  of  the  Ohio  on  the  Kentucky  side  of  the  river.  The  settle¬ 
ments  in  Kentucky  were  being  rapidly  filled  by  emigrants.  It  was  dur¬ 
ing  this  year  that  the  first  seminary  of  learning  was  established  in  the 
V  est  in  this  young  and  enterprising  Commonwealth. 

The  settlers  here  did  not  look  upon  the  building  of  this  fort  in  a 
friendly  manner,  as  it  aroused  the  hostility  of  the  Indians.  Spain  had 
been  friendly  to  the  Colonies  during  their  struggle  for  independence, 
and  though  for  a  while  this  friendship  appeared  in  danger  from  the 
refusal  of  the  free  navigation  of  the  river,  yet  it  was  finally  settled  to  the 
satisfaction  of  both  nations. 

The  Winter  of  1<  » 9-80  was  one  of  the  most  unusually  severe  ones 
ever  experienced  in  the  West.  The  Indians  always  referred  to  it  as  the 
**  Great  Cold.’  Numbers  of  wild  animals  perished,  and  not  a  few 
pioneers  lost  their  lives.  The  following  Summer  a  party  of  Canadians 
and  Indians  attacked  St.  Louis,  and  attempted  to  take  possession  of  it 
in  consequence  of  the  friendly  disposition  of  Spain  to  the  revolting 
colonies.  They  met  with  such  a  determined  resistance  on  the  part  of  the 
inhabitants,  even  the  women  taking  part  in  the  battle,  that  they  were 
compelled  to  abandon  the  contest.  They  also  made  an  attack  on  the 
settlements  in  Kentucky,  but,  becoming  alarmed  in  some  unaccountable 
manner,  they  fled  the  country  in  great  haste. 

About  this  time  arose  the  question  in  the  Colonial  Congress  con¬ 
cerning  the  western  lands  claimed  by  Virginia,  New  York,  Massachusetts 



and  Connecticut.  The  agitation  concerning  this  subject  finally  led  New 
York,  on  the  19th  of  February,  1780,  to  pass  a  law  giving  to  the  dele¬ 
gates  of  that  State  in  Congress  the  power  to  cede  her  western  lands  for 
the  benefit  of  the  United  States.  This  law  was  laid  before  Congress 
during  the  next  month,  but  no  steps  were  taken  concerning  it  untit  Sep¬ 
tember  6th,  when  a  resolution  passed  that  body  calling  upon  the  States 
claiming  western  lands  to  release  their  claims  in  favor  of  the  whole  body. 
This  basis  formed  the  union,  and  was  the  first  after  all  of  those  legislative* 
measures  which  resulted  in  the  creation  of  the  States  of  Ohio,  Indiana, 
Illinois,  Michigan,  Wisconsin  and  Minnesota.  In  December  of  the  same 
year,  the  plan  of  conquering  Detroit  again  arose.  The  conquest  might 
have  easily  been  effected  by  Clark  had  the  necessary  aid  been  furnished 
him.  Nothing  decisive  was  done,  yet  the  heads  of  the  Government  knew 
that  the  safety  of  the  Northwest  from  British  invasion  lay  in  the  capture 
and  retention  of  that  important  post,  the  only  unconquered  one  in  the 

Before  the  close  of  the  year,  Kentucky  was  divided  into  the  Coun¬ 
ties  of  Lincoln,  Fayette  and  Jefferson,  and  the  act  establishing  the  Town 
of  Louisville  was  passed.  This  'same  year  is  also  noted  in  the  annals  of 
American  history  as  the  year  in  which  occurred  Arnold’s  treason  to  the 
United  States. 

Virginia,  in  accordance  with  the  resolution  of  Congress,  on  the  2d 
day  of  Januarjq  1781,  agreed  to  yield  her  western  lands  to  the  United 
States  upon  certain  conditions,  which  Congress  would  not  accede  to,  and 
the  Act  of  Cession,  on  the  part  of  the  Old  Dominion,  failed,  nor  was 
anything  farther  done  until  1783.  During  all  that  time  the  Colonies 
were  busily  engaged  in  the  struggle  with  the  mother  country,  and  in 
consequence  thereof  but  little  heed  was  given  to  the  western  settlements. 
Upon  the  16th  of  April,  1781,  the  first  birth  north  of  the  Ohio  River  of 
American  parentage  occurred,  being  that  of  Mary  Heckewelder,  daughter 
of  the  widely  known  Moravian  missionary,  whose  band  of  Christian 
Indians  suffered  in  after  years  a  horrible  massacre  by  the  hands  of  the 
frontier  settlers,  who  had  been  exasperated  by  the  murder  of  several  of 
their  neighbors,  and  in  their  rage  committed,  without  regard  to  humanity, 
a  deed  which  forever  afterwards  cast  a  shade  of  shame  upon  their  lives. 
For  this  and  kindred  outrages  on  the  part  of  the  whites,  the  Indians 
committed  many  deeds  of  crueltv  which  darken  the  years  of  1771  and 
1772  in  the  history  of  the  Northwest. 

During  the  year  1782  a  number  of  battles  among  the  Indians  and 
frontiersmen  occurred,  and  between  the  Moravian  Indians  and  the  W van- 
dots.  In  these,  horrible  acts  of  cruelty  were  practised  on  the  captives, 
many  of  such  dark  deeds  transpiring  under  the  leadership  of  the  notorious 



frontier  outlaw,  Simon  Girty,  whose  name,  as  well  as  those  of  his  brothers, 
was  a  terror  to  women  and  children.  These  occurred  chiefly  in  the  Ohio 
valleys.  Cotemporary  with  them  were  several  engagements  in  Kentucky, 
in  which  the  famous  Daniel  Boone  engaged,  and  who,  often  by  his  skill 
and  knowledge  of  Indian  warfare,  saved  the  outposts  from  cruel  destruc- 


tion.  By  the  close  of  the  year  victory  had  perched  upon  the  American 
banner,  and  on  the  30th  of  November,  provisional  articles  of  peace  had 
been  arranged  between  the  Commissioners  of  England  and  her  uncon¬ 
querable  colonies.  Cornwallis  had  been  defeated  on  the  19th  of  October 
preceding,  and  the  liberty  of  America  was  assured.  On  the  19th  of 
April  following,  the  anniversary  of  the  battle  of  Lexington,  peace  was 



proclaimed  to  the  army  of  the  United  States,  and  on  the  3d  of  the  next 
September,  the  definite  treaty  which  ended  our  revolutionary  struggle 
was  concluded.  By  the  terms  of  that  treaty,  the  boundaries  of  the  West 
were  as  follows :  On  the  north  the  line  was  to  extend  along  the  center  of 
the  Great  Lakes ;  from  the  western  point  of  Lake  Superior  to  Long  Lake  : 
thence  to  the  Lake  of  the  Woods;  thence  to  the  head  of  the  Mississippi 
River;  down  its  center  to  the  31st  parallel  of  latitude,  then  on  that 'line 
east  to  the  head  of  the  Appalachicola  River ;  down  its  center  to  its  junc¬ 
tion  with  the  Flint  ;  thence  straight  to  the  head  of  St.  Mary’s  River,  and 
thence  down  along  its  center  to  the  Atlantic  Ocean. 

Following  the  cessation  of  hostilities  with  England,  several  posts 
were  still  occupied  by  the  British  in  the  North  and  West.  Among  these 
was  Detroit,  still  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  Numerous  engagements 
with  the  Indians  throughout  Ohio  and  Indiana  occurred,  upon  whose 
lands  adventurous  whites  would  settle  ere  the  title  had  been  acquired  by 
the  proper  treaty. 

To  remedy  this  latter  evil,  Congress  appointed  commissioners  to 
treat  with  the  natives  and  purchase  their  lands,  and  prohibited  the  set¬ 
tlement  of  the  territory  until  this  could  be  done.  Before  the  close  of  the 
year  another  attempt  was  made  to  capture  Detroit,  which  was,  however, 
not  pushed,  and  Virginia,  no  longer  feeling  the  interest  in  the  Northwest 
she  had  formerly  done,  withdrew  her  troops,  having  on  the  20th  of 
December  preceding  authorized  the  whole  of  her  possessions  to  be  deeded 
to  the  United  States.  This  was  done  on  the  1st  of  March  following,  and 
the  Northwest  Territory  passed  from  the  control  of  the  Old  Dominion. 
To  Gen.  Clark  and  his  soldiers,  however,  she  gave  a  tract  of  one  hundred 
and  fifty  thousand  acres  of  land,  to  be  situated  any  where  north  of  the 
Ohio  wherever  they  chose  to  locate  them.  They  selected  the  region 
opposite  the  falls  of  the  Ohio,  where  is  now  the  dilapidated  village  of 
Clarksville,  about  midway  between  the  Cities  of  New  Albany  and  Jeffer¬ 
sonville,  Indiana. 

While  the  frontier  remained  thus,  and  Gen.  Haldimand  at  Detroit 
refused  to  evacuate  alleging  that  he  had  no  orders  from  his  King  to  do 
so,  settlers  were  rapidly  gathering  about  the  inland  forts.  In  the  Spring 
of  1784,  Pittsburgh  was  regularly  laid  out,  and  from  the  journal  of  Arthur 
Lee,  who  passed  through  the  town  soon  after  on  his  way  to  the  Indian 
council  at  Fort  McIntosh,  we  suppose  it  was  not  very  prepossessing  in 
appearance.  He  says : 

“  Pittsburgh  is  inhabited  almost  entirely  by  Scots  and  Irish,  who 
live  in  paltry  log  houses,  and  are  as  dirty  as  if  in  the  north  of  Ireland  or 
even  Scotland.  There  is  a  great  deal  of  trade  carried  on,  the  goods  being 
bought  at  the  vast  expense  of  forty-five  shillings  per  pound  from  Phila- 



delphia  and  Baltimore.  They  take  in  the  shops  flour,  wheat,  skins  and 
money.  There  are  in  the  town  four  attorneys,  two  doctors,  and  not  a 
priest  of  any  persuasion,  nor  church  nor  chapel.” 

Kentucky  at  this  time  contained  thirty  thousand  inhabitants,  and 
was  beginning  to  discuss  measures  for  a  separation  from  Virginia.  A 
land  office  was  opened  at  Louisville,  and  measures  were  adopted  to  take 
defensive  precaution  against  the  Indians  who  were  yet,  in  some  instances, 
incited  to  deeds  of  violence  by  the  British.  Before  the  close  of  this  year, 
1784,  the  military  claimants  of  land  began  to  occupy  them,  although  no 
entries  were  recorded  until  1787. 

The  Indian  title  to  the  Northwest  was  not  yet  extinguished.  They 
held  large  tracts  of  lands,  and  in  order  to  prevent  bloodshed  Congress 
adopted  means  for  treaties  with  the  original  owners  and  provided  for  the 
surveys  of  the  lands  gained  thereby,  as  well  as  for  those  .north  of  the 
Ohio,  now  in  its  possession.  On  January  31,  1786,  a  treaty  was  made 
with  the  Wabash  Indians.  The  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix  had  been  made 
in  1784.  That  at  Fort  McIntosh  in  1785,  and  through  these  much  land 
was  gained.  The  Wabash  Indians,  however,  afterward  refused  to  comply 
with  the  provisions  of  the  treaty  made  with  them,  and  in  order  to  compel 
their  adherence  to  its  provisions,  force  was  used.  During  the  year  1786, 
the  free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi  came  up  in  Congress,  and  caused 
various  discussions,  which  resulted  in  no  definite  action,  only  serving  to 
excite  speculation  in  regard  to  the  western  lands.  Congress  had  promised 
bounties  of  land  to  the  soldiers  of  the  Revolution,  but  owing  to  the 
unsettled  condition  of  affairs  along  the  Mississippi  respecting  its  naviga¬ 
tion,  and  the  trade  of  the  Northwest,  that  body  had,  in  1783,  declared 
its  inability  to  fulfill  these  promises  until  a  treaty  could  be  concluded 
between  the  two  Governments.  Before  the  close  of  the  year  1786,  how¬ 
ever,  it  was  able,  through  the  treaties  with  the  Indians,  to  allow  some 
grants  and  the  settlement  thereon,  and  on  the  14th  of  September  Con¬ 
necticut  ceded  to  the  General  Government  the  tract  of  land  known  as 
the  44  Connecticut  Reserve,”  and  before  the  close  of  the  following  year  a 
large  tract  of  land  north  of  the  Ohio  was  sold  to  a  company,  who  at  once 
took  measures  to  settle  it.  By  the  provisions  of  this  grant,  the  company 
were  to  pay  the  United  States  one  dollar  per  acre,  subject  to  a  deduction 
of  one-third  for  bad  lands  and  other  contingencies.  They  received 
750,000  acres,  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  Ohio,  on  the  east  by  the 
seventh  range  of  townships,  on  the  west  by  the  sixteenth  range,  and  on 
the  north  by  a  line  so  drawn  as  to  make  the  grant  complete  without 
the  reservations.  In  addition  to  this,  Congress  afterward  granted  100,000 
acres  to  actual  settlers,  and  214,285  acres  as  army  bounties  under  the 
resolutions  of  1789  and  1790. 



While  Di.  Cutler,  one  of  the  agents  of  the  company,  was  pressing 
its  claims  before  Congress,  that  body  was  bringing  into  form  an  ordinance 
for  the  political  and  social  organization  of  this  Territory.  When  the 
cession  was  made  by  Virginia,  in  1734,  a  plan  was  offered,  but  rejected. 
A  motion  had  been  made  to  strike  from  the  proposed  plan  the  prohibition 
of  slavery,  which  prevailed.  The  plan  was  then  discussed  and  altered, 
and  finally  passed  unanimously,  with  the  exception  of  South  Carolina! 
By  this  proposition,  the  Territory  was  to  have  been  divided  into  states 


by  parallels  and  meridian  lines.  This,  it  was  thought,  would  make  ten 
states,  which  were  to  have  been  named  as  follows  —  beginning  at  the 
northwest  corner  and  going  southwardly :  Sylvania,  Michigania,  Cher- 
sonesus,  Assenisipia,  Metropotamia,  Illenoia,  Saratoga,  Washington,  Poly- 
potamia  and  Pelisipia. 

There  was  a  more  serious  objection  to  this  plan  than  its  category  ot 
names, —  the  boundaries.  The  root  of  the  difficulty  was  in  the  resolu¬ 
tion  of  Congress  passed  in  October,  1780,  which  fixed  the  boundaries 
of  the  ceded  lands  to  be  from  one  hundred  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles 



square.  These  resolutions  being  presented  to  the  Legislatures  of  Vir¬ 
ginia  and  Massachusetts,  they  desired  a  change,  and  in  July,  1786,  the 
subject  was  taken  up  in  Congress,  and  changed  to  favor  a  division  into 
not  more  than  five  states,  and  not  less  than  three.  This  was  approved  by 
the  State  Legislature  of  Virginia.  The  subject  of  the  Government  was 
again  taken  up  b}^  Congress  in  1786,  and  discussed  throughout  that  year 
and  until  July,  1787,  when  the  famous  “Compact  of  1787”  was  passed, 
and  the  foundation  of  the  government  of  the  Northwest  laid.  This  com¬ 
pact  is  fully  discussed  and  explained  in  the  history  of  Illinois  in  this  book, 
and  to  it  the  reader  is  referred. 

The  passage  of  this  act  and  the  grant  to  the  New  England  Company 
was  soon  followed  by  an  application  to  the  Government  by  John  Cleves 
Symmes,  of  New  Jersey,  for  a  grant  of  the  land  between  the  Miamis. 
This  gentleman  had  visited  these  lands  soon  after  the  treaty  of  1786,  and, 
being  greatly  pleased  with  them,  offered  similar  terms  to  those  given  to  the 
New  England  Company.  The  petition  was  referred  to  the  Treasurv 
Board  with  power  to  act,  and  a  contract  was  concluded  the  following 
year.  During  the  Autumn  the  directors  of  the  New  England  Company 
were  preparing  to  occupy  their  grant  the  following  Spring,  and  upon  the 
23d  of  November  made  arrangements  for  a  party  of  forty-seven  men, 
under  the  superintendency  of  Gen.  Rufus  Putnam,  to  set  forward.  Six 
boat-builders  were  to  leave  at  once,  and  on  the  first  of  January  the  sur¬ 
veyors  and  their  assistants,  twenty-six  in  number,  were  to  meet  at  Hart¬ 
ford  and  proceed  on  their  journey  westward ;  the  remainder  to  follow  as 
soon  as  possible.  Congress,  in  the  meantime,  upon  the  3d  of  October, 
had  ordered  seven  hundred  troops  for  defense  of  the  western  settlers,  and 
to  prevent  unauthorized  intrusions  ;  and  two  days  later  appointed  Arthur 
St.  Clair  Governor  of  the  Territory  of  the  Northwest. 


The  civil  organization  of  the  Northwest  Territory  was  now  com¬ 
plete,  and  notwithstanding  the  uncertainty  of  Indian  affairs,  settlers  from 
the  East  began  to  come  into  the  country  rapidly.  The  New  England 
Company  sent  their  men  during  the  Winter  of  1787—8  pressing  on  over 
the  Alleghenies  by  the  old  Indian  path  which  had  been  opened  into 
Braddock  s  road,  and  which  has  since  been  made  a  national  turnpike 
from  Cumberland  westward.  Through  the  weary  winter  days  they  toiled 
on,  and  by  April  were  all  gathered  on  the  Yohiogany,  where  boats  had 
been  built,  and  at  once  started  for  the  Muskingum.  Here  they  arrived 
on  the  7th  of  that  month,  and  unless  the  Moravian  missionaries  be  regarded 
as  the  pioneers  of  Ohio,  this  little  band  can  justly  claim  that  honor. 



Gen.  St.  Clair,  the  appointed  Governor  of  the  Northwest,  not  having 
yet  arrived,  a  set  of  laws  were  passed,  written  out,  and  published  by 
being  nailed  to  a  tree  in  the  embryo  town,  and  Jonathan  Meigs  appointed 
to  administer  them. 

Washington  in  writing  of  this,  the  first  American  settlement  in  the 
Northwest,  said :  44  No  colony  in  America  was  ever  settled  under 

such  favorable  auspices  as  that  which  has  just  commenced  at  Muskingum. 
Information,  property  and  strength  will  be  its  characteristics.  I  know 
many  of  its  settlers  2-^6isonally,  and  there  never  were  men  better  calcu¬ 
lated  to  promote  the  welfare  of  such  a  community.’* 


On  the  2d  of  July  a  meeting  of  the  directors  and  agents  was  held 
on  the  banks  of  the  Muskingum,  44  for  the  purpose  of  naming  the  new¬ 
born  city  and  its  squares.”  As  yet  the  settlement  was  known  as  the 
“Muskingum,”  but  that  was  now  changed  to  the  name  Marietta,  in  honor 
ot  Marie  Antoinette.  The  square  upon  which  the  block -houses  stood 
was  called  44  Campus  Martins  ;”  square  number  19,  44  Capitolium square 
number  61, 44  Cecilia  ;”  and  the  great  road  through  the  covert  way,  44  Sacra 
Via.'1'’  Two  days  after,  an  oration  was  delivered  by  James  M.  Varnum, 
who  with  S.  H.  Parsons  and  John  Armstrong  had  been  appointed  to  t lie 
judicial  bench  of  the  territory  on  the  16th  of  October,  1787.  On  July  9, 
Gov.  St.  Clair  arrived,  and  the  colony  began  to  assume  form.  The  act 
of  1787  provided  two  district  grades  of  government  for  the  Northwest, 



under  the  first  of  which  the  whole  power  was  invested  in  the  hands  of  a 
governor  and  three  district  judges.  This  was  immediately  formed  upon 
the  Governor’s  arrival,  and  the  first  laws  of  the  colony  passed  on  the  25th 
of  July.  These  provided  for  the  organization  of  the  militia,  and  on  the 
next  day  appeared  the  Governor's  proclamation,  erecting  all  that  country 
that  had  been  ceded  by  the  Indians  east  of  the  Scioto  River  into  the 
County  of  Washington.  From  that  time  forward,  notwithstanding  the 
doubts  yet  existing  as  to  the  Indians,  all  Marietta  prospered,  and  on  the 
2d  of  September  the  first  court  of  the  territory  was  held  with  imposing 

The  emigration  westward  at  this  time  was  very  great.  The  com¬ 
mander  at  Fort  Harmer,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum,  reported  four 
thousand  five  hundred  persons  as  having  passed  that  post  between  Feb¬ 
ruary  and  June,  1788  —  many  of  whom  would  have  purchased  of  the 
“Associates,"  as  the  New'  England  Company  w*as  called,  had  they  been 
ready  to  receive  them. 

On  the  26th  of  November,  1787,  Sy mines  issued  a  pamphlet  stating  i 
the  terms  of  his  contract  and  the  plan  of  sale  he  intended  to  adopt.  In  ■ 
January,  1788,  Matthias  Denman,  of  New'  Jersey,  took  an  active  interest  j 
in  Symmes’  purchase,  and  located  among  other,  tracts  the  sections  upon 
w'hich  Cincinnati  has  been  built.  Retaining  one-third  of  this  locality,  he  i 
sold  the  other  two-thirds  to  Robert  Patterson  and  John  Filson,  and  the  : 
three,  about  August,  commenced  to  lay  out  a  tow'n  on  the  spot,  wrhich 
w7as  designated  as  being  opposite  Licking  River,  to  the  mouth  of  w'hich  « 
they  proposed  to  have  a  road  cut  from  Lexington.  The  naming  of  the  1 
town  is  thus  narrated  in  the  “Western  Annals  "  : — “  Mr.  Filson,  w7ho  had  ; 
been  a  schoolmaster,  was  appointed  to  name  the  tow'n,  and,  in  respect  to  j 
its  situation,  and  as  if  with  a  prophetic  perception  of  the  mixed  race  that  • 
were  to  inhabit  it  in  after  days,  he  named  it  Losantiville,  which,  being  i 
interpreted,  means  :  ville ,  the  town  ;  anti,  against  or  opposite  to  ;  os,  the  t 
mouth  ;  X.  of  Licking." 

Meanwhile,  in  July,  Symmes  got  thirty  persons  and  eight  four-horse 
teams  under  way  for  the  West.  These  reached  Limestone  (now  Mays- 
ville)  in  September,  where  wrere  several  persons  from  Redstone.  Here 
Mr.  Symmes  tried  to  found  a  settlement,  but  the  great  freshet  of  1789 
caused  the  “  Point,"  as  it  was  and  is  yet  called,  to  be  fifteen  feet  under  - 
water,  and  the  settlement  to  be  abandoned.  The  little  band  of  settlers 
removed  to  the  mouth  of  the  Miami.  Before  Symmes  and  his  colony  left 
the  “  Point,’*  two  settlements  had  been  made  on  his  purchase.  The  first 
w7as  by  Mr.  Stiltes,  the  original  projector  of  the  w'hole  plan,  wTho,  with  a 
colony  of  Redstone  people,  had  located  at  the  mouth  of  the  Miami, 
whither  Symmes  went  with  his  Maysville  colony.  Here  a  clearing  had 





been  made  by  the  Indians  owing  to  the  great  fertility  of  the  soil.  Mr. 
Stiltes  with  his  colony  came  to  this  place  on  the  18th  of  November,  1788, 
with  twenty-six  persons,  and,  building  a  block-house,  prepared  to  remain 
through  the  Winter.  They  named  the  settlement  Columbia.  Here  they 
were  kindly  treated  by  the  Indians,  but  suffered  greatly  from  the  flood 
of  1789. 

On  the  4th  of  March,  1789,  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
went  into  operation,  and  on  April  30,  George  Washington  was  inaug¬ 
urated  President  of  the  American  people,  and  during  the  next  Summer, 
an  Indian  war  was  commenced  by  the  tribes  north  of  the  Ohio.  The 
President  at  first  used  pacific  means ;  but  these  failing,  he  sent  General 
Harmer  against  the  hostile  tribes.  He  destroyed  several  villages,  but 


was  defeated  in  two  battles,  near  the  present  City  of  Fort  Wayne, 
Indiana.  From  this  time  till  the  close  of  1795,  the  principal  events  were 
the  wars  with  the  various  Indian  tribes.  In  1796,  General  St.  Clair 
was  appointed  in  command,  and  marched  against  the  Indians;  but  while 
he  was  encamped  on  a  stream,  the  St.  Mary,  a  branch  of  the  Maumee, 
he  was  attacked  and  defeated  with  the  loss  of  six  hundred  men. 

General  Wayne  was  now  sent  against  the  savages.  In  August,  1794, 
he  met  them  near  the  rapids  of  the  Maumee,  and  gained  a  complete 
victory.  This  success,  followed  by  vigorous  measures,  compelled  the 
Indians  to  sue  for  peace,  and  on  the  30th  of  July,  the  following  year,  the 
treaty  of  Greenville  was  signed  by  the  principal  chiefs,  by  which  a  large 
tract  of  country  was  ceded  to  the  United  States. 

Before  proceeding  in  our  narrative,  we  will  pause  to  notice  Fort 
Washington,  erected  in  the  early  part  of  this  war  on  the  site  of  Cincinnati. 
Nearly  all  of  the  great  cities  of  the  Northwest,  and  indeed  of  the 



whole  country,  have  had.  their  nuclei  in  those  rude  pioneer  structures, 
known  as  forts  or  stockades.  Thus  Forts  Dearborn,  Washington,  Pon- 
chartrain,  mark  the  original  sites  of  the  now  proud  Cities  of  Chicago, 
Cincinnati  and  Detroit.  So  of  most  of  the  flourishing  cities  east  and  west 
of  the  Mississippi.  Fort  Washington,  erected  by  Doughty  in  1790,  was  a 
rude  but  highly  interesting  structure.  It  was  composed  of  a  number  of 
strongly-built  hewed  log  cabins.  Those  designed  for  soldiers’  barracks 
were  a  story  and  a  half  high,  while  those  composing  the  officers  quarters 
were  more  imposing  and  more  conveniently  arranged  and  furnished. 
The  whole  were  so  placed  as  to  form  a  hollow  square,  enclosing  about  an 
acre  of  ground,  with  a  block  house  at  each  of  the  four  angles. 

The  logs  for  the  construction  of  this  fort  were  cut  from  the  ground 
upon  which  it  was  erected.  It  stood  between  Third  and  Fourth  Streets 
of  the  present  city  (Cincinnati)  extending  east  of  Eastern  Row,  now 
Broadway,  which  was  then  a  narrow  alley,  and  the  eastern  boundary  of 
of  the  town  as  it  was  originally  laid  out.  On  the  bank  of  the  river, 
immediately  in  front  of  the  fort,  was  an  appendage  of  the  fort,  called  the 
Artificer’s  Yard.  It  contained  about  two  acres  of  ground,  enclosed  by 
small  contiguous  buildings,  occupied  by  workshops  and  quarters  of 
laborers.  Within  this  enclosure  there  was  a  large  two-story  frame  house, 
familiarly  called  the  “Yellow  House,”  built  for  the  accommodation  of 
the  Quartermaster  General.  For  many  years  this  was  the  best  finished 
and  most  commodious  edifice  in  the  Queen  City.  Fort  Washington  was 
for  some  time  the  headquarters  of  both  the  civil  and  military  governments 
of  the  Northwestern  Territory. 

Following  the  consummation  of  the  treaty  various  gigantic  land  spec¬ 
ulations  were  entered  into  by  different  persons,  who  hoped  to  obtain 
from  the  Indians  in  Michigan  and  northern  Indiana,  large  tracts  of  lands. 
These  were  generally  discovered  in  time  to  prevent  the  outrageous 
schemes  from  being  carried  out,  and  from  involving  the  settlers  in  war. 
On  October  27,  1795,  the  treaty  between  the  United  States  and  Spain 
was  signed,  whereby  the  free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi  was  secured. 

No  sooner  had  the  treatv  of  1795  been  ratified  than  settlements  beoan 


to  pour  rapidly  into  the  West.  The  great  event  of  the  year  1796  was  the 
occupation  of  that  part  of  the  Northwest  including  Michigan,  which  was 
this  year,  under  the  provisions  of  the  treaty,  evacuated  by  the  British 
forces.  The  United  States,  owing  to  certain  conditions,  did  not  feel 
justified  in  addressing  the  authorities  in  Canada  in  relation  to  Detroit 
and  other  frontier  posts.  When  at  last  the  British  authorities  were 
called  to  give  them  up,  they  at  once  complied,  and  General  Wayne,  who 
had  done  so  much  to  preserve  the  frontier  settlements,  and  who,  before 
the  year’s  close,  sickened  and  died  near  Erie,  transferred  his  head- 



quarters  to  the  neighborhood  of  the  lakes,  where  a  county  named  after 
him  was  formed,  which  included  the  northwest  of  Ohio,  all  of  Michigan, 
and  the  northeast  of  Indiana.  During  this  same  year  settlements  were 
formed  at  the  present  City  of  Chillicothe,  along  the  Miami  from  Middle- 
town  to  Piqua,  while  in  the  more  distant  West,  settlers  and  speculators 
began  to  appear  in  great  numbers.  In  September,  the  City  of  Cleveland 
was  laid  out,  and  during  the  Summer  and  Autumn,  Samuel  Jackson  and 
Jonathan  Sharpless  erected  the  first  manufactory  of  paper _ the  u  Red¬ 

stone  Paper  Mill”— in  the  West.  St.  Louis  contained  some  seventy 
houses,  and  Detroit  over  three  hundred,  and.  along  the  river,  contiguous 
to  it,  were  more  than  three  thousand  inhabitants,  mostly  French  Canadians, 
Indians  and  half-breeds,  scarcely  any  Americans  venturing  yet  into  that 
✓part  of  the  Northwest. 

The  election  of  representatives  for  the  territory  had  taken  place, 
and  on  the  4th  of  February,  1799,  they  convened  at  Losantiville — now 
known  as  Cincinnati,  having  been  named  so  by  Gov.  St.  Clair,  and 
considered  the  capital  of  the  Territory — to  nominate  persons  from  whom 
the  members  of  the  Legislature  were  to  be  chosen  in  accordance  with 
a  previous  ordinance.  This  nomination  being  made,  the  Assembly 
adjourned  until  the  16th  of  the  following  September.  From  those  named 
the  President  selected  as  members  of  the  council,  Henry  Vandenburg, 
of  Vincennes,  Robert  Oliver,  of  Marietta,  James  Findlay  and  Jacob 
Burnett,  of  Cincinnati,  and  David  Vance,  of  Vanceville.  On  the  16th 
of  September  the  Territorial  Legislature  met,  and  on  the  24th  the  two 
houses  were  duly  organized,  Henry  Vandenburg  being  elected  President 
of  the  Council. 

The  message  of  Gov.  St.  Clair  was  addressed  to  the  Legislature 
September  20th,  and  on  October  13th  that  body  elected  as  a  delegate  to 
Congress  Gen.  Wm.  Henry  Harrison,  who  received  eleven  of  the  votes 
cast,  being  a  majority  of  one  over  his  opponent,  Arthur  St.  Clair,  son  of 
Gen.  St.  Clair. 

The  whole  number  of  acts  passed  at  this  session,  and  approved  by 
the  Governor,  were  thirty-seven  —  eleven  others  were  passed,  but  received 
his  veto.  The  most  important  of  those  passed  related  to  the  militia,  to 
the  administration,  and  to  taxation.  On  the  19th  of  December  this  pro¬ 
tracted  session  of  the  first  Legislature  in  the  West  was  closed,  and  on  the 
30th  of  December  the  President  nominated  Charles  Willing  Bryd  to  the 
office  of  Secretary  of  the  Territory  vice  Wm.  Henry  Harrison,  elected  to 
Congress.  The  Senate  confirmed  his  nomination  the  next  day. 




The  increased  emigration  to  the  Northwest,  the  extent  of  the  domain, 
and  the  inconvenient  modes  of  travel,  made  it  very  difficult  to  conduct 
the  ordinary  operations  of  government,  and  rendered  the  efficient  action 
of  courts  almost  impossible.  To  remedy  this,  it  was  deemed  advisable  to 
divide  the  territory  for  civil  purposes.  Congress,  in  1800,  appointed  a 
committee  to  examine  the  question  and  report  some  means  for  its  solution. 
This  committee,  on  the  3d  of  March,  reported  that : 

“In  the  three  western  countries  there  has  been  but  one  court  having 
cognizance  of  crimes,  in  five  years,  and  the  immunity  which  offenders 
experience  attracts,  as  to  an  asylum,  the  most  vile  and  abandoned  crim¬ 
inals,  and  at  the  same  time  deters  useful  citizens  from  making  settlements 
in  such  society.  The  extreme  necesshy  of  judiciary  attention  and  assist¬ 
ance  is  experienced  in  civil  as  well  as  in  criminal  cases.  *  *  *  *  To 

minister  a  remedy  to  these  and  other  evils,  it  occurs  to  this  committee 
that  it  is  expedient  that  a  division  of  said  territory  into  two  distinct  and 
separate  governments  should  be  made ;  and  that  such  division  be  made 
by  a  line  beginning  at  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami  River,  running 
directly  north  until  it  intersects  the  boundary  between  the  United  States 
and  Canada.” 

The  report  was  accepted  by  Congress,  and,  in  accordance  with  its 
suggestions,  that  body  passed  an  Act  extinguishing  the  Northwest  Terri¬ 
tory,  which  Act  was  approved  May  7.  Among  its  provisions  were  these  : 

“  That  from  and  after  July  4  next,  all  that  part  of  the  Territory  of 
the  United  States  northwest  of  the  Ohio  River,  which  lies  to  the  westward 
of  a  line  beginning  at  a  point  on  the  Ohio,  opposite  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Kentucky  River,  and  running  thence  to  Fort  Recovery,  and  thence  north 
until  it  shall  intersect  the  territorial  line  between  the  United  States  and 
Canada,  shall,  for  the  purpose  of  temporary  government,  constitute  a 
separate  territory,  and  be  called  the  Indiana  Territory.” 

After  providing  for  the  exercise  of  the  civil  and  criminal  powers  of 
the  territories,  and  other  provisions,  the  Act  further  provides: 

“  That  until  it  shall  otherwise  be  ordered  by  the  Legislatures  of  the 

said  Territories,  respectively,  Chillicothe  on  the  Scioto  River  shall  be  the 

seat  of  government  of  the  Territorv  of  the  United  States  northwest  of  the 


Ohio  River;  and  that  St.  Vincennes  on  the  Wabash  River  shall  be  the 
seat  of  government  for  the  Indiana  Territory.” 

Gen.  Wm.  Henry  Harrison  was  appointed  Governor  of  the  Indiana 
Territory,  and  entered  upon  his  duties  about  a  year  later.  Connecticut 
also  about  this  time  released  her  claims  to  the  reserve,  and  in  March  a  law 



was  passed  accepting  this  cession.  Settlements  had  been  made  upon 
thirty-five  of  the  townships  in  the  reserve,  mills  had  been  built,  and  seven 
hundred  miles  of  road  cut  in  various  directions.  On  the  3d  of  November 
the  General  Assembly  met  at  Chillicothe.  Near  the  close  of  the  year, 
the  first  missionary  of  the  Connecticut  Reserve  came,  who  found  no 
township  containing  more  than  eleven  families.  It  was  upon  the  first  of 
October  that  the  secret  treaty  had  been  made  between  Napoleon  and  the 

King  of  Spain,  whereby  the  latter  agreed  to  cede  to  France  the  province 
of  Louisiana. 

In  January,  1802,  the  Assembly  of  the  Northwestern  Territory  char¬ 
tered  the  college  at  Athens.  From  the  earliest  dawn  of  the  western 
colonies,  education  was  promptly  provided  for,  and  as  early  as  1787. 
newspapers  were  issued  from  Pittsburgh  and  Kentucky,  and  largely  read 
throughout  the  frontier  settlements.  Before  the  close  of  this  year,  the 
Congress  of  the  United  States  granted  to  the  citizens  of  the  Northwestern 
teiritory  the  formation  of  a  State  government.  One  of  the  provisions  of 
the  “  compact  of  1787”  provided  that  whenever  the  number  of  inhabit¬ 
ants  within  prescribed  limits  exceeded  45,000,  they  should  be  entitled  to 
a  separate  government.  The  prescribed  limits  of  Ohio  contained,  from  a 
census  taken  to  ascertain  the  legality  of  the  act,  more  than  that  number, 
and  on. the  30th  of  April,  1802,  Congress  passed  the  act  defining  its  limits, 
and  on  the  29th  of  November  the  Constitution  of  the  new  State  of  Ohio, 
so  named  from  the  beautiful  river  forming  its  southern  boundary,  came 
into  existence.  The  exact  limits  of  Lake  Michigan  were  not  then  known, 
but  the  territory  now  included  within  the  State  of  Michigan  was  wholly 
within  the  territory  of  Indiana. 

Gen.  Harrison,  while  residing  at  Vincennes,  made  several  treaties 
with  the  Indians,  thereby  gaining  large  tracts  of  lands.  The  next  year  is 
memoiable  in  the  history  of  the  West  for  the  purchase  of  Louisiana  from 
France  by  the  United  States  for  $15,000,000.  Thus  by  a  peaceful  mode, 
the  domain  of  the  United  States  was  extended  over  a  large  tract  of 
country  west  of  the  Mississippi,  and  was  for  a  time  under  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  Northwest  government,  and,  as  has  been  mentioned  in  the  early 
part  of  this  narrative,  was  called  the  “New  Northwest.”  The  limits 
of  this  history  will  not  allow  a  description  of  its  territory.  The  same  year 
large  grants  of  land  were  obtained  from  the  Indians,  and  the  House  of 
Representatives  of  the  new  State  of  Ohio  signed  a  bill  respecting  the 
College  Township  in  the  district  of  Cincinnati. 

Before  the  close  of  the  year,  Gen.  Harrison  obtained  additional 
grants  of  lands  from  the  various  Indian  nations  in  Indiana  and  the  present 
limits  of  Illinois,  and  on  the  18th  of  August,  1804,  completed  a  treatv  at 
St.  Louis,  whereby  over  51,000,000  acres  of  lands  were  obtained  from  the 



aborigines.  Measures  were  also  taken  to  learn  the  condition  of  affairs  in 
and  about  Detroit. 

C.  Jouett,  the  Indian  agent  in  Michigan,  still  a  part  of  Indiana  Terri¬ 
tory,  reported  as  follows  upon  the  condition  of  matters  at  that  post : 

“  The  Town  of  Detroit. — The  charter,  which  is  for  fifteen  miles 
square,  was  granted  in  the  time  of  Louis  XIV.  of  France,  and  is  now, 
from  the  best  information  I  have  been  able  to  get,  at  Quebec.  Of  those 
two  hundred  and  twenty-five  acres,  only  four  are  occupied  by  the  town 
and  Fort  Lenault.  The  remainder  is  a  common,  except  twenty-four 
acres,  which  were  added  twenty  years  ago  to  a  farm  belonging  to  Wm. 
Macomb.  *  *  *  A  stockade  incloses  the  town,  fort  and  citadel.  The 

pickets,  as  well  as  the  public  houses,  are  in  a  state  of  gradual  decay.  The 
streets  are  narrow,  straight  and  regular,  and  intersect  each  other  at  right 
angles.  The  houses  are,  for  the  most  part,  low  and  inelegant.” 

During  this  year,  Congress  granted  a  township  of  land  for  the  sup¬ 
port  of  a  college,  and  began  to  offer  inducements  for  settlers  in  these 
wilds,  and  the  country  now  comprising  the  State  of  Michigan  began  to 
fill  rapidly  with  settlers  along  its  southern  borders.  This  same  year,  also, 
a  law  was  passed  organizing  the  Southwest  Territory,  dividing  it  into  two 
portions,  the  Territory  of  New  Orleans,  which  city  was  made  the  seat  of 
government,  and  the  District  of  Louisiana,  which  was  annexed  to  the 
domain  of  Gen.  Harrison. 

On  the  11th  of  January,  1805,  the  Territory  of  Michigan  was  formed, 
Wm.  Hull  was  appointed  governor,  with  headquarters  at  Detroit,  the 
change  to  take  effect  on  June  30.  On  the  11th  of  that  month,  a  fire 
occurred  at  Detroit,  which  destroyed  almost  every  building  in  the  place. 
When  the  officers  of  the  new  territory  reached  the  post,  they  found  it  in 
ruins,  and  the  inhabitants  scattered  throughout  the  country.  Rebuild¬ 
ing,  however,  soon  commenced,  and  ere  long  the  town  contained  more 
houses  than  before  the  fire,  and  many  of  them  much  better  built. 

While  this  was  being  done,  Indiana  had  passed  to  the  second  grade 
of  government,  and  through  her  General  Assembly  had  obtained  large 
tracts  of  land  from  the  Indian  tribes.  To  all  this  the  celebrated  Indian, 
Tecum  the  or  Tecumseh,  vigorously  protested,  and  it  was  the  main  cause 
of  his  attempts  to  unite  the  various  Indian  tribes  in  a  conflict  with  the 
settlers.  To  obtain  a  full  account  of  these  attempts,  the  workings  of  the 
British,  and  the  signal  failure,  culminating  in  the  death  of  Tecumseh  at 
the  battle  of  the  Thames,  and  the  close  of  the  war  of  1812  in  the  Northwest, 
we  will  step  aside  in  our  story,  and  relate  the  principal  events  of  his  life, 
and  his  connection  with  this  conflict. 







This  famous  Indian  chief  was  bom  about  the  year  1768,  not  far  from 
the  site  of  the  present  City  of  Piqua,  Ohio.  His  father,  Puckeshinwa, 
was  a  member  of  the  Kisopok  tribe  of  the  Swanoese  nation,  and  his 
mother,  Methontaske,  was  a  member  of  the  Turtle  tribe  of  the  same 
people.  They  removed  from  Florida  about  the  middle  of  the  last  century 
to  the  birthplace  of  Tecumseh.  In  1774,  his  father,  who  had  risen  to  be 
chief,  was  slain  at  the  battle  of  Point  Pleasant,  and  not  long  after  Tecum¬ 
seh,  by  his  bravery,  became  the  leader  of  his  tribe.  In  1795  he  was 
declared  chief,  and  then  lived  at  Deer  Creek,  near  the  site  of  the 
present  City  of  Urbana.  He  remained  here  about  one  year,  when  he 
returned  to  Piqua,  and  in  1798,  he  went  to  White  River,  Indiana.  In 
1805,  he  and  his  brother,  Laulewasikan  (Open  Door),  who  had  announced 
himself  as  a  prophet,  went  to  a  tract  of  land  on  the  Wabash  River,  given 
them  by  the  Pottawatomies  and  Kickapoos.  From  this  date  the  chief 
comes  into  prominence.  He  was  now  about  thirty-seven  years  of  age, 
was  five  feet  and  ten  inches  in  height,  was  stoutly  built,  and  possessed  of 
enormous  powers  of  endurance.  His  countenance  was  naturally  pleas¬ 
ing,  and  he  was,  in  general,  devoid  of  those  savage  attributes  possessed 
by  most  Indians.  It  is  stated  he  could  read  and  write,  and  had  a  confi¬ 
dential  secretary  and  adviser,  named  Billy  Caldwell,  a  half-breed,  who 
afterward  became  chief  of  the  Pottawatomies.  He  occupied  the  first 
house  built  on  the  site  of  Chicago.  At  this  time,  Tecumseh  entered 
upon  the  great  work  of  his  life.  He  had  long  objected  to  the  grants  of 
land  made  by  the  Indians  to  the  whites,  and  determined  to  unite  all  the 
Indian  tribes  into  a  league,  in  order  that  no  treaties  or  grants  of  land 
could  be  made  save  by  the  consent  of  this  confederation. 

He  traveled  constantly,  going  from  north  to  south  ;  from  the  south 
to  the  north,  everywhere  urging  the  Indians  to  this  step.  He  was  a 
matchless  orator,  and  his  burning  words  had  their  effect. 

Gen.  Harrison,  then  Governor  of  Indiana,  by  watching  the  move¬ 
ments  of  the  Indians,  became  convinced  that  a  grand  conspiracy  was 
forming,  and  made  preparations  to  defend  the  settlements.  Tecumseh's 
plan  was  similar  to  Pontiac’s,  elsewhere  described,  and  to  the  cunning 
artifice  of  that  chieftain  was  added  his  own  sagacity. 

During  the  year  1809,  Tecumseh  and  the  prophet  were  actively  pre¬ 
paring  for  the  work.  In  that  year,  Gen.  Harrison  entered  into  a  treaty 
with  the  Delawares,  Kickapoos,  Pottawatomies,  Miamis,  Eel  River  Indians 
and  Weas,  in  which  these  tribes  ceded  to  the  whites  certain  lands  upon 
the  Wabash,  to  all  of  which  Tecumseh  entered  a  bitter  protest,  averring 



as  one  principal  reason  that  he  did  not  want  the  Indians  to  give  up  any 
lands  north  and  west  of  the  Ohio  River. 

Tecumseh,  in  August,  1810,  visited  the  General  at  Vincennes  and 
held  a  council  relating  to  the  grievances  of  the  Indians.  Becoming  unduly 
angry  at  this  conference  he  was  dismissed  from  the  village,  and  soon  after 
departed  to  incite  the  southern  Indian  tribes  to  the  conflict. 

Gen.  Harrison  determined  to  move  upon  the  chiefs  headquarters  at 
Tippecanoe,  and  for  this  purpose  went  about  sixty-five  miles  up  the 
Wabash,  where  he  built  Fort  Harrison.  From  this  place  he  went  to  the 
prophet’s  town,  where  he  informed  the  Indians  he  had  no  hostile  inten¬ 
tions,  provided  they  were  true  to  the  existing  treaties.  He  encamped 
near  the  village  early  in  October,  and  on  the  morning  of  November  7,  he 
was  attacked  by  a  large  force  of  the  Indians,  and  the  famous  battle  of 
Tippecanoe  occurred.  The  Indians  were  routed  and  their  town  broken 
up.  Tecumseh  returning  not  long  after,  was  greatly  exasperated  at  his 
brother,  the  prophet,  even  threatening  to  kill  him  for  rashly  precipitating 
the  war,  and  foiling  his  (Tecumseh’s)  plans. 

Tecumseh  sent  word  to  Gen.  Harrison  that  he  was  now  returned 
from  the  South,  and  was  ready  to  visit  the  President  as  had  at  one  time 
previously  been  proposed.  Gen.  Harrison  informed  him  he  could  not  o-o 
as  a  chief,  which  method  Tecumseh  desired,  and  the  visit  was  never 

In  June  of  the  following  year,  he  visited  the  Indian  agent  at 
Fort  Wayne.  Here  he  disavowed  any  intention  to  make  a  war  against 
the  United  States,  and  reproached  Gen.  Harrison  for  marching  against  his 
people.  The  agent  replied  to  this  ;  Tecumseh  listened  with  a  cold  indif¬ 
ference,  and  after  making  a  few  general  remarks,  with  a  haughty  air  drew 
his  blanket  about  him,  left  the  council  house,  and  departed  for  Fort  Mal¬ 
den,  in  Upper  Canada,  where  he  joined  the  British  standard. 

He  remained  under  this  Government,  doing  effective  work  for  the 
Crown  while  engaged  in  the  war  of  1812  which  now  opened.  He  was, 
however,  always  humane  in  his  treatment  of  the  prisoners,  never  allow¬ 
ing  his  warriors  to  ruthlessly  mutilate  the  bodies  of  those  slain,  or  wan¬ 
tonly  murder  the  captive. 

In  the  Summer  of  1813,  Perry’s  victory  on  Lake  Erie  occurred,  and 
shortly  after  active  preparations  were  made  to  capture  Malden.  On  the 
27th  of  September,  the  American  army,  under  Gen.  Harrison,  set  sail  for 
the  shores  of  Canada,  and  in  a  few  hours  stood  around  the  ruins  of  Mal¬ 
den,  from  which  the  British  army,  under  Proctor,  had  retreated  to  Sand¬ 
wich,  intending  to  make  its  way  to  the  heart  of  Canada  by  the  Valley  of 
the  Thames.  On  the  29th  Gen.  Harrison  was  at  Sandwich,  and  Gen. 
McArthur  took  possession  of  Detroit  and  the  territory  of  Michigan. 



On  the  2d  of  October,  the  Americans  began  their  pursuit  of  Proctor, 
whom  they  overtook  on  the  5th,  and  the  battle  of  the  Thames  followed. 
Early  in  the  en^ao'ement,  Tecumseli  who  was  at  the  head  of  the  column 
of  Indians  was  slain,  and  they,  no  longer  hearing  the  voice  of  their  chief¬ 
tain,  fled.  The  victory  was  decisive,  and  practically  closed  the  war  in 
the  Northwest* 


Just  who  killed  the  great  chief  has  been  a  matter  of  much  dispute  ; 
but  the  weight  of  opinion  awards  the  act  to  Col.  Richard  M.  Johnson, 
who  fired  at  him  with  a  pistol,  the  shot  proving  fatal. 

In  1805  occurred  Burr’s  Insurrection.  He  took  possession  of  a 
beautiful  island  in  the  Ohio,  after  the  killing  of  Hamilton,  and  is  charged 
by  many  with  attempting  to  set  up  an  independent  government.  His 
plans  were  frustrated  by  the  general  government,  his  property  confiscated 
and  he  was  compelled  to  flee  the  country  for  safety. 



In  January,  1807,  Governor  Hull,  of  Michigan  Territory,  made  a 
treaty  with  the  Indians,  whereby  all  that  peninsula  was  ceded  to  the 
United  States.  Before  the  close  of  the  year,  a  stockade  was  built  about 
Detroit.  It  was  also  during  this  year  that  Indiana  and  Illinois  endeavored 
to  obtain  the  repeal  of  that  section  of  the  compact  of  1787,  whereby 
slavery  was  excluded  from  the  Northwest  Territory.  These  attempts, 
however,  all  signally  failed. 

In  1809  it  was  deemed  advisable  to  divide  the  Indiana  Territory. 
This  was  done,  and  the  Territory  of  Illinois  was  formed  from  the  western 
part,  the  seat  of  government  being  fixed  at  Kaskaskia.  The  next  year, 
the  intentions  of  Tecumseh  manifested  themselves  in  open  hostilities,  and 
then  began  the  events  already  narrated. 

While  this  war  was  in  progress,  emigration  to  the  West  went  on  with 
surprising  rapidity.  In  1811,  under  Mr.  Roosevelt  of  New  York,  the 
first  steamboat  trip  was  made  on  the  Ohio,  much  to  the  astonishment  of 
the  natives,  many  of  whom  fled  in  terror  at  the  appearance  of  the 
“  monster.”  It  arrived  at  Louisville  on  the  10th  day  of  October.  At  the 
close  of  the  first  week  of  January,  1812,  it  arrived  at  Natchez,  after  being 
nearly  overwhelmed  in  the  great  earthquake  which  occurred  while  on  its 
downward  trip. 

The  battle  of  the  Thames  was  fought  on  October  6,  1813.  It 
effectually  closed  hostilities  in  the  Northwest,  although  peace  was  not 
fully  restored  until  July  22,  1814,  when  a  treaty  was  formed  at  Green¬ 
ville,  under  the  direction  of  General  Harrison,  between  the  United  States 
and  the  Indian  tribes,  in  which  it  was  stipulated  that  the  Indians  should 
cease  hostilities  against  the  Americans  if  the  war  were  continued.  Such, 
happily,  was  not  the  case,  and  on  the  24th  of  December  the  treaty 
of  Ghent  was  signed  by  the  representatives  of  England  and  the  United 
States.  This  treaty  was  followed  the  next  year  by  treaties  with  various 
Indian  tribes  throughout  the  West  and  Northwest,  and  quiet  was  again 
restored  in  this  part  of  the  new  world. 

On  the  18th  of  March,  1816,  Pittsburgh  was  incorporated  as  a  city. 
It  then  had  a  population  of  8,000  people,  and  was  already  noted  for  its 
manufacturing  interests.  On  April  19,  Indiana  Territory  was  allowed 
to  form  a  state  government.  At  that  time  there  were  thirteen  counties 
organized,  containing  about  sixty-three  thousand  inhabitants.  The  first 
election  of  state  officers  was  held  in  August,  when  Jonathan  Jennings 
was  chosen  Governor.  The  officers  were  sworn  in  on  November  7,  and 
on  December  11,  the  State  was  formally  admitted  into  the  Union.  For 
some  time  the  seat  of  government  was  at  Corydon,  but  a  more  central 
location  being  desirable,  the  present  capital,  Indianapolis  (City  of  Indiana), 
was  laid  out  January  1,  1825. 



On  the  28th  of  December  the  Bank  of  Illinois,  at  Shawneetown,  was 
chartered,  with  a  capital  of  $300,000.  At  this  period  all  banks  were 
under  the  control  of  the  States,  and  were  allowed  to  establish  branches 
at  different  convenient  points. 

Until  this  time  Chillicothe  and  Cincinnati  had  in  turn  enjoyed  the 
privileges  of  being  the  capital  of  Ohio.  But  the  rapid  settlement  of  the 
northern  and  eastern  portions  of  the  State  demanded,  as  in  Indiana,  a 
more  central  location,  and  before  the  close  of  the  year,  the  site  of  Col¬ 
umbus  was  selected  and  surveyed  as  the  future  capital  of  the  State. 
Banking  had  begun  in  Ohio  as  early  as  1808,  when  the  first  bank  was 
chartered  at  Marietta,  but  here  as  elsewhere  it  did  not  bring  to  the  state 
the  hoped-for  assistance.  It  and  other  banks  were  subsequently  unable 
to  redeem  their  currency,  and  were  obliged  to  suspend. 

In  1818,  Illinois  was  made  a  state,  and  all  the  territory  north  of  her 
northern  limits  was  erected  into  a  separate  territory  and  joined  to  Mich¬ 
igan  for  judicial  purposes.  By  the  following  year,  navigation  of  the  lakes 
was  increasing  with  great  rapidity  and  affording  an  immense  source  of 
revenue  to  the  dwellers  in  the  Northwest,  but  it  was  not  until  1826  that 
the  trade  was  extended  to  Lake  Michigan,  or  that  steamships  began  to 
navigate  the  bosom  of  that  inland  sea. 

Until  the  year  1832,  the  commencement  of  the  Black  Hawk  War, 
but  few  hostilities  were  experienced  with  the  Indians.  Roads  were 
opened,  canals  were  dug,  cities  were  built,  common  schools  were  estab¬ 
lished,  universities  were  founded,  many  of  which,  especially  the  Michigan 
University,  have  achieved  a  world  wide-reputation.  The  people  were 
becoming  wealthy.  The  domains  of  the  United  States  had  been  extended, 
and  had  the  sons  of  the  forest  been  treated  with  honesty  and  justice,  the 
record  of  many  years  would  have  been  that  of  peace  and  continuous  pros¬ 


This  conflict,  though  confined  to  Illinois,  is  an  important  epoch  in 
the  Northwestern  history,  being  the  last  war  with  the  Indians  in  this. part 
of  the  United  States. 

Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah,  or  Black  Hawk,  was  born  in  the  principal 
Sac  village,  about  three  miles  from  the  junction  of  Rock  River  with  the 
Mississippi,  in  the  year  1767.  His  father’s  name  was  Py-e-sa  or  Pahaes ; 
his  grandfather's,  Na-na-ma-kee,  or  the  Thunderer.  Black  Hawk  early 
distinguished  himself  as  a  warrior,  and  at  the  age  of  fifteen  was  permitted 
to  paint  and  was  ranked  among  the  braves.  About  the  year  1783,  he 
went  on  an  expedition  against  the  enemies  of  his  nation,  the  Osages,  one 






of  whom  he  killed  and  scalped,  and  for  this  deed  of  Indian  bravery  he  was 
permitted  to  join  in  the  scalp  dance.  Three  or  four  years  after  he,  at  the 
head  of  two  hundred  braves,  went  on  another  expedition  against  the 
Osages,  to  avenge  the  murder  of  some  women  and  children  belonging  to 
his  own  tribe.  Meeting  an  equal  number  of  Osage  warriors,  a  fierce 
battle  ensued,  in  which  the  latter  tribe  lost  one-half  their  number.  The 
Sacs  lost  only  about  nineteen  warriors.  He  next  attacked  the  Cherokees 
for  a  similar  cause.  In  a  severe  battle  with  them,  near  the  present  City 
of  St.  Louis,  his  father  was  slain,  and  Black  Hawk,  taking  possession  of 
the  “  Medicine  Bag,'’  at  once  announced  himself  chief  of  the  Sac  nation. 
He  had  now  conquered  the  Cherokees,  and  about  the  year  1800,  at  the 
head  of  five  hundred  Sacs  and  Foxes,  and  a  hundred  Iowas,  he  waged 
war  against  the  Osage  nation  and  subdued  it.  For  two  years  he  battled 
successfully  with  other  Indian  tribes,  all  of  whom  he  conquered. 

Black  Hawk  does  not  at  any  time  seem  to  have  been  friendly  to 
the  Americans.  When  on  a  visit  to  St.  Louis  to  see  his  “  Spanish 
Father/'  he  declined  to  see  any  of  the  Americans,  alleging,  as  a  reason, 
he  did  not  want  two  fathers. 

The  treaty  at  St.  Louis  was  consummated  in  1804.  The  next  year  the 
United  States  Government  erected  a  fort  near  the  head  of  the  Des  Moines 
Rapids,  called  Fort  Edwards.  This  seemed  to  enrage  Black  Hawk,  who 
at  once  determined  to  capture  Fort  Madison,  standing  on  the  west  side  of 
the  Mississippi  above  the  mouth  of  the  Des  Moines  River.  The  fort  was 
garrisoned  by  about  fifty  men.  Here  he  was  defeated.  The  difficulties 
with  the  British  Government  arose  about  this  time,  and  the  War  of  1812 
followed.  That  government,  extending  aid  to  the  Western  Indians,  by 
giving  them  arms  and  ammunition,  induced  them  to  remain  hostile  to  the 
Americans.  In  August,  1812,  Black  Hawk,  at  the  head  of  about  five 
hundred  braves,  started  to  join  the  British  forces  at  Detroit,  passing  on 
his  way  the  site  of  Chicago,  where  the  famous  Fort  Dearborn  Massacre 
had  a  few  days  before  occurred.  Of  his  connection  with  the  British 
Government  but  little  is  known.  In  1813  he  with  his  little  band  descended 
the  Mississippi,  and  attacking  some  United  States  troops  at  Fort  Howard 
was  defeated. 

In  the  early  part  of  1815,  the  Indian  tribes  west  of  the  Mississippi 
were  notified  that  peace  had  been  declared  between  the  United  States 
and  England,  and  nearly  all  hostilities  had  ceased.  Black  Hawk  did  not 
sign  any  treaty,  however,  until  May  of  the  following  year.  He  then  recog¬ 
nized  the  validity  of  the  treaty  at  St.  Louis  in  1804.  From  the  time  of 
signing  this  treaty  in  1816,  until  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  in  1832,  he 
and  his  band  passed  their  time  in  the  common  pursuits  of  Indian  life. 

Ten  years  before  the  commencement  of  this  war,  the  Sac  and  Fox 


Indians  were  urged  to  join  the  Iowas  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Father  of 
Waters.  All  were  agreed,  save  the  band  known  as  the  British  Band,  of 
which  Black  Hawk  was  leader.  He  strenuously  objected  to  the  removal, 
and  was  induced  to  comply  only  after  being  threatened  with  the  power  of 
the  Government.  This  and  various  actions  on  the  part  of  the  white  set¬ 
tlers  provoked  Black  Hawk  and  his  band  to  attempt  the  capture  of  his 
native  village  now  occupied  by  the  whites.  The  war  followed.  He  and 
his  actions  were  undoubtedly  misunderstood,  and  had  his  wishes  been 
acquiesced  in  at  the  beginning  of  the  struggle,  much  bloodshed  would 
have  been  prevented. 

Black  Hawk  was  chief  now  of  the  Sac  and  Fox  nations,  and  a  noted 
warrior.  He  and  his  tribe  inhabited  a  village  on  Rock  River,  nearly  three 
miles  above  its  confluence  with  the  Mississippi,  where  the  tribe  had  lived 
many  generations.  When  that  portion  of  Illinois  was  reserved  to  them, 
they  remained  in  peaceable  possession  of  their  reservation,  spending  their 
time  in  the  enjoyment  of  Indian  life.  The  fine  situation  of  their  village 
and  the  quality  of  their  lands  incited  the  more  lawless  white  settlers,  who 
from  time  to  time  began  to  encroach  upon  the  red  men’s  domain.  From 
one  pretext  to  another,  and  from  one  step  to  another,  the  crafty  white 
men  gained  a  foothold,  until  through  whisky  and  artifice  they  obtained 
deeds  from  many  of  the  Indians  for  their  possessions.  The  Indians  were 
finally  induced  to  cross  over  the  Father  of  Waters  and  locate  among  the 
Iowas.  Black  Hawk  was  strenuously  opposed  to  all  this,  but  as  the 
authorities  of  Illinois  and  the  United  States  thought  this  the  best  move,  he 
was  forced  to  comply.  Moreover  other  tribes  joined  the  whites  and  urged 
the  removal.  Black  Hawk  would  not  agree  to  the  terms  of  the  treaty 
made  with  his  nation  for  their  lands,  and  as  soon  as  the  military,  called  to 
enforce  his  removal,  had  retired,  he  returned  to  the  Illinois  side  of  the 
river.  A  large  force  was  at  once  raised  and  marched  against  him.  On 
the  evening  of  May  14,  1832,  the  first  engagement  occurred  between  a 
band  from  this  army  and  Black  Hawk’s  band,  in  which  the  former  were 

This  attack  and  its  result  aroused  the  whites.  A  large  force  of  men 
was  raised,  and  Gen.  Scott  hastened  from  the  seaboard,  by  way  of  the 
lakes,  with  United  States  troops  and  artillery  to  aid  in  the  subjugation  of 
the  Indians.  On  the  24th  of  June,  Black  Hawk,  with  200  warriors,  was 
repulsed  by  Major  Demont  between  Rock  River  and  Galena.  The  Ameri¬ 
can  army  continued  to  move  up  Rock  River  toward  the  main  body  of 
the  Indians,  and  on  the  21st  of  July  came  upon  Black  Hawk  and  his  band, 
and  defeated  them  near  the  Blue  Mounds. 

Before  this  action,  Gen.  Henry,  in  command,  sent  word  to  the  main 
army  by  whom  he  was  immediately  rejoined,  and  the  whole  crossed  the 



Wisconsin  in  pursuit  of  Black  Hawk  and  his  band  who  were  fleeing  to  the 
Mississippi.  They  were  overtaken  on  the  2d  of  August,  and  in  the  battle 
which  followed  the  power  of  the  Indian  chief  was  completely  broken.  He 
fled,  but  was  seized  by  the  Winnebagoes  and  delivered  to  the  whites. 

On  the  21st  of  September,  1832,  Gen.  Scott  and  Gov.  Reynolds  con¬ 
cluded  a  treaty  with  the  Winnebagoes,  Sacs  and  Foxes  by  which  they 
ceded  to  the  United  States  a  vast  tract  of  country,  and  agreed  to  remain 
peaceable  with  the  whites.  For  the  faithful  performance  of  the  provi¬ 
sions  of  this  treaty  on  the  part  of  the  Indians,  it  was  stipulated  that 
Black  Hawk,  his  two  sons,  the  prophet  Wabokieshiek,  and  six  other  chiefs 
of  the  hostile  bands  should  be  retained  as  hostages  during  the  pleasure 
of  the  President.  They  were  confined  at  Fort  Barracks  and  put  in  irons. 

The  next  Spring,  by  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  they  were  taken 
to  Washington.  From  there  they  were  removed  to  Fortress  Monroe, 
“there  to  remain  until  the  conduct  of  their  nation  was  such  as  to  justify 
their  being  set  at  liberty.”  They  were  retained  here  until  the  4th  of 
June,  when  the  authorities  directed  them  to  be  taken  to  the  principal 
cities  so  that  they  might  see  the  folly  of  contending  against  the  white 
people.  Everywhere  they  were  observed  by  thousands,  the  name  of  the 
old  chief  being  extensively  known.  By  the  middle  of  August  they 
reached  Fort  Armstrong  on  Rock  Island,  where  Black  Hawk  was  soon 
after  released  to  go  to  his  countrymen.  As  he  passed  the  site  of  his  birth¬ 
place,  now  the  home  of  the  white  man,  he  was  deeply  moved.  His  village 
where  he  was  born,  where  he  had  so  happily  lived,  and  where  he  had 
hoped  to  die,  was  now  another’s  dwelling  place,  and  he  was  a  wanderer. 

On  the  next  day  after  his  release,  he  went  at  once  to  his  tribe  and 
his  lodge.  His  wife  was  yet  living,  and  with  her  he  passed  the  remainder 
of  his  days.  To  his  credit  it  may  be  said  that  Black  Hawk  always  re¬ 
mained  true  to  his  wife,  and  served  her  with  a  devotion  uncommon  among 
the  Indians,  living  with  her  upward  of  forty  years. 

Black  Hawk  now  passed  his  time  hunting  and  fishing.  A  deep  mel¬ 
ancholy  had  settled  over  him  from  which  he  could  not  be  freed.  At  all 
times  when  he  visited  the  whites  he  was  received  with  marked  atten¬ 
tion.  He  was  an  honored  guest  at  the  old  settlers’  reunion  in  Lee  County, 
Illinois,  at  some  of  their  meetings,  and  received  many  tokens  of  esteem. 
In  September,  1838,  while  on  his  way  to  Rock  Island  to  receive  his 
annuity  from  the  Government,  he  contracted  a  severe  cold  which  resulted 
in  a  fatal  attack  of  bilious  fever  which  terminated  his  life  on  October  3. 
His  faithful  wife,  who  was  devotedly  attached  to  him,  mourned  deeply 
during  his  sickness.  After  his  death  he  was  dressed  in  the  uniform  pre¬ 
sented  to  him  by  the  President  while  in  Washington.  He  was  buried  in 
a  grave  six  feet  in  depth,  situated  upon  a  beautiful  eminence.  “  The 




body  was  placed  in  the  middle  of  the  grave,  in  a  sitting  posture,  upon  a 
seat  constructed  for  the  purpose.  On  his  left  side,  the  cane,  given  him 
by  Henry  Clay,  was  placed  upright,  with  his  right  hand  resting  upon  it. 
Many  of  the  old  warrior  s  trophies  were  placed  in  the  grave,  and  some 
Indian  garments,  together  with  his  favorite  weapons.’* 

No  sooner  was  the  Black  Hawk  Avar  concluded  than  settlers  began 
rapidly  to  pour  into  the  northern  parts  of  Illinois,  and  into  Wisconsin, 
now  free  from  Indian  depredations.  Chicago,  from  a  trading  post,  had 
grown  to  a  commercial  center,  and  was  rapidly  coming  into  prominence. 
In  1835,  the  formation  of  a  State  Government  in  Michigan  Avas  discussed, 
but  did  not  take  active  form  until  two  years  later,  Avhen  the  State  became 
a  part  of  the  Federal  Union. 

The  main  attraction  to  that  portion  of  the  NortliAvest  lying  Avest  of 
Lake  Michigan,  now  included  in  the  State  of  Wisconsin,  Avas  its  alluvial 
wealth.  Copper  ore  was  found  about  Lake  Superior.  For  some  time  this 
region  was  attached  to  Michigan  for  judiciary  purposes,  but  in  183b  Avas 
made  a  territory,  then  including  Minnesota  and  IoAva.  The  latter  State 
was  detached  tAAm  years  later.  In  1848,  Wisconsin  Avas  admitted  as  a 
State,  Madison  being  made  the  capital.  We  have  now  traced  the  various 
divisions  of  the  NortliAvest  Territory  (save  a  little  in  Minnesota)  from 
the  time  it  Avas  a  unit  comprising  this  vast  territory,  until  circumstances 
compelled  its  present  division. 


Before  leaving  this  part  of  the  narrative,  Ave  will  narrate  briefly  the 
Indian  troubles  in  Minnesota  and  elseAvhere  by  the  Sioux  Indians. 

In  August,  1862,  the  Sioux  Indians  living  on  the  Avestern  borders  of 
Minnesota  fell  upon  the  unsuspecting  settlers,  and  in  a  feAv  hours  mas¬ 
sacred  ten  or  twelve  hundred  persons.  A  distressful  panic  was  the 
immediate  result,  fully  thirty  thousand  persons  fleeing  from  their  homes 
to  districts  supposed  to  be  better  protected.  The  military  authorities 
at  once  took  active  measures  to  punish  the  savages,  and  a  large  number 
were  killed  and  captured.  About  a  year  after,  Little  CroAv,  the  chief, 
was  killed  by  a  Mr.  Lampson  near  Scattered  Lake.  Of  those  captured, 
thirty  were  hung  at  Mankato,  and  the  remainder,  through  fears  of  mob 
violence,  were  removed  to  Camp  McClellan,  on  the  outskirts  of  the  City 
/  of  Davenport.  It  was  here  that  Big  Eagle  came  into  prominence  and 
secured  his  release  by  the  following  order  : 






“  SPecial  0rder’  No-  48°-  “  War  Department. 

‘  Adjutant  General  s  Office,  Washington,  Dec.  3,  1864. 

“  Big  Eagle,  an  Indian  now  in  confinement  at  Davenport,  Iowa. 

wi  ,  upon  the  receipt  of  this  order,  be  immediately  released  from  confine- 
ment  and  set  at  liberty. 

“  BJ  order  of  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

“  Official :  “  E.  D.  Townsend,  Ass’t  Adj’t  Gen. 

“Capt.  James  Vanderventer,  Corn  y  Sub.  Vols. 

“  Through  Com’g  Gen’l,  Washington,  D.  C:” 

Another  Indian  who  figures  more  prominently  than  Big  Ea/'le  and 
who  was  more  cowardly  in  his  nature,  with  his  band  of  Modoc  Indians 
is  noted  in  the  annals  of  the  New  Northwest:  we  refer  to  Captain  Jack. 
This  distinguished  Indian,  noted  for  his  cowardly  murder  of  Gen  Canby 
was  a  chief  of  a  Modoc  tribe  of  Indians  inhabiting  the  border  lands 
between  California  and  Oregon.  This  region  of  country  comprises  what 
is  known  as  the  “  Lava  Beds,”  a  tract  of  land  described  as  utterly  impene¬ 
trable,  save  by  those  savages  who  had  made  it  their  home. 

The  Modocs  are  known  as  an  exceedingly  fierce  and  treacherous 
race.  They  had,  according  to  their  own  traditions,  resided  here  for  many 
generations,  and  at  one  time  were  exceedingly  numerous  and  powerful. 
A  famine  carried  off  nearly  half  their  numbers,  and  disease,  indolence 

and  the  vices  of  the  white  man  have  reduced  them  to  a  poor,  weak  and 
insignificant  tribe. 

Soon  after  the  settlement  of  California  and  Oregon,  complaints  began 
to  be  heard  of  massacres  of  emigrant  trains  passing  through  the  Modoc 
country.  In  1847,  an  emigrant  train,  comprising  eighteen  souls,  was  en¬ 
tirely  destroyed  at  a  place  since  known  as  “  Bloody  Point.”  These  occur¬ 
rences  caused  the  United  States  Government  to  appoint  a  peace  commission, 
who,  after  repeated  attempts,  in  1864,  made  a  treaty  with  the  Modocs. 
Snakes  and  Klamaths,  in  which  it  was  agreed  on  their  part  to  remove  to 
a  leseivation  set  apart  for  them  in  the  southern  part  of  Oregon. 

With,  the  exception  of  Captain  Jack  and  a  band  of  his  followers,  who 

remained  at  Clear  Lake,  about  six  miles  from  Klamath,  all  the  Indians 
complied.  The  Modocs  who  went  to  the  reservation  were  under  chief 
Schonchin.  Captain  Jack  remained  at  the  lake  without  disturbance 
until  1869,  when  he  was  also  induced  to  remove  to  the  reservation.  The 
Modocs  and  the  Klamaths  soon  became  involved  in  a  quarrel,  and  Captain 
Jack  and  his  band  returned  to  the  Lava  Beds. 

Several  attempts  were  made  by  the  Indian  Commissioners  to  induce 
them  to  return  to  the  reservation,  and  finally  becoming  involved  in  a 



difficulty  with  the  commissioner  and  his  military  escort,  a  fight  ensued, 
in  which  the  chief  and  his  band  were  routed.  They  were  greatly  enraged, 
and  on  their  retreat,  before  the  day  closed,  killed  eleven  inoffensive  whites. 

The  nation  was  aroused  and  immediate  action  demanded.  A  com¬ 
mission  was  at  once  appointed  by  the  Government  to  see  what  could  be 
done.  It  comprised  the  following  persons  :  Gen.  E.  R.  S.  Canbv,  Rev. 
Dr.  E.  Thomas,  a  leading  Methodist  divine  of  California ;  Mr.  A.  B. 
Meacham,  Judge  Rosborough,  of  California,  and  a  Mr.  Dyer,  of  Oregon. 
After  several  interviews,  in  which  the  savages  were  always  aggressive, 
often  appearing  with  scalps  in  their  belts,  Bogus  Charley  came  to  the 
commission  on  the  evening  of  April  10,  1873,  and  informed  them  that 
Capt.  Jack  and  his  band  would  have  a  44  talk  ”  to-morrow  at  a  place  near 
Clear  Lake,  about  three  miles  distant.  Here  the  Commissioners,  accom¬ 
panied  by  Charley,  Riddle,  the  interpreter,  and  Boston  Charley  repaired. 
After  the  usual  greeting  the  council  proceedings  commenced.  On  behalf 
of  the  Indians  there  were  present:  Capt.  Jack,  Black  Jim,  Schnac  Nasty 
Jim,  Ellen’s  Man,  and  Hooker  Jim.  They  had  no  guns,  but  carried  pis¬ 
tols.  After  short  speeches  by  Mr.  Meacham,  Gen.  Canby  and  Dr.  Thomas, 
Chief  Schonchin  arose  to  speak.  He  had  scarcely  proceeded  when, 
as  if  by  a  preconcerted  arrangement,  Capt.  Jack  drew  his  pistol  and  shot 
Gen.  Canby  dead.  In  less  than  a  minute  a  dozen  shots  were  fired  by  the 
savages,  and  the  massacre  completed.  Mr.  Meacham  was  shot  by  Schon¬ 
chin,  and  Dr.  Thomas  by  Boston  Charley.  Mr.  Dyer  barely  escaped,  being- 
fired  at  twice.  Riddle,  the  interpreter,  and  his  squaw  escaped.  The 
troops  rushed  to  the  spot  where  they  found  Gen.  Canby  and  Dr.  Thomas 
dead,  and  Mr.  Meacham  badly  wounded.  The  savages  had  escaped  to 
their  impenetrable  fastnesses  and  could  not  be  pursued. 

The  whole  country  was  aroused  by  this  brutal  massacre ;  but  it  was 
not  until  the  following  May  that  the  murderers  were  brought  to  justice. 
At  that  time  Boston  Charley  gave  himself  up,  and  offered  to  guide  the 
troops  to  Capt.  Jack's  stronghold.  This  led  to  the  capture  of  his  entire 
aano-,  a  number  of  whom  were  murdered  by  Oregon  volunteers  while  on 
their  way  to  trial.  The  remaining  Indians  were  held  as  prisoners  until 
July  when  their  trial  occurred,  which  led  to  the  conviction  of  Capt. 
Jack,  Schonchin,  Boston  Charley,  Hooker  Jim,  Broncho,  alias  One-Eyed 
Jim,  and  Slotuck,  who  were  sentenced  to  be  hanged.  These  sentences 
were  approved  by  the  President,  save  in  the  case  of  Slotuck  and  Broncho 
whose  sentences  were  commuted  to  imprisonment  for  life.  The  otlieis 
were  executed  at  Fort  Klamath,  October  3,  1873. 

These  closed  the  Indian  troubles  for  a  time  in  the  Northwest,  and  for 
several  years  the  borders  of  civilization  remained  in  peace.  They  weie 
again  involved  in  a  conflict  with  the  savages  about  the  country  of  the 





Black  Hills,  in  which  war  the  gallant  Gen.  Custer  lost  his  life.  Just 
now  the  borders  of  Oregon  and  California  are  again  in  fear  of  hostilities  ; 
but  as  the  Government  has  learned  how  to  deal  with  the  Indians,  they 
will  be  of  short  duration.  The  red  man  is  fast  passing  away  before  the 
march  of  the  white  man,  and  a  few  more  generations  will  read  of  the 
Indians  as  one  of  the  nations  of  the  past. 

The  Northwest  abounds  in  memorable  places.  We  have  generally 
noticed  them  in  the  narrative,  but  our  space  forbids  their  description  in 
detail,  save  of  the  most  important  places.  Detroit,  Cincinnati,  Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia  and  their  kindred  towns  have  all  been  described.  But  ere  we 
leave  the  narrative  we  will  present  our  readers  with  an  account  of  the 
Kinzie  house,  the  old  landmark  of  Chicago,  and  the  discovery  of  the 
source  of  the  Mississippi  River,  each  of  which  may  well  find  a  place  in 
the  annals  of  the  Northwest. 

Mr.  John  Kinzie,  of  the  Kinzie  house,  represented  in  the  illustra¬ 
tion,  established  a  trading  house  at  Fort  Dearborn  in  1804.  The  stockade 
had  been  erected  the  year  previous,  and  named  Fort  Dearborn  in  honor 
of  the  Secretary  of  War.  It  had  a  block  house  at  each  of  the  two  angles, 
on  the  southern  side  a  sallyport,  a  covered  way  on  the  north  side,  that  led 
down  to  the  river,  for  the  double  purpose  of  providing  means  of  escape, 
and  of  procuring  water  in  the  event  of  a  siege. 

Fort  Dearborn  stood  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Chicago  River,  about 
half  a  mile  from  its  mouth.  When  Major  Whistler  built  it,  his  soldiers 
hauled  all  the  timber,  for  he  had  no  oxen,  and  so  economically  did  he 
work  that  the  fort  cost  the  Government  only  fifty  dollars.  For  a  while 
the  garrison  could  get  no  grain,  and  Whistler  and  his  men  subsisted  on 
acorns.  Now  Chicago  is  the  greatest  grain  center  in  the  world. 

Mr.  Kinzie  bought  the  hut  of  the  first  settler,  Jean  Baptiste  Point  au 
Sable,  on  the  site  of  which  he  erected  his  mansion.  Within  an  inclosure 
in  front  he  planted  some  Lombardy  poplars,  seen  in  the  engraving,  and  in 
the  rear  he  soon  had  a  fine  garden  and  growing  orchard. 

In  1812  the  Kinzie  house  and  its  surroundings  became  the  theater 
of  stirring  events.  The  garrison  of  Fort  Dearborn  consisted  of  fifty-four 
men,  under  the  charge  of  Capt.  Nathan  Heald,  assisted  by  Lieutenant 
Lenai  T.  Helm  (son-in-law  to  Mrs.  Kinzie),  and  Ensign  Ronan.  The 
surgeon  was  Dr.  Voorhees.  The  only  residents  at  the  post  at  that  time 
were  the  wives  of  Capt.  Heald  and  Lieutenant  Helm  and  a  few  of  the 
soldiers,  Mr.  Kinzie  and  his  family,  and  a  few  Canadian  voyagers  with  their 
wives  and  children.  The  soldiers  and  Mr.  Kinzie  were  on  the  most 
friendly  terms  with  the  Pottawatomies  and  the  Winnebagoes,  the  prin¬ 
cipal  tribes  around  them,  but  they  could  not  win  them  from  their  attach¬ 
ment  to  the  British. 



After  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe  it  was  observed  that  some  of  the  lead¬ 
ing  chiefs  became  sullen,  for  some  of  their  people  had  perished  in  that 
conflict  with  American  troops. 

One  evening  in  April,  1812,  Mr.  Kinzie  sat  playing  his  violin  and  his 
childien  were  dancing  to  the  music,  when  Mrs.  Kinzie  came  rushing  into 
the  house  pale  with  terror,  and  exclaiming,  “  The  Indians  !  the  Indians  !  ” 
“  What?  Where  ?  ”  eagerly  inquired  Mr.  Kinzie.  “  Up  at  Lee’s,  killing 
and  scalping,”  answered  the  frightened  mother,  who,  when  the  alarm  was 
given,  was  attending  Mrs.  Burns,  a  newly-made  mother,  living  not  far  off. 


Mr.  Kinzie  and  his  family  crossed  the  river  in  boats,  and  took  refuge  in 
the  fort,  to  which  place  Mrs.  Burns  and  her  infant,  not  a  day  old,  were 
conveyed  in  safety  to  the  shelter  of  the  guns  of  Fort  Dearborn,  and  the 
rest  of  the  white  inhabitants  fled.  The  Indians  were  a  scalping  party  of 
Winnebagoes,  who  hovered  around  the  fort  some  days,  when  they  dis¬ 
appeared,  and  for  several  weeks  the  inhabitants  were  not  disturbed  by 

Chicago  was  then  so  deep  in  the  wilderness,  that  the  news  of  the 
declaration  of  war  against  Great  Britain,  made  on  the  19th  of  June,  1812, 
did  not  reach  the  commander  of  the  garrison  at  Fort  Dearborn  till  the  7th 
of  August.  Now  the  fast  mail  train  will  carry  a  man  from  New  York  to 
Chicago  in  twenty-seven  hours,  and  such  a  declaration  might  be  sent, 
every  word,  by  the  telegraph  in  less  than  the  same  number  of  minutes. 





Preceding  chapters  have  brought  us  to  the  close  of  the  Black  Hawk 
wai,  and  we  now  tuin  to  the  contemplation  of  the  growth  and  prosperity 
of  the  Northwest  under  the  smile  of  peace  and  the  blessings  of  our  civili¬ 
zation.  Ihe  pioneers  of  this  region  date  events  back  to  the  deep  snow 


of  1831,  no  one  arriving  here  since  that  date  taking  first  honors.  The 
inciting  cause  of  the  immigration  which  overflowed  the  prairies  early  in 
the  ’30s  was  the  reports  of  the  marvelous  beauty  and  fertility  of  the 
region  distributed  through  the  East  by  those  who  had  participated  in  the 
Black  Hawk  campaign  with  Gen.  Scott.  Chicago  and  Milwaukee  then 
had  a  few  hundred  inhabitants,  and  Gurdon  S.  Hubbard’s  trail  from  the 
former  city  to  Kaskaskia  led  almost  through  a  wilderness.  Vegetables 
and  clothing  were  largely  distributed  through  the  regions  adjoining  the 



lakes  by  steamers  from  the  Ohio  towns.  There  are  men  now  living  in 
Illinois  who  came  to  the  state  when  barely  an  acre  was  in  cultivation, 
and  a  man  now  prominent  in  the  business  circles  of  Chicago  looked  over 
the  swampy,  cheerless  site  of  that  metropolis  in  1818  and  went  south¬ 
ward  into  civilization.  Emigrants  from  Pennsylvania  in  1880  left  behind 

them  but  one  small  railway  in  the  coal  regions,  thirty  miles  in  length, 
and  made  their  way  to  the  Northwest  mostly  with  ox  teams,  finding  in 
Northern  Illinois  petty  settlements  scores  of  miles  apart,  although  the 
southern  portion  of  the  state  was  fairly  dotted  with  farms.  The 
water  courses  of  the  lakes  and  rivers  furnished  transportation  to  the 
second  great  army  of  immigrants,  and  about  1850  railroads  were 
pushed  to  that  extent  that  the  crisis  of  1887  was  precipitated  upon  us, 



from  the  effects  of  which  the  Western  country  had  not  fully  recovered 
at  the  outbreak  of  the  war.  Hostilities  found  the  colonists  of  the  prairies 
fully  alive  to  the  demands  of  the  occasion,  and  the  honor  of  recruiting 


the  vast  armies  of  the  Union  fell  largely  to  Gov.  Yates,  of  Illinois,  and 
Gov.  Morton,  of  Indiana.  To  recount  the  share  of  the  glories  of  the 
campaign  won  by  e,ii‘  Western  troops  is  a  needless  task,  except  to 
mention  the  fact  that  Illinois  gave  go  the  nation  the  President  who  saved 



it,  and  sent  out  at  the  head  of  one  of  its  regiments  tne  general  who  led 
its  armies  to  the  final  victory  at  Appomattox.  The  struggle,  on  the 


whole,  had  a  marked  effect  for  the  better  on  the  new  Northwest,  giving 
it  an  impetus  which  twenty  years  of  peace  would  not  have  produced. 
In  a  large  degree  this  prosperity  was  an  inflated  one,  and  with  the  rest 
of  the  Union  we  have  since  been  compelled  to  atone  therefor  by  foui 







years  of  depression  of  values,  of  scarcity  of  employment,  and  loss  of 
foitune.  To  a  less  degiee,  however,  than  the  manufacturing'  or  mining 
regions  has  the  West  suffered  during  the  prolonged  panic  now  so  near  its 
end.  Agriculture,  still  the  leading  feature  in  our  industries,  has  been 
quite  prosperous  through  all  these  dark  years*,  and  the  farmers  have 
cleared  away  many  incumbrances  resting  over  them  from  the  period  of 
fictitious  values.  The  population  lias  steadily  increased,  the  arts  and 
sciences  are  gaining  a  stronger  foothold,  the  trade  area  of  the  region  is 
becoming  daily  more  extended,  and  we  have  been  largely  exempt  from 
the  financial  calamities  which  have  nearly  wrecked  communities  on  the 
seaboard  dependent  wholly  on  foreign  commerce  or  domestic  manufacture. 

At  the  present  period  there  are  no  great  schemes  broached  for  the 
Northwest,  no  propositions  for  government  subsidies  or  national  works 
of  improvement,  but  the  capital  of  the  world  is  attracted  hither  for  the 
purchase  of  our  products  or  the  expansion  of  our  capacity  for  serving  the 
nation  at  large.  A  new  era  is  dawning  as  to  transportation,  and  we  bid 
fair  to  deal  almost  exclusively  with  the  increasing  and  expanding  lines 
of  steel  rail  running  through  every  few  miles  of  territory  on  the  prairies. 
The  lake  marine  will  no  doubt  continue  to  be  useful  in  the  warmer 
season,  and  to  serve  as  a  regulator  of  freight  rates;  but  experienced 
navigators  forecast  the  decay  of  the  system  in  moving  to  the  seaboard 
the  enormous  crops  of  the  West.  Within  the  past  five  years  it  has 
become  quite  common  to  see  direct  shipments  to  Europe  and  the  West 
Indies  going  through  from  the  second-class  towns  along  the  Mississippi 
and  Missouri. 

As  to  popular  education,  the  standard  has  of  late  risen  very  greatly, 
and  our  schools  would  be  creditable  to  any  section  of  the  Union. 

More  and  more  as  the  events  of  the  war  pass  into  obscurity  will  the 
fate  of  the  Northwest  be  linked  with  that  of  the  Southwest,  and  the 
next  Congressional  apportionment  will  give  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi 
absolute  control  of  the  legislation  of  the  nation,  and  do  much  toward 
securing  the  removal  of  the  Federal  capitol  to  some  more  central  location. 

Our  public  men  continue  to  wield  the  full  share  of  influence  pertain¬ 
ing  to  their  rank  in  the  national  autonomy,  and  seem  not  to  forget  that 
for  the  past  sixteen  years  they  and  their  constituents  have  dictated  the 
principles  which  should  govern  the  country. 

In  a  work  like  this,  destined  to  lie  on  the  shelves  of  the  library  for 
generations,  and  not  doomed  to  daily  destruction  like  a  newspaper,  one 
can  not  indulge  in  the  same  glowing  predictions,  the  sanguine  statements 
of  actualities  that  fill  the  columns  of  ephemeral  publications.  Time  may 
bring  grief  to  the  pet  projects  of  a  writer,  and  explode  castles  erected  on 
a  pedestal  of  facts.  Yet  there  are  unmistakable  indications  before  us  of 



’!  1 1 ! 1 1  f 

/  M 

/  ■£d\  Y 


kupitfy WiTtfjbt  J%y, 



\gf  'i 



ruttM  s  / . 



the  same  radical  change  in  our  great  Northwest  which  characterizes  its 
history  for  the  past  thirty  years.  Our  domain  has  a  sort  of  natural 
geographical  border,  save  where  it  melts  away  to  the  southward  in  the 
cattle  raising  districts  of  the  southwest. 

Our  prime  interest  will  for  some  years  doubtless  be  the  growth  of 
the  food  of  the  world,  in  which  branch  it  has  already  outstripped  all 
competitors,  and  our  great  rival  in  this  duty  will  naturally  be  the  fertile 
plains  of  Kansas,  Nebraska  and  Colorado,  to  say  nothing  of  the  new 
empire  so  rapidly  growing  up  in  Texas.  Over  these  regions  there  is  a 
continued  progress  in  agriculture  and  in  railway  building,  and  we  must 
look  to  our  laurels.  Intelligent  observers  of  events  are  fully  aware  of 
the  strides  made  in  the  way  of  shipments  of  fresh  meats  to  Europe, 
many  of  these  ocean  cargoes  being  actually  slaughtered  in  the  West  and 
transported  on  ice  to  the  wharves  of  the  seaboard  cities.  That  this  new 
enterprise  will  continue  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt.  There  are  in 
Chicago  several  factories  for  the  canning  of  prepared  meats  for  European 
consumption,  and  the  orders  for  this  class  of  goods  are  already  immense. 
English  capital  is  becoming  daily  more  and  more  dissatisfied  with  railway 
loans  and  investments,  and  is  gradually  seeking  mammoth  outlays  in 
lands  and  live  stock.  The  stock  yards  in  Chicago,  Indianapolis  and  East 
St.  Louis  are  yearly  increasing  their  facilities,  and  their  plant  steadily 
grows  more  valuable.  Importations  of  blooded  animals  from  the  pro¬ 
gressive  countries  of  Europe  are  destined  to  greatly  improve  the  quality 
of  our  beef  and  mutton.  Nowhere  is  there  to  be  seen  a  more  enticing 
display  in  this  line  than  at  our  state  and  county  fairs,  and  the  interest 
in  the  matter  is  on  the  increase. 

To  attempt  to  give  statistics  of  our  grain  production  for  1877  would 
be  useless,  so  far  have  we  surpassed  ourselves  in  the  quantity  and 
quality  of  our  product.  We  are  too  liable  to  forget  that  we  are  giving 
the  world  its  first  article  of  necessity  —  its  food  supply.  An  opportunity 
to  learn  this  fact  so  it  never  can  be  forgotten  was  afforded  at  Chicago  at 
the  outbreak  of  the  great  panic  of  1873,  when  Canadian  purchasers, 
fearing  the  prostration  of  business  might  bring  about  an  anarchical  condition 
of  affairs,  went  to  that  city  with  coin  in  bulk  and  foreign  drafts  to  secure 
their  supplies  in  their  own  currency  at  first  hands.  It  may  be  justly 
claimed  by  the  agricultural  community  that  their  combined  efforts  gave 
the  nation  its  first  impetus  toward  a  restoration  of  its  crippled  industries, 
and  their  labor  brought  the  gold  premium  to  a  lower  depth  than  the 
government  was  able  to  reach  by  its  most  intense  efforts  of  legislation 
and  compulsion.  The  hundreds  of  millions  about  to  be  disbursed  for 
farm  products  have  already,  by  the  anticipation  common  to  all  commercial 



nations,  set  the  wheels  in  motion,  and  will  relieve  us  from  the  perils  so 
long  shadowing  our  efforts  to  return  to  a  healthy  tone. 

Manufacturing  has  attained  in  the  chief  cities  a  foothold  which  bids 
fair  to  render  the  Northwest  independent  of  the  outside  world.  Nearly 

our  whole  region  has  a  distribution  of  coal  measures  which  will  in  time 
support  the  manufactures  necessary  to  our  comfort  and  prosperity.  As 
to  transportation,  the  chief  factor  in  the  ju'oduction  of  all  articles  except 
food,  no  section  is  so  magnificently  endowed,  and  our  facilities  are  yearly 
increasing  beyond  those  of  any  other  region. 



The  period  from  a  central  point  of  the  war  to  the  outbreak  of  the 
panic  was  marked  by  a  tremendous  growth  in  our  railway  lines,  but  the 
depression  of  the  times  caused  almost  a  total  suspension  of  operations. 
Now  that  prosperity  is  returning  to  our  stricken  country  we  witness  its 
anticipation  by  the  railroad  interest  in  a  series  of  projects,  extensions, 
and  leases  which  bid  fair  to  largely  increase  our  transportation  facilities. 
The  process  of  foreclosure  and  sale  of  incumbered  lines  is  another  matter 
to  be  considered.  In  the  case  of  the  Illinois  Central  road,  which  formerly 
transferred  to  other  lines  at  Cairo  the  vast  burden  of  freight  destined  for 
the  Gulf  region,  we  now  see  the  incorporation  of  the  tracks  connecting 
through  to  New  Orleans,  every  mile  co-operating  in  turning  toward  the 
northwestern  metropolis  the  weight  of  the  inter-state  commerce  of  a 
thousand  miles  or  more  of  fertile  plantations.  Three  competing  routes 
to  Texas  have  established  in  Chicago  their  general  freight  and  passenger 
agencies.  Four  or  five  lines  compete  for  all  Pacific  freights  to  a  point  as 
as  far  as  the  interior  of  Nebraska.  Half  a  dozen  or  more  splendid  bridge 
structures  have  been  thrown  across  the  Missouri  and  Mississippi  Rivers  by 
the  railways.  The  Chicago  and  Northwestern  line  has  become  an  aggre¬ 
gation  of  over  two  thousand  miles  of  rail,  and  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee 
and  St.  Paul  is  its  close  rival  in  extent  and  importance.  The  three  lines 
running  to  Cairo  via  Vincennes  form  a  through  route  for  all  traffic  with 
the  states  to  the  southward.  The  chief  projects  now  under  discussion 
are  the  Chicago  and  Atlantic,  which  is  to  unite  with  lines  now  built  to 
Charleston,  and  the  Chicago  and  Canada  Southern,  which  line  will  con¬ 
nect  with  all  the  various  branches  of  that  Canadian  enterprise.  Our 
latest  new  road  is  the  Chicago  and  Lake  Huron,  formed  of  three  lines, 
and  entering  the  city  from  Valparaiso  on  the  Pittsburgh,  Fort  Wayne 
and  Chicago  track.  The  trunk  lines  being  mainly  in  operation,  the 
progress  made  in  the  way  of  shortening  tracks,  making  air-line  branches, 
and  running  extensions  does  not  show  to  the  advantage  it  deserves,  as 
this  process  is  constantly  adding  new  facilities  to  the  established  order 
of  things.  The  panic  reduced  the  price  of  steel  to  a  point  where  the 
railways  could  hardly  afford  to  use  iron  rails,  and  all  our  northwestern 
lines  report  large  relays  of  Bessemer  track.  The  immense  crops  now 
being  moved  have  given  a  great  rise  to  the  value  of  railway  stocks,  and 
their  transportation  must  result  in  heavy  pecuniary  advantages. 

Few  are  aware  of  the  importance  of  the  wholesale  and  jobbing  trade 
of  Chicago.  One  leading  firm  has  since  the  panic  sold  $24,000,000  of 
dry  goods  in  one  year,  and  they  now  expect  most  confidently  to  add 
seventy  per  cent,  to  the  figures  of  their  last  year’s  business.  In  boots 
and  shoes  and  in  clothing,  twenty  or  more  great  firms  from  the  east  have 
placed  here  their  distributing  agents  or  their  factories ;  and  in  groceries 



Chicago  supplies  the  entire  Northwest  at  rates  presenting  advantages 
over  New  York. 

Chicago  has  stepped  in  between  New  York  and  the  rural  banks  as  a 
financial  center,  and  scarcely  a  banking  institution  in  the  grain  or  cattle 
regions  but  keeps  its  reserve  funds  in  the  vaults  of  our  commercial  insti¬ 
tutions.  Accumulating  here  throughout  the  spring  and  summer  months, 
they  are  summoned  home  at  pleasure  to  move  the  products  of  the 
prairies.  This  process  greatly  strengthens  the  northwest  in  its  financial 
operations,  leaving  home  capital  to  supplement  local  operations  on 
behalf  of  home  interests. 

It  is  impossible  to  forecast  the  destiny  of  this  grand  and  growing 
section  of  the  Union.  Figures  and  predictions  made  at  this  date  might 
seem  ten  years  hence  so  ludicrously  small  as  to  excite  only  derision. 


Length,  380  miles,  mean  width  about  156  miles.  Area,  55,410  square 
miles,  or  35,462,400  acres.  Illinois,  as  regards  its  surface,  constitutes  a 
table-land  at  a  varying  elevation  ranging  between  350  and  800  feet  above 
the  sea  level ;  composed  of  extensive  and  highly  fertile  prairies  and  plains. 
Much  of  the  south  division  of  the  State,  especially  the  river-bottoms,  are 
thickly  wooded.  The  prairies,  too,  have  oasis-like  clumps  of  trees 
scattered  here  and  there  at  intervals.  The  chief  rivers  irrigating  the 
State  are  the  Mississippi — dividing  it  from  Iowa  and  Missouri — the  Ohio 
(forming  its  south  barrier),  the  Illinois,  Wabash,  Kaskaskia,  and  San¬ 
gamon,  with  their  numerous  affluents.  The  total  extent  of  navigable 
streams  is  calculated  at  4,000  miles.  Small  lakes  are  scattered  over  vari¬ 
ous  parts  of  the  State.  Illinois  is  extremely  prolific  in  minerals,  chiefly 
coal,  iron,  copper,  and  zinc  ores,  sulphur  and  limestone.  The  coal-field 
alone  is  estimated  to  absorb  a  full  third  of  the  entire  coal-deposit  of  North 
America.  Climate  tolerably  equable  and  healthy  ;  the  mean  temperature 
standing  at  about  51°  Fahrenheit  As  an  agricultural  region,  Illinois  takes 
a  competitive  rank  with  neighboring  States,  the  cereals,  fruits,  and  root- 
crops  yielding  plentiful  returns;  in  fact,  as  a  grain-growing  State,  Illinois 
may  be  deemed,  in  proportion  to  her  size,  to  possess  a  greater  area  of 
lands  suitable  for  its  production  than  any  other  State  in  the  Union.  Stock- 
raising  is  also  largely  carried  on,  while  her  manufacturing  interests  in 
regard  of  woolen  fabrics,  etc.,  are  on  a  very  extensive  and  yearly  expand¬ 
ing  scale.  The  lines  of  railroad  in  the  State  are  among  the  most  exten¬ 
sive  of  the  Union.  Inland  water-carriage  is  facilitated  by  a  canal 
connecting  the  Illinois  River  with  Lake  Michigan,  and  thence  with  the 
St.  Lawrence  and  Atlantic.  Illinois  is  divided  into  102  counties ;  the 
chief  towns  being  Chicago,  Springfield  (capital),  Alton,  Quincy,  Peoria, 
Galena,  Bloomington,  Rock  Island,  Vandalia,  etc.  By  the  new  Consti¬ 
tution,  established  in  1870,  the  State  Legislature  consists  of  51  Senators, 
elected  for  four  years,  and  153  Representatives,  for  two  years ;  which 
numbers  were  to  be  decennially  increased  thereafter  to  the  number  of 
six  per  every  additional  half-million  of  inhabitants.  Religious  and 
educational  institutions  are  largely  diffused  throughout,  and  are  in  a  very 
flourishing  condition.  Illinois  has  a  State  Lunatic  and  a  Deaf  and  Dumb 
Asylum  at  Jacksonville ;  a  State  Penitentiary  at  Joliet;  and  a  Home  for 




Soldiers'  Orphans  at  Normal.  On  November  30,  1870,  the  public  debt  of 
the  State  was  returned  at  $4,870,937,  with  a  balance  of  $1,808,833 
unprovided  for.  At  the  same  period  the  value  of  assessed  and  equalized 
property  presented  the  following  totals:  assessed,  $840,031,703 ;  equal¬ 
ized  $480,664,058.  The  name  of  Illinois,  through  nearly  the  whole  of 
the  eighteenth  century,  embraced  most  of  the  known  regions  north  and 
west  of  Ohio.  French  colonists  established  themselves  in  1673,  at 
Cahokia  and  Kaskaskia,  and  the  territory  of  which  these  settlements 
formed  the  nucleus  was,  in  1763,  ceded  to  Great  Britain  in  conjunction 
with  Canada,  and  ultimately  resigned  to  the  United  States  in  1787. 
Illinois  entered  the  Union  as  a  State,  December  3,  1818;  and  now  sends 
19  Representatives  to  Congress.  Population,  2,539,891,  in  1870. 






The  profile  of  Indiana  forms  a  nearly  exact  parallelogram,  occupy¬ 
ing  one  of  the  most  fertile  portions  of  the  great  Mississippi  Valley.  The 
greater  extent  of  the  surface  embraced  within  its  limits  consists  of  gentle 
undulations  rising  into  hilly  tracts  toward  the  Ohio  bottom.  The  chief 
rivers  of  the  State  are  the  Ohio  and  Wabash,  with  their  numerous 
affluents.  The  soil  is  highly  productive  of  the  cereals  and  grasses — most 
particularly  so  in  the  valleys  of  the  Ohio,  Wabash,  Whitewater,  and 
White  Rivers.  The  northeast  and  central  portions  are  well  timbered 
with  virgin  forests,  and  the  west  section  is  notably  rich  in  coal,  constitut¬ 
ing  an  offshoot  of  the  great  Illinois  carboniferous  field.  Iron,  copper, 
marble,  slate,  gypsum,  and  various  clays  are  also  abundant.  From  an 
agricultural  point  of  view,  the  staple  products  are  maize  and  wheat,  with 
the  other  cereals  in  lesser  yields  ;  and  besides  these,  flax,  hemp,  sorghum, 
hops,  etc.,  are  extensively  raised.  Indiana  is  divided  into  92  counties, 
and  counts  among  her  principal  cities  and  towns,  those  of  Indianapolis 
(the  capital),  Fort  Wayne,  Evansville,  Terre  Haute,  Madison,  Jefferson¬ 
ville,  Columbus,  Vincennes,  South  Bend,  etc.  The  public  institutions  of 
the  State  are  many  and  various,  and  on  a  scale  of  magnitude  and 
efficiency  commensurate  with  her  important  political  and  industrial  status. 
Upward  of  two  thousand  miles  of  railroads  permeate  the  State  in  all 
directions,  and  greatly  conduce  to  the  development  of  her  expanding 
manufacturing  interests.  Statistics  for  the  fiscal  year  terminating 
October  31,  1870,  exhibited  a  total  of  receipts,  -$3,896,541  as  against  dis¬ 
bursements,  $3,532,406,  leaving  a  balance,  $364,135  in  favor  of  the  State 
Treasury.  The  entire  public  debt,  January  5,  1871,  $3,971,000.  This 
State  was  first  settled  by  Canadian  voyageurs  in  1702,  who  erected  a  fort 
at  Vincennes;  in  1763  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  English,  and  was 
by  the  latter  ceded  to  the  United  States  in  1783.  From  1788  till  1791, 
an  Indian  warefare  prevailed.  In  1800,  all  the  region  west  and  north  of 
Ohio  (then  formed  into  a  distinct  territory)  became  merged  in  Indiana. 
In  1809,  the  present  limits  of  the  State  were  defined,  Michigan  and 
Illinois  having  previously  been  withdrawn.  In  1811,  Indiana  was  the 
theater  of  the  Indian  War  of  Tecumseh,  ending  with  the  decisive  battle 
of  Tippecanoe.  In  1816  (December  11),  Indiana  became  enrolled  among 
the  States  of  the  American  Union.  In  1834,  the  State  passed  through  a 
monetary  crisis  owing  to  its  having  become  mixed  up  with  railroad, 
canal,  and  other  speculations  on  a  gigantic  scale,  which  ended,  lor  the 
time  being,  in  a  general  collapse  of  public  credit,  and  consequent  bank¬ 
ruptcy.  Since  that  time,  however,  the  greater  number  of  the  public 



works  which  had  brought  about  that  imbroglio  —  especially  the  great 
Wabash  and  Erie  Canal  —  have  been  completed,  to  the  great  benefit  of 
the  State,  whose  subsequent  progress  has  year  by  year  been  marked  by 
rapid  strides  in  the  paths  of  wealth,  commerce,  and  general  social  and 
political  prosperity.  The  constitution  now  in  force  was  adopted  in  1851. 
Population,  1,680,637. 

I  O  W  A  . 

In  shape,  Iowa  presents  an  almost  perfect  parallelogram ;  has  a 
length,  north  to  south,  of  about  300  miles,  by  a  pretty  even  width  of  208 
miles,  and  embraces  an  area  of  55,04 5  square  miles,  or  35,228,800  acres. 
The  surface  of  the  State  is  generally  undulating,  rising  toward  the 
middle  into  an  elevated  plateau  which  forms  the  “  divide  of  the 
Missouri  and  Mississippi  basins.  Rolling  prairies,  especially  in  the  south 
section,  constitute  a  regnant  feature,  and  the  river  bottoms,  belted  with 
woodlands,  present  a  soil  of  the  richest  alluvion.  Iowa  is  well  watered  ; 
the  principal  rivers  being  the  Mississippi  and  Missouri,  which  form 
respectively  its  east  and  west  limits,  and  the  Cedar,  Iowa,  and  Des 
Moines,  affluents  of  the  first  named.  Miner alogically,  Iowa  is  important 
as  occupying  a  section  of  the  great  Northwest  coal  field,  to  the  extent  of 
an  area  estimated  at  25,000  square  miles.  Lead,  copper,  zinc,  and  iron, 
are  also  mined  in  considerable  quantities.  The  soil  is  well  adapted  to 
the  production  of  wheat,  maize,  and  the  other  cereals ;  fruits,  vegetables, 
and  esculent  roots ;  maize,  wheat,  and  oats  forming  the  chief  staples. 
Wine,  tobacco,  hops,  and  wax,  are  other  noticeable  items  of  the  agricul¬ 
tural  yield.  Cattle-raising,  too,  is  a  branch  of  rural  industry  largely 
engaged  in.  The  climate  is  healthy,  although  liable  to  extremes  of  heat 
and  cold.  The  annual  gross  product  of  the  various  manufactures  carried 
on  in  this  State  approximate,  in  round  numbers,  a  sum  of  $20,000,000. 
Iowa  has  an  immense  railroad  system,  besides  over  500  miles  of  water- 
communication  by  means  of  its  navigable  rivers.  The  State  is  politically 
divided  into  99  counties,  with  the  following  centers  of  population  :  Des 
Moines  (capital),  Iowa  City  (former  capital),  Dubuque,  Davenport,  Bur¬ 
lington,  Council  Bluffs,  Keokuk,  Muscatine,  and  Cedar  Rapids.  The 
State  institutions  of  Iowa — religious,  scholastic,  and  philanthropic  —  are 
on  a  par,  as  regards  number  and  perfection  of  organization  and  operation, 
with  those  of  her  Northwest  sister  States,  and  education  is  especially 
well  cared  for,  and  largely  diffused.  Iowa  formed  a  portion  of  the 
American  territorial  acquisitions  from  France,  by  the  so-called  Louisiana 
purchase  in  1803,  and  was  politically  identified  with  Louisiana  till  1812, 



when  it  merged  into  the  Missouri  Territory;  in  1834  it  came  under  the 
Michigan  organization,  and,  in  1836,  under  that  of  Wisconsin.  Finally, 
after  being  constituted  an  independent  Territory,  it  became  a  State  of 
the  Union,  December  28,  1846.  Population  in  1860,  674,913  ;  in  1870, 
1,191,792,  and  in  1875,  1,353,118. 


United  area,  56,243  square  miles,  or  35,995,520  acres.  Extent  of  the 
Upper  and  smaller  Peninsula  —  length,  316  miles;  breadth,  fluctuating 
between  36  and  120  miles.  The  south  division  is  416  miles  long,  by  from 
50  to  300  miles  wide.  Aggregate  lake-shore  line,  1,400  miles.  The 
Upper,  or  North,  Peninsula  consists  chiefly  of  an  elevated  plateau, 
expanding  into  the  Porcupine  mountain-system,  attaining  a  maximum 
height  of  some  2,000  feet.  Its  shores  along  Lake  Superior  are  eminently 
bold  and  picturesque,  and  its  area  is  rich  in  minerals,  its  product  of 
copper  constituting  an  important  source  of  industry.  Both  divisions  are 
heavily  wooded,  and  the  South  one,  in  addition,  boasts  of  a  deep,  rich, 
loamy  soil,  throwing  up  excellent  crops  of  cereals  and  other  agricultural 
produce.  The  climate  is  generally  mild  and  humid,  though  the  Winter 
colds  are  severe.  The  chief  staples  of  farm  husbandry  include  the  cereals, 
grasses,  maple  sugar,  sorghum,  tobacco,  fruits,  and  dairy-stuffs.  In  1870, 
the  acres  of  land  in  farms  were  :  improved,  5,096,939 ;  unimproved 
woodland,  4,080,146  ;  other  unimproved  land,  842,057.  The  cash  value 
of  land  was  $398,240,578;  of  farming  implements  and  machinery, 
$13,711,979.  In  1869,  there  were  shipped  from  the  Lake  Superior  ports, 
874,582  tons  of  iron  ore,  and  45,762  of  smelted  pig,  along  with  14,188 
tons  of  copper  (ore  and  ingot).  Coal  is  another  article  largely  mined. 
Inland  communication  is  provided  for  by  an  admirably  organized  railroad 
system,  and  by  the  St.  Mary’s  Ship  Canal,  connecting  Lakes  Huron  and 
Superior.  Michigan  is  politically  divided  into  78  counties;  its  chief 
urban  centers  are  Detroit,  Lansing  (capital),  Ann  Arbor,  Marquette, 
Bay  City,  Niles,  Ypsilanti,  Grand  Haven,  etc.  The  Governor  of  the 
State  is  elected  biennially.  On  November  30, 1870,  the  aggregate  bonded 
debt  of  Michigan  amounted  to  $2,385,028,  and  the  assessed  valuation  of 
land  to  $266,929,278,  representing  an  estimated  cash  value  of  $800,000,000. 
Education  is  largely  diffused  and  most  excellently  conducted  and  pro¬ 
vided  for.  The  State  University  at  Ann  Arbor,  the  colleges  of  Detroit 
and  Kalamazoo,  the  Albion  Female  College,  the  State  Normal  School  at 
Ypsilanti,  and  the  State  Agricultural  College  at  Lansing,  are  chief  among 
the  academic  institutions.  Michigan  (a  term  of  Chippeway  origin,  and 



signifying  “  Great  Lake),  was  discovered  and  first  settled  by  French 
Canadians,  who,  in  1670,  founded  Detroit,  the  pioneer  of  a  series  of  trad¬ 
ing-posts  on  the  Indian  frontier.  During  the  “  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac, 
following  the  French  loss  of  Canada,  Michigan  became  the  scene  of  a 
sanguinary  struggle  between  the  whites  and  aborigines.  In  1796,  it 
became  annexed  to  the  United  States,  which  incorporated  this  region 
with  the  Northwest  Territory,  and  then  with  Indiana  Territory,  till  1803, 
when  it  became  territorially  independent.  Michigan  was  the  theater  of 
warlike  operations  during  the  war  of  1812  with  Great  Britain,  and  in 
1819  was  authorized  to  be  represented  by  one  delegate  in  Congress ;  in 
1837  she  was  admitted  into  the  Union  as  a  State,  and  in  1869  ratified  the 
15th  Amendment  to  the  Federal  Constitution.  Population,  1,184,059. 


It  has  a  mean  length  of  260  miles,  and  a  maximum  breadth  of  215. 
Land  area,  53,924  square  miles,  or  34,511,360  acres.  Wisconsin  lies  at  a 
considerable  altitude  above  sea-level,  and  consists  for  the  most  part  of  an 
upland  plateau,  the  surface  of  which  is  undulating  and  very  generally 
diversified.  Numerous  local  eminences  called  mounds  are  interspersed 
over  the  State,  and  the  Lake  Michigan  coast-line  is  in  many  parts  char¬ 
acterized  by  lofty  escarped  cliffs,  even  as  on  the  west  side  the  banks  of 
the  Mississippi  form  a  series  of  high  and  picturesque  bluffs.  A  group  of 
islands  known  as  The  Apostles  lie  off  the  extreme  north  point  of  the 
State  in  Lake  Superior,  and  the  great  estuary  of  Green  Bay,  running  far 
inland,  gives  formation  to  a  long,  narrow  peninsula  between  its  waters 
and  those  of  Lake  Michigan.  The  river-system  of  Wisconsin  has  three 
outlets  —  those  of  Lake  Superior,  Green  Bay,  and  the  Mississippi,  which 
latter  stream  forms  the  entire  southwest  frontier,  widening  at  one  point 
into  the  large  watery  expanse  called  Lake  Pepin.  Lake  Superior  receives 
the  St.  Louis,  Burnt  Wood,  and  Montreal  Rivers;  Green  Bay,  the 
Menomonee,  Peshtigo,  Oconto,  and  Fox;  while  into  the  Mississippi 
empty  the  St.  Croix,  Chippewa,  Black,  Wisconsin,  and  Rock  Rivers. 
The  chief  interior  lakes  are  those  of  Winnebago,  Horicon,  and  Court 
Oreilles,  and  smaller  sheets  of  water  stud  a  great  part  of  the  surface. 
The  climate  is  healthful,  with  cold  Winters  and  brief  but  very  warm 
Summers.  Mean  annual  rainfall  31  inches.  The  geological  system 
represented  by  the  State,  embraces  those  rocks  included  between  the 
primary  and  the  Devonian  series,  the  former  containing  extensive 
deposits  of  copper  and  iron  ore.  Besides  these  minerals,  lead  and  zinc 
are  found  in  great  quantities,  together  with  kaolin,  plumbago,  gypsum, 



and  various  clays.  Mining,  consequently,  forms  a  prominent  industry, 
and  one  of  yearly  increasing  dimensions.  The  soil  of  Wisconsin  is  of 
varying  quality,  but  fertile  on  the  whole,  and  in  the  north  parts  of  the 
State  heavily  timbered.  The  agricultural  yield  comprises  the  cereals, 
together  with  flax,  hemp,  tobacco,  pulse,  sorgum,  and  all  kinds  of  vege¬ 
tables,  and  of  the  hardier  fruits.  In  1870,  the  State  had  a  total  number 
of  102,904  farms,  occupying  11,715,321  acres,  of  which  5,899,343  con¬ 
sisted  of  improved  land,  and  3,437,442  were  timbered.  Cash  value  of 
farms,  $300,414,064  ;  of  farm  implements  and  machinery,  $14,239,364. 
Total  estimated  value  of  all  farm  products,  including  betterments  and 
additions  to  stock,  $78,027,032  ;  of  orchard  and  dairy  stuffs,  $1,045,933  ; 
of  lumber,  $1,327,618  ;  of  home  manufactures,  $338,423  ;  of  all  live-stock, 
$45,310,882.  Number  of  manufacturing  establishments,  7,136,  employ¬ 
ing  39,055  hands,  and  turning  out  productions  valued  at  $85,624,966. 
The  political  divisions  of  the  State  form  61  counties,  and  the  chief  places 
of  wealth,  trade,  and  population,  are  Madison  (the  capital),  Milwaukee, 
Fond  du  Lac,  Oshkosh,  Prairie  du  Chien,  Janesville,  Portage  City, 
Racine,  Kenosha,  and  La  Crosse.  In  1870,  the  total  assessed  valuation 
reached  $333,209,838,  as  against  a  true  valuation  of  both  real  and  personal 
estate  aggregating  $602,207,329.  Treasury  receipts  during  1870,  $886,- 
696;  disbursements,  $906,329.  Value  of  church  property,  $4,149,983. 
Education  is  amply  provided  for.  Independently  of  the  State  University 
at  Madison,  and  those  of  Galesville  and  of  Lawrence  at  Appleton,  and 
the  colleges  of  Beloit,  Racine,  and  Milton,  there  are  Normal  Schools  at 
Platteville  and  Whitewater.  The  State  is  divided  into  4,802  common 
school  districts,  maintained  at  a  cost,  in  1870,  of  $2,094,160.  I  he  chari¬ 
table  institutions  of  Wisconsin  include  a  Deal  and  Dumb  Asylum,  an 
Institute  for  the  Education  of  the  Blind,  and  a  Soldiers’  Orphans'  School. 
In  January,  1870,  the  railroad  system  ramified  throughout  the  State 
totalized  2,779  miles  of  track,  including  several  lines  far  advanced  toward 
completion.  Immigration  is  successfully  encouraged  by  the  State  author¬ 
ities,  the  larger  number  of  yearly  new-comers  being  of  Scandinavian  and 
German  origin.  The  territory  now  occupied  within  the  limits  ot  the 
State  of  Wisconsin  was  explored  by  French  missionaries  and  traders  in 
1639,  and  it  remained  under  French  jurisdiction  until  1703,  when  it 
became  annexed  to  the  British  North  American  possessions.  In  1796,  it 
reverted  to  the  United  States,  the  government  of  which  latter  admitted 
it  within  the  limits  of  the  Northwest  Territory,  and  in  1809,  attached  it 
to  that  of  Illinois,  and  to  Michigan  in  1818.  Wisconsin  became  independ¬ 
ently  territorially  organized  in  1836,  and  became  a  State  ol  the  l  nion, 
March  3,  1847.  Population  in  1870,  1,064,985,  of  which  2,113  were  of 
the  colored  race,  and  11,521  Indians,  1,206  of  the  latter  being  out  ot 
tribal  relations. 




Its  length,  north  to  south,  embraces  an  extent  of  380  miles ;  its 
breadth  one  of  250  miles  at  a  maximum.  Area,  84,000  square  miles,  or 
54,760,000  acres.  The  surface  of  Minnesota,  generally  speaking,  con¬ 
sists  of  a  succession  of  gently  undulating  plains  and  prairies,  drained  by 
an  admirable  water-system,  and  with  here  and  there  heavily'-  timbered 
bottoms  and  belts  of  virgin  forest.  The  soil,  corresponding  with  such  a 
superfices,  is  exceptionally  rich,  consisting  for  the  most  part  of  a  dark, 
calcareous  sandy  drift  intermixed  with  loam.  A  distinguishing  physical 
feature  of  this  State  is  its  riverine  ramifications,  expanding  in  nearly 
every  part  of  it  into  almost  innumerable  lakes — the  whole  presenting  an 
aggregate  of  water-power  having  hardly  a  rival  in  the  Union.  Besides 
the  Mississippi — which  here  has  its  rise,  and  drains  a  basin  of  800  miles 
of  country  —  the  principal  streams  are  the  Minnesota  (334  miles  long), 
the  Red  River  of  the  North,  the  St.  Croix,  St.  Louis,  and  many  others  of 
lesser  importance ;  the  chief  lakes  are  those  called  Red,  Cass,  Leech, 
Mille  Lacs,  Vermillion,  and  Winibigosh.  Quite  a  concatenation  of  sheets 
of  water  fringe  the  frontier  line  where  Minnesota  joins  British  America, 
culminating  in  the  Lake  of  the  Woods.  It  has  been  estimated,  that  of 
an  area  of  1,200,000  acres  of  surface  between  the  St.  Croix  and  Mis¬ 
sissippi  Rivers,  not  less  than  73,000  acres  are  of  lacustrine  formation.  In 
point  of  minerals,  the  resources  of  Minnesota  have  as  yet  been  very 
imperfectly  developed;  iron,  copper,  coal,  lead  —  all  these  are  known  to 
exist  in  considerable  deposits  ;  together  with  salt,  limestone,  and  potter’s 
clay.  The  agricultural  outlook  of  the  State  is  in  a  high  degree  satis¬ 
factory  ;  wheat  constitutes  the  leading  cereal  in  cultivation,  with  Indian 
corn  and  oats  in  next  order.  Fruits  and  vegetables  are  grown  in  great 
plenty  and  of  excellent  quality.  The  lumber  resources  of  Minnesota  are 
important ;  the  pine  forests  in  the  north  region  alone  occupying  an  area 
of  some  21,000  square  miles,  which  in  1870  produced  a  return  of  scaled 
logs  amounting  to  313,116,416  feet.  The  natural  industrial  advantages 
possessed  by  Minnesota  are  largely  improved  upon  by  a  railroad  system. 
The  political  divisions  of  this  State  number  78  counties ;  of  which  the 
chief  cities  and  towns  are :  St.  Paul  (the  capital),  Stillwater,  Red  Wing, 
St.  Anthony,  Fort  Snelling,  Minneapolis,  and  Mankato.  Minnesota  has 
already  assumed  an  attitude  of  high  importance  as  a  manufacturing  State ; 
this  is  mainly  due  to  the  wonderful  command  of  water-power  she  pos¬ 
sesses,  as  before  spoken  of.  Besides  her  timber-trade,  the  milling  of 
flour,  the  distillation  of  whisky,  and  the  tanning  of  leather,  are  prominent 
interests,  which,  in  1869,  gave  returns  to  the  amount  of  114,831,043. 



Education  is  notably  provided  for  on  a  broad  and  catholic  scale,  the 
entire  amount  expended  scholastically  during  the  year  1870  being  $857,- 
816  ;  while  on  November  30  of  the  preceding  year  the  permanent  school 
fund  stood  at  $2,476,222.  Besides  a  University  and  Agricultural  College. 
Normal  and  Reform  Schools  flourish,  and  with  these  may  be  mentioned 
such  various  philanthropic  and  religious  institutions  as  befit  the  needs  of 
an  intelligent  and  prosperous  community.  The  finances  of  the  State  for 
the  fiscal  year  terminating  December  1,  1870,  exhibited  a  balance  on  the 
right  side  to  the  amount  of  $136,164,  being  a  gain  of  $44,000  over  the 
previous  year’s  figures.  The  earliest  exploration  of  Minnesota  by  the 
whites  was  made  in  1680  by  a  French  Franciscan,  Father  Hennepin,  who 
gave  the  name  of  St.  Antony  to  the  Great  Falls  on  the  Upper  Missisippi. 
In  1763,  the  Treatv  of  Versailles  ceded  this  region  to  England. 
Twenty  years  later,  Minnesota  formed  part  of  the  Northwest  Territory 
transferred  to  the  United  States,  and  became  herself  territorialized  inde¬ 
pendently  in  1849.  Indian  cessions  in  1851  enlarged  her  boundaries,  ai  d. 
May  11,  1857,  Minnesota  became  a  unit  of  the  great  American  federat  on 
of  States.  Population,  439,706. 


Maximum  length,  412  miles ;  extreme  breadth,  208  miles.  Area, 
75,905  square  miles,  or  48,636,800  acres.  The  surface  of  this  State  is 
almost  entirely  undulating  prairie,  and  forms  part  of  the  west  slope  of 
the  great  central  basin  of  the  North  American  Continent.  In  its  west 
division,  near  the  base  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  is  a  sandy  belt  ot 
country,  irregularly  defined.  In  this  part,  too,  are  the  “  dunes,”  resem¬ 
bling  a  wavy  sea  of  sandy  billows,  as  well  as  the  Mauvaises  Terres;  a  tract 
of  singular  formation,  produced  by  eccentric  disintegrations  and  denuda¬ 
tions  of  the  land.  The  chief  rivers  are  the  Missouri,  constituting  its  en¬ 
tire  east  line  of  demarcation;  the  Nebraska  or  Platte,  the  Niobrara,  the 
Republican  Fork  of  the  Kansas,  the  Elkhorn,  and  the  Loup  Fork  of  the 
Platte.  The  soil  is  very  various,  but  consisting  chiefly  ot  rich,  bottomy 
loam,  admirably  adapted  to  the  raising  of  heavy  crops  of  cereals.  All 
the  vegetables  and  fruits  of  the  temperate  zone  are  produced  in  great 
size  and  plenty.  For  grazing  purposes  Nebraska  is  a  State  exceptionally 
well  fitted,  a  region  of  not  less  than  23,000,000  acres  being  adaptable  to 
this  branch  of  husbandry.  It  is  believed  that  the,  as  yet,  comparatively 
infertile  tracts  of  land  found  in  various  parts  of  the  State  are  susceptible 
of  productivity  by  means  of  a  properly  conducted  system  ot  irrigation. 

’  Few  minerals  of  moment  have  so  far  been  found  within  the  limits  ot 



Nebraska,  if  we  may  except  important  saline  deposits  at  the  head  of  Salt 
Creek  in  its  southeast  section.  The  State  is  divided  into  57  counties, 
independent  of  the  Pawnee  and  Winnebago  Indians,  and  of  unorganized 
territory  in  the  northwest  part.  The  principal  towns  are  Omaha,  Lincoln 
(State  capital),  Nebraska  City,  Columbus,  Grand  Island,  etc.  In  1870, 
the  total  assessed  value  of  property  amounted  to  853,000,000,  being  an 
increase  of  811,000,000  over  the  previous  year's  returns.  The  total 
amount  received  from  the  school-fund  during  the  year  1869-70  was 
877,999.  Education  is  making  great  onward  strides,  the  State  University 
and  an  Agricultural  College  being  far  advanced  toward  completion.  In 
the  matter  of  railroad  communication,  Nebraska  bids  fair  to  soon  place 
herself  on  a  par  with  her  neighbors  to  the  east.  Besides  being  inter¬ 
sected  by  the  Union  Pacific  line,  with  its  off-shoot,  the  Fremont  and  Blair, 
other  tracks  are  in  course  of  rapid  construction.  Organized  by  Con¬ 
gressional  Act  into  a  Territory,  May  30,  1854,  Nebraska  entered  the 
Union  as  a  full  State,  March  1,  1867.  Population,  122,993. 


Early  History  of  Illinois. 

The  name  of  this  beautiful  Prairie  State  is  derived  from  Illini ,  a 
Delaware  word  signifying  Superior  Men.  It  has  a  French  termination, 
and  is  a  symbol  of  how  the  two  races — the  French  and  the  Indians — 
were  intermixed  during  the  early  history  of  the  country. 

The  appellation  was  no  doubt  well  applied  to  the  primitive  inhabit¬ 
ants  of  the  soil  whose  prowess  in  savage  warfare  long  withstood  the 
combined  attacks  of  the  fierce  Iroquois  on  the  one  side,  and  the  no  less 
savage  and  relentless  Sacs  and  Foxes  on  the  other.  The  Illinois  were 
once  a  powerful  confederacy,  occupying  the  most  beautiful  and  fertile 
region  in  the  great  Valley  of  the  Mississippi,  which  their  enemies  coveted 
and  struggled  long  and  hard  to  wrest  from  them.  By  the  fortunes  of 
war  they  were  diminished  in  numbers,  and  finally  destroyed.  44  Starved 
Rock,”  on  the  Illinois  River,  according  to  tradition,  commemorates  their 
last  tragedy,  where,  it  is  said,  the  entire  tribe  starved  rather  than  sur¬ 


The  first  European  discoveries  in  Illinois  date  back  over  two  hun¬ 
dred  years.  They  are  a  part  of  that  movement  which,  from  the  begin¬ 
ning  to  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century,  brought  the  French 
Canadian  missionaries  and  fur  traders  into  the  Valley  of  the  Mississippi, 
and  which,  at  a  later  period,  established  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical 
authority  of  France  from  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico, 
and  from  the  foot-hills  of  the  Alleghanies  to  the  Rocky  Mountains. 

The  great  river  of  the  West  had  been  discovered  by  DeSoto,  the 
Spanish  conqueror  of  Florida,  three  quarters  of  a  century  before  the 
French  founded  Quebec  in  1608,  but  the  Spanish  left  the  country  a  wil¬ 
derness,  without  further  exploration  or  settlement  within  its  borders,  in 
which  condition  it  remained  until  the  Mississippi  was  discovered  by  the 
agents  of  the  French  Canadian  government,  Joliet  and  Marquette,  in  1678. 
These  renowned  explorers  were  not  the  first  white  visitors  to  Illinois. 
In  1671 — two  years  in  advance  of  them — came  Nicholas  Perrot  to  Chicago. 
He  had  been  sent  by  Talon  as  an  agent  of  the  Canadian  government  to 







call  a  great  peace  convention  of  Western  Indians  at  Green  Bay,  prepara¬ 
tory  to  the  movement  for  the  discovery  of  the  Mississippi.  It  was 
deemed  a  good  stroke  of  policy  to  secure,  as  far  as  possible,  the  friend¬ 
ship  and  co-operation  of  the  Indians,  far  and  near,  before  venturing  upon 
an  enterprise  which  their  hostility  might  render  disastrous,  and  which 
their  friendship  and  assistance  would  do  so  much  to  make  successful ; 
and  to  this  end  Perrot  was  sent  to  call  together  in  council  the  tribes 
throughout  the  Northwest,  and  to  promise  them  the  commerce  and  pro¬ 
tection  of  the  French  government.  He  accordingly  arrived  at  Green 
Bay  in  1671,  and  procuring  an  escort  of  Pottawattamies,  proceeded  in  a 
bark  canoe  upon  a  visit  to  the  Miamis,  at  Chicago.  Perrot  was  there¬ 
fore  the  first  European  to  set  foot  upon  the  soil  of  Illinois. 

Still  there  were  others  before  Marquette.  In  1672,  the  Jesuit  mis¬ 
sionaries,  Fathers  Claude  Allouez  and  Claude  Dablon,  bore  the  standard 
of  the  Cross  from  their  mission  at  Green  Bay  through  western  Wisconsin 
and  northern  Illinois,  visiting  the  Foxes  on  Fox  River,  and  the  Masquo- 
tines  and  Kickapoos  at  the  mouth  of  the  Milwaukee.  These  missionaries 
penetrated  on  the  route  afterwards  followed  by  Marquette  as  far  as  the 
Kickapoo  village  at  the  head  of  Lake  Winnebago,  where  Marquette,  in 
his  journey,  secured  guides  across  the  portage  to  the  Wisconsin. 

The  oft-repeated  story  of  Marquette  and  Joliet  is  well  known. 
They  were  the  agents  employed  by  the  Canadian  government  to  discover 
the  Mississippi.  Marquette  was  a  native  of  France,  born  in  1637,  a 
Jesuit  priest  by  education,  and  a  man  of  simple  faith  and  of  great  zeal  and 
devotion  in  extending  the  Roman  Catholic  religion  among  the  Indians. 
Arriving  in  Canada  in  1666,  he  was  sent  as  a  missionary  to  the  far 
Northwest,  and,  in  1668,  founded  a  mission  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie.  The 
following  year  he  moved  to  La  Pointe,  in  Lake  Superior,  where  he 
instructed  a  branch  of  the  Hurons  till  1670,  when  he  removed  south,  and 
founded  the  mission  at  St.  Ignace,  on  the  Straits  of  Mackinaw.  Here 
he  remained,  devoting  a  portion  of  his  time  to  the  study  of  the  Illinois 
language  under  a  native  teacher  who  had  accompanied  him  to  the  mission 
from  La  Pointe,  till  he  was  joined  by  Joliet  in  the  Spring  of  1673.  By 
the  way  of  Green  Bay  and  the  Fox  and  Wisconsin  Rivers,  they  entered 
the  Mississippi,,  which  they  explored  to  the  mouth  of  the  Arkansas,  and 
returned  by  the  way  of  the  Illinois  and  Chicago  Rivers  to  Lake  Michigan. 

On  his  way  up  the  Illinois,  Marquette  visited  the  great  village  ot 
the  Kaskaskias,  near  what  is  now  Utica,  in  the  county  of  LaSalle.  The 
following  year  he  returned  and  established  among  them  the  mission  oi 
the  Immaculate  Virgin  Mary,  which  was  the  first  Jesuit  mission  founded 
in  Illinois  and  in  the  Mississippi  Valley.  The  intervening  winter  he 
had  spent  in  a  hut  which  his  companions  erected  on  the  Chicago  River,  a 
few  leagues  from  its  mouth.  The  founding  of  this  mission  was  the  last 



act  of  Marquette's  life.  He  died  in  Michigan,  on  his  way  back  to  Green 
Bay,  May  18,  1675. 


The  first  French  occupation  of  the  territory  now  embraced  in  Illi¬ 
nois  was  effected  by  LaSalle  in  1680,  seven  years  after  the  time  of  Mar¬ 
quette  and  Joliet.  LaSalle,  having  constructed  a  vessel,  the  44  Griffin,*’ 
above  the  falls  of  Niagara,  which  he  sailed  to  Green  Bay,  and  having 
passed  thence  in  canoes  to  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph  River,  by  which 
and  the  Kankakee  he  reached  the  Illinois,  in  January,  1680,  erected  Fort 
Crevecoeur ,  at  the  lower  end  of  Peoria  Lake,  where  the  city  of  Peoria  is 
now  situated.  The  place  where  this  ancient  fort  stood  may  still  be  seen 
just  below  the  outlet  of  Peoria  Lake.  It  was  destined,  however,  to  a 
temporary  existence.  From  this  point,  LaSalle  determined  to  descend 
the  Mississippi  to  its  mouth,  but  did  not  accomplish  this  purpose  till  two 
years  later — in  1682.  Returning  to  Fort  Frontenac  for  the  purpose  of 
getting  materials  with  which  to  rig  his  vessel,  he  left  the  fort  in  charge  of 
Touti,  his  lieutenant,  who  during  his  absence  was  driven  off  by  the  Iro¬ 
quois  Indians.  These  savages  had  made  a  raid  upon  the  settlement  of 
the  Illinois,  and  had  left  nothing  in  their  track  but  ruin  and  desolation. 
Mr.  Davidson,  in  his  History  of  Illinois,  gives  the  following  graphic 
account  of  the  picture  that  met  the  eyes  of  LaSalle  and  his  companions 
on  their  return  : 

44  At  the  great  town  of  the  Illinois  they  were  appalled  at  the  scene 
which  opened  to  their  view.  No  hunter  appeared  to  break  its  death-like 
silence  with  a  salutatory  whoop  ot  welcome.  The  plain  on  which  the 
town  had  stood  was  now  strewn  with  charred  fragments  of  lodges,  which 
had  so  recently  swarmed  with  savage  life  and  hilarity.  To  render  more 
hideous  the  picture  of  desolation,  large  numbers  of  skulls  had  been 
placed  on  the  upper  extremities  of  lodge-poles  which  had  escaped  the 
devouring  flames.  In  the  midst  of  these  horrors  was  the  rude  fort  of 
the  spoilers,  rendered  frightful  by  the  same  ghastly  relics.  A  near 
approach  showed  that  the  graves  had  been  robbed  of  their  bodies,  and 
swarms  of  buzzards  were  discovered  glutting  their  loathsome  stomachs 
on  the  reeking  corruption.  To  complete  the  work  of  destruction,  the 
growing  corn  of  the  village  had  been  cut  down  and  burned,  while  the 
pits  containing  the  products  of  previous  years,  had  been  rifled  and  their 
contents  scattered  with  wanton  waste.  It  was  evident  the  suspected 
blow  of  the  Iroquois  had  fallen  with  relentless  fury.” 

Tonti  had  escaped  LaSalle  knew  not  whither.  Passing  down  the 
lake  in  search  of  him  and  his  men,  LaSalle  discovered  that  the  fort  had 
been  destroyed,  but  the  vessel  which  he  had  partly  constructed  was  still 



on  the  stocks,  and  but  slightly  injured.  After  further  fruitless  search, 
failing  to  find  Tonti,  he  fastened  to  a  tree  a  painting  representing  himself 
and  party  sitting  in  a  canoe  and  bearing  a  pipe  of  peace,  and  to  the  paint¬ 
ing  attached  a  letter  addressed  to  Tonti. 

Tonti  had  escaped,  and,  after  untold  privations,  taken  shelter  among 
the  Pottawattamies  near  Green  Bay.  These  were  friendly  to  the  French. 
One  of  their  old  chiefs  used  to  say,  “  There  were  but  three  great  cap¬ 
tains  in  the  world,  himself,  Tonti  and  LaSalle.” 


We  must  now  return  to  LaSalle,  whose  exploits  stand  out  in  such 
bold  relief.  He  was  born  in  Rouen,  France,  in  1643.  His  father  was 
wealthy,  but  he  renounced  his  patrimony  on  entering  a  college  of  the 
Jesuits,  from  which  he  separated  and  came  to  Canada  a  poor  man  in  1666. 
The  priests  of  St.  Sulpice,  among  whom  he  had  a  brother,  were  then  the 
proprietors  of  Montreal,  the  nucleus  of  which  was  a  seminary  or  con¬ 
vent  founded  by  that  order.  The  Superior  granted  to  LaSalle  a  large 
tract  of  land  at  LaChine,  where  he  established  himself  in  the  fur  trade. 
He  was  a  man  of  daring  genius,  and  outstripped  all  his  competitors  in 
exploits  of  travel  and  commerce  with  the  Indians.  In  1669,  he  visited 
the  headquarters  of  the  great  Iroquois  Confederacy,  at  Onondaga,  in  the 
heart  of  New  York,  and,  obtaining  guides,  explored  the  Ohio  River  to 
the  falls  at  Louisville. 

In  order  to  understand  the  genius  of  LaSalle,  it  must  be  remembered 
that  for  many  years  prior  to  his  time  the  missionaries  and  traders  were 
obliged  to  make  their  way  to  the  Northwest  by  the  Ottawa  River  (of 
Canada)  on  account  of  the  fierce  hostility  of  the  Iroquois  along  the  lower 
lakes  and  Niagara  River,  which  entirely  closed  this  latter  route  to  the 
Upper  Lakes.  They  carried  on  their  commerce  chiefly  b}^  canoes,  pad¬ 
dling  them  through  the  Ottawa  to  Lake  Nipissing,  carrying  them  across 
the  portage  to  French  River,  and  descending  that  to  Lake  Huron.  This 
being  the  route  by  which  they  reached  the  Northwest,  accounts  for  the 
fact  that  all  the  earliest  Jesuit  missions  were  established  in  the  neighbor- 
hood  of  the  Upper  Lakes.  LaSalle  conceived  the  grand  idea  of  opening 
the  route  by  Niagara  River  and  the  Lower  Lakes  to  Canadian  commerce 
by  sail  vessels,  connecting  it  with  the  navigation  of  the  Mississippi,  and 
thus  opening  a  magnificent  water  communication  from  the  Gulf  of  St. 
Lawrence  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  This  truly  grand  and  comprehensive 
purpose  seems  to  have  animated  him  in  all  his  wonderful  achievements 
and  the  matchless  difficulties  and  hardships  he  surmounted.  As  the  first 
step  in  the  accomplishment  of  this  object  he  established  himself  on  Lake 
Ontario,  and  built  and  garrisoned  Fort  Frontenac,  the  site  of  the  present 



city  of  Kingston,  Canada.  Here  he  obtained  a  grant  of  land  from  the 
French  crown  and  a  body  of  troops  by  which  he  beat  back  the  invading 
Iroquois  and  cleared  the  passage  to  Niagara  Falls.  Having  by  this  mas¬ 
terly  stroke  made  it  safe  to  attempt  a  hitherto  untried  expedition,  his 
next  step,  as  we  have  seen,  was  to  advance  to  the  Falls  with  all  his 
outfit  for  building  a  ship  with  which  to  sail  the  lakes.  He  was  success- 
tul  in  this  undertaking,  though  his  ultimate  purpose  was  defeated  by  a 
strange  combination  of  untoward  circumstances.  The  Jesuits  evidently 
hated  LaSalle  and  plotted  against  him,  because  he  had  abandoned  them 
and  co-operated  with  a  rival  order.  The  fur  traders  were  also  jealous  of 
his  superior  success  in  opening  new  channels  of  commerce.  At  LaChine 
he  had  taken  the  trade  of  Lake  Ontario,  which  but  for  his  presence  there 
would  have  gone  to  Quebec.  While  they  were  plodding  with  their  bark 
canoes  through  the  Ottawa  he  was  constructing  sailing  vessels  to  com¬ 
mand  the  trade  of  the  lakes  and  the  Mississippi.  These  great  plans 
excited  the  jealousy  and  envy  of  the  small  traders,  introduced  treason  and 
revolt  into  the  ranks  of  his  own  companions,  and  finally  led  to  the  foul 
assassination  by  which  his  great  achievements  were  prematurely  ended. 

In  1682,  LaSalle,  having  completed  his  vessel  at  Peoria,  descended 
the  Mississippi  to  its  confluence  with  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  Erecting  a 
standard  on  which  he  inscribed  the  arms  of  France,  he  took  formal  pos¬ 
session  of  the  whole  valley  of  the  mighty  river,  in  the  name  of  Louis 
XIV.,  then  reigning,  in  honor  of  whom  he  named  the  country  Louisiana. 

LaSalle  then  went  to  France,  was  appointed  Governor,  and  returned 
with  a  fleet  and  immigrants,  for  the  purpose  of  planting  a  colony  in  Illi¬ 
nois.  They  arrived  in  due  time  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  but  failing  to 
find  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi,  up  which  LaSalle  intended  to  sail,  his 
supply  ship,  with  the  immigrants,  was  driven  ashore  and  wrecked  on 
Matagorda  Bay.  With  the  fragments  of  the  vessel  he  constructed  a 
stockade  and  rude  huts  on  the  shore  for  the  protection  of  the  immigrants, 
calling  the  post  Fort  St.  Louis.  He  then  made  a  trip  into  New  Mexico, 
in  search  of  silver  mines,  but,  meeting  with  disappointment,  returned  to 
find  his  little  colony  reduced  to  forty  souls.  He  then  resolved  to  travel 
on  foot  to  Illinois,  and,  starting  with  his  companions,  had  reached  the 
valley  of  the  Colorado,  near  the  mouth  of  Trinity  river,  when  he  was 
shot  by  one  of  his  men.  This  occurred  on  the  19th  of  March,  1687. 

Dr.  J.  W.  Foster  remarks  of  him  :  “  Thus  fell,  not  far  from  the  banks 
of  the  Trinity,  Robert  Cavalier  de  la  Salle,  one  of  the  grandest  charac¬ 
ters  that  ever  figured  in  American  history — a  man  capable  of  originating 
the  vastest  schemes,  and  endowed  with  a  will  and  a  judgment  capable  of 
carrying  them  to  successful  results.  Had  ample  facilities  been  placed  by 
the  King  of  France  at  his  disposal,  the  result  of  the  colonization  of  this 
continent  might  have  been  far  different  from  what  we  now  behold.” 




A  temporary  settlement  was  made  at  Fort  St.  Louis,  or  the  old  Kas- 
kaskia  village,  on  the  Illinois  River,  in  what  is  now  LaSalle  County,  in 
1682.  In  1690,  this  was  removed,  with  the  mission  connected  with  it,  to 
Kaskaskia,  on  the  river  of  that  name,  emptying’  into  the  lower  Mississippi 
in  St.  Clair  County.  Cahokia  was  settled  about  the  same  time,  or  at 
least,  both  of  these  settlements  began  in  the  year  1690,  though  it  is  now 
pretty  well  settled  that  Cahokia  is  the  older  place,  and  ranks  as  the  oldest 
permanent  settlement  in  Illinois,  as  well  as  in  the  Mississippi  Valley. 
The  reason  for  the  removal  of  the  old  Kaskaskia  settlement  and  mission, 
was  probably  because  the  dangerous  and  difficult  route  by  Lake  Michigan 
and  the  Chicago  portage  had  been  almost  abandoned,  and  travelers  and 
traders  passed  down  and  up  the  Mississippi  by  the  Fox  and  Wisconsin 
River  route.  They  removed  to  the  vicinity  of  the  Mississippi  in  order 
to  be  in  the  line  of  travel  from  Canada  to’  Louisiana,  that  is,  the  lower 
part  of  it,  for  it  was  all  Louisiana  then  south  of  the  lakes. 

During  the  period  of  French  rule  in  Louisiana,  the  population  prob¬ 
ably  never  exceeded  ten  thousand,  including  whites  and  blacks.  Within 
that  portion  of  it  now  included  in  Indiana,  trading  posts  were  established 
at  the  principal  Miami  villages  which  stood  on  the  head  waters  of  the 
Maumee,  the  Wea  villages  situated  at  Ouiatenon,  on  the  Wabash,  and 
the  Piankeshaw  villages  at  Post  Vincennes  ;  all  of  which  were  probably 
visited  by  French  traders  and  missionaries  before  the  close  of  the  seven¬ 
teenth  century. 

In  the  vast  territory  claimed  by  the  French,  many  settlements  of 
considerable  importance  had  sprung  up.  Biloxi,  on  Mobile  Bay,  had 
been  founded  by  D’Iberville,  in  1699 ;  Antoine  de  Lamotte  Cadillac  had 
founded  Detroit  in  1701;  and  New  Orleans  had  been  founded  by  Bien¬ 
ville,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Mississippi  Company,  in  1718.  In  Illi¬ 
nois  also,  considerable  settlements  had  been  made,  so  that  in  1730  they 
embraced  one  hundred  and  forty  French  families,  about  six  hundred  “  con¬ 
verted  Indians,”  and  many  traders  and  voyageurs.  In  that  portion  of  the 
country,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi,  there  were  five  distinct  set¬ 
tlements,,  with  their  respective  villages,  viz. :  Cahokia,  near  the  mouth 
of  Cahokia  Creek  and  about  five  miles  below  the  present  city  of  St. 
Louis ;  St.  Philip,  about  forty -five  miles  below  Cahokia,  and  four  miles 
above  Fort  Chartres ;  Fort  Chartres,  twelve  miles  above  Kaskaskia ; 
Kaskaskia,  situated  on  the  Kaskaskia  River,  five  miles  above  its  conflu¬ 
ence  with  the  Mississippi ;  and  Prairie  du  Rocher,  near  Fort  Chartres. 
To  these  must  be  added  St.  Genevieve  and  St.  Louis,  on  the  west  side 
of  the  Mississippi.  These,  with  the  exception  of  St.  Louis,  are  among 






the  oldest  French  towns  in  the  Mississippi  Valley.  Kaskaskia,  in  its  best 
days,  was  a  town  of  some  two  or  three  thousand  inhabitants.  After  it 
passed  from  the  crown  of  France  its  population  for  many  years  did  not 
exceed  fifteen  hundred.  Under  British  rule,  in  1773,  the  population  had 
decreased  to  four  hundred  and  fifty.  As  early  as  1721,  the  Jesuits  had 
established  a  college  and  a  monastery  in  Kaskaskia. 

Fort  Chartres  was  first  built  under  the  direction  of  the  Mississippi 
Company,  in  1718,  by  M.  de  Boisbraint,  a  military  officer,  under  command 
of  Bienville.  It  stood  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Mississippi,  about  eighteen 
miles  below  Kaskaskia,  and  was  for  some  time  the  headquarters  of  the 
military  commandants  of  the  district  of  Illinois. 

In  the  Centennial  Oration  of  Dr.  Fowler,  delivered  at  Philadelphia, 
by  appointment  of  Gov.  Beveridge,  we  find  some  interesting  facts  with 
regard  to  the  State  of  Illinois,  which  we  appropriate  in  this  history : 

In  1682  Illinois  became  a  possession  of  the  French  crown,  a  depend- 
ency  of  Canada,  and  a  part  of  Louisiana.  In  1<65  the  English  fla°'  was 
run  up  on  old  Fort  Chartres,  and  Illinois  was  counted  among  the  treas¬ 
ures  of  Great  Britain. 

In  1779  it  was  taken  from  the  English  by  Col.  George  Rogers  Clark. 
This  man  was  resolute  in  nature,  wise  in  council,  prudent  in  policy,  bold 
in  action,  and  heroic  in  danger.  Few  men  who*  have  figured  in  the  his¬ 
tory  of  America  are  more  deserving  than  this  colonel.  Nothing  short  of 
first-class  ability  could  have  rescued  Vincens  and  all  Illinois  from  the 
English.-  And  it  is  not  possible  to  over-estimate  the  influence  of  this 
achievement  upon  the  republic.  In  1779  Illinois  became  a  part  of  Vir¬ 
ginia.  It  was  soon  known  as  Illinois  County.  In  1784  Virginia  ceded 
all  this  territory  to  the  general  government,  to  be  cut  into  States,  to  be 
republican  in  form,  with  “  the  same  right  of  sovereignty,  freedom,  and 
independence  as  the  other  States.” 

In  1787  it  was  the  object  of  the  wisest  and  ablest  legislation  found 
in  any  merely  human  records.  No  man  can  study  the  secret  history  of 

THE  “  COMPACT  OF  1787,” 

and  not  feel  that  Providence  was  guiding  with  sleepless  eye  these  unborn 
States.  The  ordinance  that  on  July  13,  1787,  finally  became  the  incor¬ 
porating  act,  has  a  most  marvelous  history.  Jefferson  had  vainly  tried 
to  secure  a  system  of  government  for  the  northwestern  territory.  He 
was  an  emancipationist  of  that  day,  and  favored  the  exclusion  of  slavery 
from  the  territory  Virginia  had  ceded  to  the  general  government;  but 
the  South  voted  him  down  as  often  as  it  came  up.  In  1787,  as  late  as 
July  10,  an  organizing  act  without  the  anti-slavery  clause  was  pending. 
This  concession  to  the  South  was  expected  to  carry  it.  Congress  was  in 



session  in  New  York  City.  On  July  5,  Rev.  Dr.  Manasseh  Cutler,  of 
Massachusetts,  came  into  New  York  to  lobby  on  the  northwestern  terri¬ 
tory.  Everything  seemed  to  fall  into  his  hands.  Events  were  ripe. 

The  state  of  the  public  credit,  the  growing  of  Southern  prejudice, 
the  basis  of  his  mission,  his  personal  character,  all  combined  to  complete 
one  of  those  sudden  and  marvelous  revolutions  of  public  sentiment  that 
once  in  five  or  ten  centuries  are  seen  to  sweep  over  a  country  like  the 
breath  of  the  Almighty.  Cutler  was  a  graduate  of  Yale — received  his 
A.M.  from  Harvard,  and  his  D.D.  from  Yale.  He  had  studied  and  taken 
degrees  in  the  three  learned  professions,  medicine,  law,  and  divinity.  He 
had  thus  America’s  best  indorsement.  He  had  published  a  scientific 
examination  of  the  plants  of  New  England.  His  name  stood  second  only 
to  that  of  Franklin  as  a  scientist  in  America.  He  was  a  courtly  gentle¬ 
man  of  the  old  style,  a  man  of  commanding  presence,  and  of  inviting 
face.  The  Southern  members  said  they  had  never  seen  such  a  gentleman 
in  the  North.  He  came  representing  a  company  that  desired  to  purchase 
a  tract  of  land  now  included  in  Ohio,  for  the  purpose  of  planting  a  colony. 
It  was  a  speculation.  Government  money  was  worth  eighteen  cents  on 
the  dollar.  This  Massachusetts  company  had  collected  enough  to  pur¬ 
chase  1,500,000  acres  of  land.  Other  speculators  in  New  York  made 
Dr.  Cutler  their  agent  (lobbyist).  On  the  12th  he  represented  a  demand 
for  5,500,000  acres.  This  would  reduce  the  national  debt.  Jefferson 
and  Virginia  were  regarded  as  authority  concerning  the  land  Virginia 
had  just  ceded.  Jefferson’s  policy  wanted  to  provide  for  the  public  credit, 
and  this  was  a  good  opportunity  to  do  something. 

Massachusetts  then  owned  the  territory  of  Maine,  which  she  was 
crowding  on  the  market.  She  was  opposed  to  opening  the  northwestern 
region.  This  fired  the  zeal  of  Virginia.  The  South  caught  the  inspira¬ 
tion,  and  all  exalted  Dr.  Cutler.  The  English  minister  invited  him  to 
dine  with  some  of  the  Southern  gentlemen.  He  was  the  center  of  interest. 

The  entire  South  rallied  round  him.  Massachusetts  could  not  vote 
against  him,  because  many  of  the  constituents  of  her  members  were 
interested  personally  in  the  western  speculation.  Thus  Cutler,  making 
friends  with  the  South,  and,  doubtless,  using  all  the  arts  of  the  lobby? 
was  enabled  to  command  the  situation.  True  to  deeper  convictions,  he 
dictated  one  of  the  most  compact  and  finished  documents  of  wise  states¬ 
manship  that  has  ever  adorned  any  human  law  book.  He  borrowed  from 
Jefferson  the  term  “  Articles  of  Compact,  ’  which,  preceding  the  federal 
constitution,  rose  into  the  most  sacred  character.  He  then  followed  very 
closely  the  constitution  of  Massachusetts,  adopted  three  years  before. 
Its  most  marked  points  were  : 

1.  The  exclusion  of  slavery  from  the  territory  forever. 

2.  Provision  for  public  schools,  giving  one  township  for  a  seminary, 



and  every  section  numbered  16  in  each  township  ;  that  is,  one-thirty-sixth 
of  all  the  land,  for  public  schools. 

3.  A  provision  prohibiting  the  adoption  of  any  constitution  or  the 
enactment  of  any  law  that  should  nullify  pre-existing  contracts. 

Be  it  forever  remembered  that  this  compact  declared  that  “  Religion, 
morality,  and  knowledge  being  necessary  to  good  government  and  the 
happiness  of  mankind,  schools  and  the  means  of  education  shall  always 
be  encouraged.” 

Dr.  Cutler  planted  himself  on  this  platform  and  would  not  yield. 
Griving  his  unqualified  declaration  that  it  was  that  or  nothing — that  unless 
they  could  make  the  land  desirable  they  did  not  want  it — he  took  his 
horse  and  buggy,  and  started  for  the  constitutional  convention  in  Phila¬ 
delphia.  On  July  13,  1787,  the  bill  was  put  upon  its  passage,  and  was 
unanimously  adopted,  every  Southern  member  voting  for  it,  and  only  one 
man,  Mr.  Yates,  of  New  York,  voting  against  it.  But  as  the  States  voted 
as  States,  Yates  lost  his  vote,  and  the  compact  was  put  beyond  repeal. 

Thus  the  great  States  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Michigan  and  Wis¬ 
consin — a  vast  empire,  the  heart  of  the  great  valley — were  consecrated 
to  freedom,  intelligence,  and  honesty.  Thus  the  great  heart  of  the  nation 
was  prepared  for  a  year  and  a  day  and  an  hour.  In  the  light  of  these  eighty- 
nine  years  I  affirm  that  this  act  was  the  salvation  of  the  republic  and  the 
destruction  of  slavery.  Soon  the  South  saw  their  great  blunder,  and 
tried  to  repeal  the  compact.  In  1803  Congress  referred  it  to  a  committee 
of  which  John  Randolph  was  chairman.  He  reported  that  this  ordinance 
was  a  compact,  and  opposed  repeal.  Thus  it  stood  a  rock,  in  the  way 
of  the  on-rushing  sea  of  slavery. 

With  all  this  timely  aid  it  was,  after  all,  a  most  desperate  and  pro¬ 
tracted  struggle  to  keep  the  soil  of  Illinois  sacred  to  freedom.  It  was 
the  natural  battle-field  for  the  irrepressible  conflict.  In  the  southern  end 
of  the  State  slavery  preceded  the  compact.  It  existed  among  the  old 
French  settlers,  and  was  hard  to  eradicate.  The  southern  part  of  the 
State  was  settled  from  the  slave  States,  and  this  population  brought  their 
laws,  customs,  and  institutions  with  them.  A  stream  of  population  from 
the  North  poured  into  the  northern  part  of  the  State.  These  sections 
misunderstood  and  hated  each  other  perfectly.  The  Southerners  regarded 
the  Yankees  as  a  skinning,  tricky,  penurious  race  of  peddlers,  filling  the 
country  with  tinware,  brass  clocks,  and  wooden  nutmegs.  The  North¬ 
erner  thought  of  the  Southerner  as  a  lean,  lank,  lazy  creature,  burrowing 
in  a  hut,  and  rioting  in  whisky,  dirt  and  ignorance.  These  causes  aided 
in  making  the  struggle  long  and  bitter.  So  strong  was  the  sympathy 
with  slavery  that,  in  spite  of  the  ordinance  of  1787,  and  in  spite  of  the 
deed  of  cession,  it  was  determined  to  allow  the  old  French  settlers  to 
retain  their  slaves.  Planters  from  the  slave  States  might  bring  their 



slaves,  if  they  would  give  them  a  chance  to  choose  freedom  or  years 
of  service  and  bondage  for  their  children  till  they  should  become 
thirty  years  of  age.  If  they  chose  freedom  they  must  leave  the  State 
in  sixty  days  or  be  sold  as  fugitives.  Servants  were  whipped  for  offenses 
for  which  white  men  are  fined.  Each  lash  paid  forty  cents  of  the  fine.  A 
negro  ten  miles  from  home  without  a  pass  was  whipped.  These  famous 
laws  were  imported  from  the  slave  States  just  as  they  imported  laws  for 
the  inspection  of  flax  and  wool  when  there  was  neither  in  the  State. 

These  Black  Laws  are  now  wiped  out.  A  vigorous  effort  was  made 
to  protect  slavery  in  the  State  Constitution  of  1817.  It  barely  failed. 
It  was  renewed  in  1825,  when  a  convention  was  asked  to  make  a  new 
constitution.  After  a  hard  fight  the  convention  was  defeated.  But 
slaves  did  not  disappear  from  the  census  of  the  State  until  1850.  There 
were  mobs  and  murders  in  the  interest  of  slavery.  Lovejoy  was  added 
to  the  list  of  martyrs — a  sort  of  first-fruits  of  that  long  life  of  immortal 
heroes  who  saw  freedom  as  the  one  supreme  desire  of  their  souls,  and 
were  so  enamored  of  her  that  they  preferred  to  die  rather  than  survive  her. 

The  population  of  12,282  that  occupied  the  territory  in  A.D.  1800, 
increased  to  45,000  in  A.D.  1818,  when  the  State  Constitution  was 
adopted,  and  Illinois  took  her  place  in  the  Union,  with  a  star  on  the  flag 
and  two  votes  in  the  Senate. 

Shadrach  Bond  was  the  first  Governor,  and  in  his  first  message  he 
recommended  the  construction  of  the  Illinois  and  Michigan  Canal. 

The  simple  economy  in  those  days  is  seen  in  the  fact  that  the  entire 
bill  for  stationery  for  the  first  Legislature  was  only  $18.50.  Yet  this 
simple  body  actually  enacted  a  very  superior  code. 

There  was  no  money  in  the  territory  before  the  war  of  1812.  Deer 
skins  and  coon  skins  were  the  circulating  medium.  In  1821,  the  Legis¬ 
lature  ordained  a  State  Bank  on  the  credit  of  the  State.  It  issued  notes 
in  the  likeness  of  bank  bills.  These  notes  were  made  a  legal  tender  for 
every  thing,  and  the  bank  was  ordered  to  loan  to  the  people  $100  on  per¬ 
sonal  security,  and  more  on  mortgages.  They  actually  passed  a  resolu¬ 
tion  requesting  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  of  the  United  States  to 
receive  these  notes  for  land.  The  old  French  Lieutenant  Governor,  Col. 

Menard,  put  the  resolution  as  follows:  46  Gentlemen  of  the  Senate  :  It  is 
moved  and  seconded  dat  de  notes  of  dis  bank  be  made  land-office  money. 

All  in  favor  of  dat  motion  say  aye  ;  all  against  it  say  no.  It  is  decided 
in  de  affirmative.  Now,  gentlemen,  I  bet  you  one  hundred  dollar  he 
never  be  land-office  money !  ”  Hard  sense,  like  hard  money,  is  always 
above  par. 

This  old  Frenchman  presents  a  fine  figure  up  against  the  dark  back¬ 
ground  of  most  of  his  nation.  They  made  no  progress.  They  clung  to 
their  earliest  and  simplest  implements.  They  never  wore  hats  or  cap? 



They  pulled  their  blankets  over  their  heads  in  the  winter  like  the  Indians, 
with  whom  they  freely  intermingled. 

Demagogism  had  an  early  development.  One  John  Grammar  (only 
in  name),  elected  to  the  Territorial  and  State  Legislatures  of  1816  and 
1886,  invented  the  policy  of  opposing  every  new  thing,  saying,  “  If  it 
succeeds,  no  one  will  ask  who  voted  against  it.  If  it  proves  a  failure,  he 
could  quote  its  record.”  In  sharp  contrast  with  Grammar  was  the  char¬ 
acter  of  D.  P.  Cook,  after  whom  the  county  containing  Chicago  was 
named.  Such  was  his  transparent  integrity  and  remarkable  ability  that 
his  will  was  almost  the  law  of  the  State.  In  Congress,  a  young  man, 
and  from  a  poor  State,  he  was  made  Chairman  of  the  Ways  and  Means 
Committee.  He  was  pre-eminent  for  standing  by  his  committee,  regard¬ 
less  of  consequences.  It  was  his  integrity  that  elected  John  Quincy 
Adams  to  the  Presidency.  There  were  four  candidates  in  1824,  Jackson, 
Clay,  Crawford,  and  John  Quincy  Adams.  There  being  no  choice  by  the 
people,  the  election  was  thrown  into  the  House.  It  was  so  balanced  that 
it  turned  on  his  vote,  and  that  he  cast  for  Adams,  electing  him ;  then 
went  home  to  face  the  wrath  of  the  Jackson  party  in  Illinois.  It  cost 
him  all  but  character  and  greatness.  It  is  a  suggestive  comment  on  the 
times,  that  there  was  no  legal  interest  till  1830.  It  often  reached  150 
per  cent.,  usually  50  per  cent.  Then  it  was  reduced  to  12,  and  now  to 
10  per  cent. 


In  area  the  State  has  55,410  square  miles  of  territory.  It  is  about 
150  miles  wide  and  400  miles  long,  stretching  in  latitude  from  Maine  to 
North  Carolina.  It  embraces  wide  variety  of  climate.  It  is  tempered 
on  the  north  by  the  great  inland,  saltless,  tideless  sea,  which  keeps  the 
thermometer  from  either  extreme.  Being  a  table  land,  from  600  to  1,600 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  one  is  prepared  to  find  on  the  health 
maps,  prepared  by  the  general  government,  an  almost  clean  and  perfect 
record.  In  freedom  from  fever  and  malarial  diseases  and  consumptions, 
the  three  deadly  enemies  of  the  American  Saxon,  Illinois,  as  a  State, 
stands  without  a  superior.  She  furnishes  one  of  the  essential  conditions 
of  a  great  people — sound  bodies.  I  suspect  that  this  fact  lies  back  of 
that  old  Delaware  word,  Illini,  superior  men. 

The  great  battles  of  history  that  have  been  determinative  of  dynas¬ 
ties  and  destinies  have  been  strategical  battles,  chiefly  the  question  ol 
position.  Thermopylae  has  been  the  war-cry  of  freemen  for  twenty-four 
centuries.  It  only  tells  how  much  there  may  be  in  position.  All  this 
advantage  belongs  to  Illinois.  It  is  in  the  heart  of  the  greatest  valley  in 
the  world,  the  vast  region  between  the  mountains — a  valley  that  could 



feed  mankind  for  one  thousand  years.  It  is  well  on  toward  the  center  of 
the  continent.  It  is  in  the  great  temperate  belt,  in  which  have  been 
found  nearly  all  the  aggressive  civilizations  of  history.  It  has  sixty-five 
miles  of  frontage  on  the  head  of  the  lake.  With  the  Mississippi  forming 
the  western  and  southern  boundary,  with  the  Ohio  running  along  the 
southeastern  line,  with  the  Illinois  River  and  Canal  dividing  the  State 
diagonally  from  the  lake  to  the  Lower  Mississippi,  and  with  the  Rock  and 
Wabash  Rivers  furnishing  altogether  2,000  miles  of  water-front,  con¬ 
necting  with,  and  running  through,  in  all  about  12,000  miles  of  navi¬ 
gable  water. 

But  this  is  not  all.  These  waters  are  made  most  available  by  the 
fact  that  the  lake  and  the  State  lie  on  the  ridge  running  into  the  great 
valley  from  the  east.  Within  cannon-shot  of  the  lake  the  water  runs 
away  from  the  lake  to  the  Gulf.  The  lake  now  empties  at  both  ends, 
one  into  the  Atlantic  and  one  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  The  lake  thus 
seems  to  hang  over  the  land.  This  makes  the  dockage  most  serviceable  ; 
there  are  no  steep  banks  to  damage  it.  Both  lake  and  river  are  made 
for  use. 

The  climate  varies  from  Portland  to  Richmond;  it  favors  everv  pro¬ 
duct  of  the  continent,  including  the  tropics,  with  less  than  half  a  dozen 
exceptions.  It  produces  every  great  nutriment  of  the  world  except  ban¬ 
anas  and  rice.  It  is  hardly  too  much  to  say  that  it  is  the  most  productive 
spot  known  to  civilization.  With  the  soil  full  of  bread  and  the  earth  full 
of  minerals ;  with  an  upper  surface  of  food  and  an  under  layer  of  fuel ; 
with  perfect  natural  drainage,  and  abundant  springs  and  streams  and 
navigable  rivers  :  half  way  between  the  forests  of  the  North  and  the  fruits 
of  the  South  ;  within  a  day  s  ride  of  the  great  deposits  of  iron,  coal,  cop¬ 
per,  lead,  and  zinc ;  containing  and  controlling  the  great  grain,  cattle, 
pork,  and  lumber  markets  of  the  world,  it  is  not  strange  that  Illinois  has 
the  advantage  of  position. 

This  advantage  has  been  supplemented  by  the  character  of  the  popu¬ 
lation.  In  the  early  days  when  Illinois  was  first  admitted  to  the  Lnion, 
her  population  were  chiefly  from  Kentucky  and  Virginia.  But,  in  the 
conflict  of  ideas  concerning  slavery,  a  strong  tide  of  emigration  came  in 
from  the  East,  and  soon  changed  this  composition.  In  1870  her  non- 
native  population  were  from  colder  soils.  New  York  furnished  133,290; 
Ohio  gave  162,623 ;  Pennsylvania  sent  on  98,352;  the  entire  South  gave 
us  only  206,734.  In  all  her  cities,  and  in  all  her  German  and  Scandina¬ 
vian  and  other  foreign  colonies,  Illinois  has  only  about  one-fifth  of  her 
people  of  foreign  birth. 




One  of  the  greatest  elements  in  the  early  development  of  Illinois  is 
the  Illinois  and  Michigan  Canal,  connecting  the  Illinois  and  Mississippi 
Rivers  with  the  lakes.  It  was  of  the  utmost  importance  to  the  State. 
It  was  recommended  by  Gov.  Bond,  the  first  governor,  in  his  first  message. 
In  1821,  the  Legislature  appropriated  $10,000  for  surveying  the  route. 
Two  bright  young  engineers  surveyed  it,  and  estimated  the  cost  at 
$600,000  or  $700,000.  It  finally  cost  $8,000,000.  In  1825,  a  law  was 
passed  to  incorporate  the  Canal  Company,  but  no  stock  was  sold.  In 
1826,  upon  the  solicitation  of  Cook,  Congress  gave  800,000  acres  of  land 
on  the  line  of  the  work.  In  1828,  another  law — commissioners  appointed, 
and  work  commenced  with  new  survey  and  new  estimates.  In  1834-35, 
George  Farquhar  made  an  able  report  on  the  whole  matter.  This  was, 
doubtless,  the  ablest  report  ever  made  to  a  western  legislature,  and  it 
became  the  model  for  subsequent  reports  and  action.  From  this  the 
work  went  on  till  it  was  finished  in  1848.  It  cost  the  State  a  large 
amount  of  money ;  but  it  gave  to  the  industries  of  the  State  an  impetus 
that  pushed  it  up  into  the  first  rank  of  greatness.  It  was  not  built  as  a 
speculation  any  more  than  a  doctor  is  employed  on  a  speculation.  But 
it  has  paid  into  the  Treasury  of  the  State  an  average  annual  net  sum  of 
over  $111,000. 

Pending  the  construction  of  the  canal,  the  land  and  town-lot  fever 
broke  out  in  the  State,  in  1834-35.  It  took  on  the  malignant  type  in 
Chicago,  lifting  the  town  up  into  a  city.  The  disease  spread  over  the 
entire  State  and  adjoining  States.  It  was  epidemic.  It  cut  up  men’s 
farms  without  regard  to  locality,  and  cut  up  the  purses  of  the  purchasers 
without  regard  to  consequences.  It  is  estimated  that  building  lots  enough 
were  sold  in  Indiana  alone  to  accommodate  every  citizen  then  in  the 
United  States. 

Towns  and  cities  were  exported  to  the  Eastern  market  by  the  ship¬ 
load.  There  was  no  lack  of  buyers.  Every  up-ship  came  freighted  with 
speculators  and  their  money. 

This  distemper  seized  upon  the  Legislature  in  1836-37,  and  left  not 
one  to  tell  the  tale.  They  enacted  a  system  of  internal  improvement 
without  a  parallel  in  the  grandeur  of  its  conception.  They  ordered  the 
construction  of  1,300  miles  of  railroad,  crossing  the  State  in  all  direc¬ 
tions.  This  was  surpassed  by  the  river  and  canal  improvements. 
There  were  a  few  counties  not  touched  by  either  railroad  or  river  or 
canal,  and  those  were  to  be  comforted  and  compensated  by  the  free  dis¬ 
tribution  of  $200,000  among  them.  To  inflate  this  balloon  beyond  cre¬ 
dence  it  was  ordered  that  work  should  be  commenced  on  both  ends  oi 

12  4 


each  of  these  railroads  and  rivers,  and  at  each  river-crossing,  all  at  the 
same  time.  The  appropriations  for  these  vast  improvements  were  over 
$12,000,000,  and  commissioners  were  appointed  to  borrow  the  money  on 
the  credit  of  the  State.  Remember  that  all  this  was  in  the  early  days  of 
railroading,  when  railroads  were  luxuries ;  that  the  State  had  whole 
counties  with  scarcely  a  cabin ;  and  that  the  population  of  the  State  was 
less  than  400,000,  and  you  can  form  some  idea  of  the  vigor  with  which 
these  brave  men  undertook  the  work  of  making  a  great  State.  In  the 
light  of  history  I  am  compelled  to  say  that  this  was  only  a  premature 
throb  of  the  power  that  actually  slumbered  in  the  soil  of  the  State.  It 
was  Hercules  in  the  cradle. 

At  this  juncture  the  State  Bank  loaned  its  funds  largely  to  Godfrey 
Gilman  &  Co.,  and  to  other  leading  houses,  for  the  purpose  of  drawing 
trade  from  St.  Louis  to  Alton.  Soon  they  failed,  and  took  down  the 
bank  with  them. 

In  1840,  all  hope  seemed  gone.  A  population  of  480,000  were  loaded 
with  a  debt  of  $14,000,000.  It  had  only  six  small  cities,  really  only 
towns,  namely:  Chicago,  Alton,  Springfield,  Quincy,  Galena,  Nauvoo. 
This  debt  was  to  be  cared  for  when  there  was  not  a  dollar  in  the  treas¬ 
ury,  and  when  the  State  had  borrowed  itself  out  of  all  credit,  and  when 
there  was  not  good  money  enough  in  the  hands  of  all  the  people  to  pay 
the  interest  of  the  debt  for  a  single  year.  Yet,  in  the  presence  of  all 
these  difficulties,  the  young  State  steadily  refused  to  repudiate.  Gov. 
Ford  took  hold  of  the  problem  and  solved  it,  bringing  the  State  through 
in  triumph. 

Having  touched  lightly  upon  some  of  the  more  distinctive  points  in 
the  history  of  the  development  of  Illinois,  let  us  next  briefly  consider  the 


It  is  a  garden  four  hundred  miles  long  and  one  hundred  and  fifty 
miles  wide.  Its  soil  is  chiefly  a  black  sandy  loam,  from  six  inches  to 
sixtv  feet  thick.  On  the  American  bottoms  it  has  been  cultivated  for 


one  hundred  and  fifty  years  without  renewal.  About  the  old  French 
towns  it  has  yielded  corn  for  a  century  and  a  half  without  rest  or  help. 
It  produces  nearly  everything  green  in  the  temperate  and  tropical  zones. 
She  leads  all  other  States  in  the  number  of  acres  actually  under  plow. 
Her  products  from  25,000,000  of  acres  are  incalculable.  Her  mineral 
wealth  is  scarcely  second  to  her  agricultural  power.  She  has  coal,  iron, 
lead,  copper,  zinc,  many  varieties  of  building  stone,  fire  clay,  cuma  clay, 
common  brick  clay,  sand  of  all  kinds,  gravel,  mineral  paint — every  thing 
needed  for  a  high  civilization.  Left  to  herself,  she  has  the  elements  of 
all  greatness.  The  single  item  of  coal  is  too  vast  for  an  appreciative 



handling  in  figures.  We  can  handle  it  in  general  terms  like  algebraical 
signs,  but  long  before  we  get  up  into  the  millions  and  billions  the  human 
mind  drops  down  from  comprehension  to  mere  symbolic  apprehension. 

When  I  tell  you  that  nearly  four-fifths  of  the  entire  State  is  under¬ 
laid  with  a  deposit  of  coal  more  than  forty  feet  thick  on  the  average  (now 
estimated,  by  recent  surveys,  at  seventy  feet  thick),  you  can  get  some 
idea  of  its  amount,  as  you  do  of  the  amount  of  the  national  debt.  There 
it  is  !  41,000  square  miles — one  vast  mine  into  which  you  could  put 

any  of  the  States  ;  in  which  you  could  bury  scores  of  European  and 
ancient  empires,  and  have  room  enough  all  round  to  work  without  know¬ 
ing  that  they  had  been  sepulchered  there. 

Put  this  vast  coal-bed  down  by  the  other  great  coal  deposits  of  the 
world,  and  its  importance  becomes  manifest.  Great  Britain  has  12,000 
square  miles  of  coal;  Spain,  3,000;  France,  1,719;  Belgium,  578;  Illinois 
about  twice  as  many  square  miles  as  all  combined.  Virginia  has  20,000 
square  miles ;  Pennsylvania,  16,000;  Ohio,  12,000.  Illinois  has  41,000 
square  miles.  One-seventh  of  all  the  known  coal  on  this  continent  is  in 

Could  we  sell  the  coal  in  this  single  State  for  one-seventh  of  one  cent 
a  ton  it  would  pay  the  national  debt.  Converted  into  power,  even  with 
the  wastage  in  our  common  engines,  it  would  do  more  work  than  could 
be  done  by  the  entire  race,  beginning  at  Adam’s  wedding  and  working 
ten  hours  a  day  through  all  the  centuries  till  the  present  time,  and  right 
on  into  the  future  at  the  same  rate  for  the  next  600,000  years. 

Great  Britain  uses  enough  mechanical  power  to-day  to  give  to  each 
man,  woman,  and  child  in  the  kingdom  the  help  and  service  of  nineteen 
untiring  servants.  No  wonder  she  has  leisure  and  luxuries.  No  wonder 
the  home  of  the  common  artisan  has  in  it  more  luxuries  than  could  be 
found  in  the  palace  of  good  old  King  Arthur.  Think,  if  you  can  conceive 
of  it,  of  the  vast  army  of  servants  that  slumber  in  the  soil  of  Illinois, 
impatiently  awaiting  the  call  of  Genius  to  come  forth  to  minister  to  our 

At  the  present  rate  of  consumption  England’s  coal  supply  will  be 
exhausted  in  250  years.  When  this  is  gone  she  must  transfer  her  dominion 
either  to  the  Indies,  or  to  British  America,  which  I  would  not  resist ;  or 
to  some  other  people,  which  I  would  regret  as  a  loss  to  civilization. 


At  the  same  rate  of  consumption  (which  far  exceeds  our  own)  the 
deposit  of  coal  in  Illinois  will  last  120,000  years.  And  her  kingdom  shall 
be  an  everlasting  kingdom. 

Let  us  turn,  now  from  this  reserve  power  to  the  annual  products  ot 



the  State.  We  shall  not  be  humiliated  in  this  field.  Here  we  strike  the 
secret  of  our  national  credit.  Nature  provides  a  market  in  the  constant 
appetite  of  the  race.  Men  must  eat,  and  if  we  can  furnish  the  provisions 
we  can  command  the  treasure.  All  that  a  man  hath  will  he  give  for  his 

According  to  the  last  census  Illinois  produced  30,000,000  of  bushels 
of  wheat.  That  is  more  wheat  than  was  raised  by  any  other  State  in  the 
Union.  She  raised  In  1875,  130,000,000  of  bushels  of  corn — twice  as 
much  as  any  other  State,  and  one-sixth  of  all  the  corn  raised  in  the  United 
States.  She  harvested  2,747,000  tons  of  hay,  nearly  one-tenth  of  all  the 
hay  in  the  Republic.  It  is  not  generally  appreciated,  but  it  is  true,  that 
the  hay  crop  of  the  country  is  worth  more  than  the  cotton  crop.  The 
hay  of  Illinois  equals  the  cotton  of  Louisiana.  Go  to  Charleston,  S.  C., 
and  see  them  peddling  handfuls  of  hay  or  grass,  almost  as  a  curiosity, 
as  we  regard  Chinese  gods  or  the  cryolite  of  Greenland ;  drink  your 
coffee  and  condensed  milk ;  and  walk  back  from  the  coast  for  many  a 
league  through  the  sand  and  burs  till  you  get  up  into  the  better  atmos¬ 
phere  of  the  mountains,  without  seeing  a  waving  meadow  or  a  grazing 
herd ;  then  you  will  begin  to  appreciate  the  meadows  of  the  Prairie  State, 
where  the  grass  often  grows  sixteen  feet  high. 

The  value  of  her  farm  implements  is  $211,000,000,  and  the  value  of 
her  live  stock  is  only  second  to  the  great  State  of  New  York.  in  1875 
she  had  25,000,000  hogs,  and  packed  2,113,845,  about  one-half  of  all  that 
were  packed  in  the  United  States.  This  is  no  insignificant  item.  Pork 
is  a  growing  demand  of  the  old  world.  Since  the  laborers  of  Europe 
have  gotten  a  taste  of  our  bacon,  and  we  have  learned  how  to  pack  it  dry 
in  boxes,  like  dry  goods,  the  world  has  become  the  market. 

The  hog  is  on  the  march  into  the  future.  His  nose  is  ordained  to 
uncover  the  secrets  of  dominion,  and  his  feet  shall  be  guided  by  the  star 
of  empire. 

Illinois  marketed  $57,000,000  worth  of  slaughtered  animals — more 
than  any  other  State,  and  a  seventh  of  all  the  States. 

Be  patient  with  me,  and  pardon  my  pride,  and  I  will  give  you  a  list 
of  some  of  the  things  in  which  Illinois  excels  all  other  States. 

Depth  and  richness  of  soil ;  per  cent,  of  good  ground  ;  acres  of 
improved  land ;  large  farms — some  farms  contain  from  40,000  to  60,000 
acres  of  cultivated  land,  40,000  acres  of  corn  on  a  single  farm ;  number  of 
farmers  ;  amount  of  wheat,  corn,  oats  and  honey  produced ;  value  of  ani¬ 
mals  for  slaughter ;  number  of  hogs  ;  amount  of  pork  ;  number  of  horses 
— three  times  as  many  as  Kentucky,  the  horse  State. 

Illinois  excels  all  other  States  in  miles  of  railroads  and  in  miles  of 
postal  service,  and  in  money  orders  sold  per  annum,  and  in  the  amount  of 
lumber  sold  in  her  markets. 



s  or  \  second  in  many  important  matters.  This  sample  list 
comprises  a  few  of  the  more  important :  Permanent  school  fund  (good 
foi  a  young  state)  ;  total  income  for  educational  purposes  ;  number  of  pub¬ 
lishers  of  books,  maps,  papers,  etc.;  value  of  farm  products  and  imple¬ 
ments,  and  of  live  stock  ;  in  tons  of  coal  mined. 

The  shipping  of  Illinois  is  only  second  to  New  York.  Out  of  one 
port  during  the  business  hours  of  the  season  of  navigation  she  sends  forth 
a  vessel  every  ten  minutes.  This  doe^not  include  canal  boats,  which  go 
one  every  five  minutes.  No  wonder  she  is  only  second  in  number  of 
bankers  and  brokers  or  in  physicians  and  surgeons. 

She  is  third  in  colleges,  teachers  and  schools;  cattle,  lead,  hay, 
flax,  sorghum  and  beeswax. 

She  is  fourth  in  population,  in  children  enrolled  in  public  schools,  in 
law  schools,  in  butter,  potatoes  and  carriages. 

She  is  fifth  in  value  of  real  and  personal  property,  in  theological 
seminaries  and  colleges  exclusively  for  women,  in  milk  sold,  and  in  boots 
and  shoes  manufactured,  and  in  book-binding. 

She  is  only  seventh  in  the  production  of  wood,  while  she  is  the 
twelfth  in  area.  Surely  that  is  well  done  for  the  Prairie  State.  She  now 
has  much  more  wood  and  growing  timber  than  she  had  thirty  years  ago. 

A  few  leading  industries  will  justify  emphasis.  She  manufactures 
$205,000,000  worth  of  goods,  which  places  her  well  up  toward  New  York 
and  Pennsylvania.  The  number  of  her  manufacturing  establishments 
increased  from  1860  to  1870,  300  per  cent.;  capital  employed  increased  350 
per  cent,,  and  the  amount  of  product  increased  400  per  cent.  She  issued 
5,500,000  copies  of  commercial  and  financial  newspapers — only  second  to 
New  York.  She  has  6,759  miles  of  railroad,  thus  leading  all  other  States, 
worth  $636,458,000,  using  3,245  engines,  and  67,712  cars,  making  a  train 
long  enough  to  cover  one-tenth  of  the  entire  roads  of  the  State.  Her 
stations  are  only  five  miles  apart.  She  carried  last  year  15,795,000  passen¬ 
gers,  an  average  of  36|-  miles,  or  equal  to  taking  her  entire  population  twice 
across  the  State.  More  than  two-thirds  of  her  land  is  within  five  miles  of 
a  railroad,  and  less  than  two  per  cent,  is  more  than  fifteen  miles  away. 

The  State  has  a  large  financial  interest  in  the  Illinois  Central  railroad. 
The  road  was  incorporated  in  1850,  and  the  State  gave  each  alternate  sec¬ 
tion  for  six  miles  on  each  side,  and  doubled  the  price  of  the  remaining 
land,  so  keeping  herself  good.  The  road  received  2,595,000  acres  of  land, 
and  pays  to  the  State  one-seventh  of  the  gross  receipts.  The  State 
receives  this  year  $350,000,  and  has  received  in  all  about  $7,000,000.  It 
is  practically  the  people’s  road,  and  it  has  a  most  able  and  gentlemanly 
management.  Add  to  this  the  annual  receipts  from  the  canal,  $111,000, 
and  a  large  per  cent,  of  the  State  tax  is  provided  for. 




of  the  State  keep  step  with  her  productions  and  growth.  She  was  born 
of  the  missionary  spirit.  It  was  a  minister  who  secured  for  her  the  ordi¬ 
nance  of  1787,  by  which  she  has  been  saved  from  slavery,  ignorance,  and 
dishonesty.  Rev.  Mr.  Wiley,  pastor  of  a  Scotch  congregation  in  Randolph 
County,  petitioned  the  Constitutional  Convention  of  1818  to  recognize 
Jesus  Christ  as  king,  and  the  Scriptures  as  the  only  necessary  guide  and 
book  of  law.  The  convention  did  not  act  in  the  case,  and  the  old  Cove¬ 
nanters  refused  to  accept  citizenship.  They  never  voted  until  1824,  when 
the  slavery  question  was  submitted  to  the  people;  then  they  all  voted 
against  it  and  cast  the  determining  votes.  Conscience  has  predominated 
whenever  a  great  moral  question  has  been  submitted  to  the  people. 

But  little  mob  violence  has  ever  been  felt  in  the  State.  In  181 1 
regulators  disposed  of  a  band  of  horse-thieves  that  infested  the  territory. 
The  Mormon  indignities  finally  awoke  the  same  spirit.  Alton  was  also 
the  scene  of  a  pro-slavery  mob,  in  which  Lovejoy  was  added  to  the  list  of 
martyrs.  The  moral  sense  of  the  people  makes  the  law  supreme,  and  gives 
to  the  State  unruffled  peace. 

With  822,800,000  in  church  property,  and  4,298  church  organizations, 
the  State  has  that  divine  police,  the  sleepless  patrol  of  moral  ideas,  that 
alone  is  able  to  secure  perfect  safety.  Conscience  takes  the  knife  from 
the  assassin’s  hand  and  the  bludgeon  from  the  grasp  of  the  highwayman. 
We  sleep  in  safety,  not  because  we  are  behind  bolts  and  bars — these  only 
fence  against  the  innocent^;  not  because  a  lone  officer  drowses  on  a  distant 
corner  of  a  street;  not  because  a  sheriff  ma}r  call  his  posse  from  a  remote 
part  of  the  county ;  but  because  conscience  guards  the  very  portals  of  the 
air  and  stirs  in  the  deepest  recesses  of  the  public  mind.  This  spirit  issues 
within  the  State  9,500,000  copies  of  religious  papers  annually,  and  receives 
still  more  from  without.  Thus  the  crime  of  the  State  is  only  one-fourth 
that  of  New  York  and  one-half  that  of  Pennsylvania. 

Illinois  never  had  but  one  duel  between  her  own  citizens.  In  Belle¬ 
ville,  in  1820,  Alphonso  Stewart  and  William  Bennett  arranged  to  vindi¬ 
cate  injured  honor.  The  seconds  agreed  to  make  it  a  sham,  and  make 
them  shoot  blanks.  Stewart  was  in  the  secret.  Bennett  mistrusted  some¬ 
thing,  and,  unobserved,  slipped  a  bullet  into  his  gun  and  killed  Stewart. 
He  then  fled  the  State.  After  two  years  he  was  caught,  tried,  convicted, 
and,  in  spite  of  friends  and  political  aid,  was  hung.  This  fixed  the  code 
of  honor  on  a  Christian  basis,  and  terminated  its  use  in  Illinois. 

The  early  preachers  were  ignorant  men,  who  were  accounted  eloquent 
according  to  the  strength  of  their  voices.  But  they  set  the  style  for  all 
public  speakers.  Lawyers  and  political  speakers  followed  this  rule.  Gov. 



Ford  says:  “Nevertheless,  these  first  preachers  were  of  incalculable 
benefit  to  the  country.  They  inculcated  justice  and  morality.  To  them 
are  we  indebted  for  the  first  Christian  character  of  the  Protestant  portion 
of  the  people.” 

In  education  Illinois  surpasses  her  material  resources.  The  ordinance 
of  1787  consecrated  one  thirty -sixth  of  her  soil  to  common  schools,  and 
the  law  of  1818,  the  first  law  that  went  upon  her  statutes,  gave  three  per 
cent,  of  all  the  rest  to 


The  old  compact  secures  this  interest  forever,  and  by  its  yoking 
morality  and  intelligence  it  precludes  the  legal  interference  with  the  Bible 
in  the  public  schools.  With  such  a  start  it  is  natural  that  we  should  have 
11,050  schools,  and  that  our  illiteracy  should  be  less  than  New  York  or 
Pennsylvania,  and  only  about  one-half  of  Massachusetts.  We  are  not  to 
blame  for  not  having  more  than  one-half  as  many  idiots  as  the  great 
States.  These  public  schools  soon  made  colleges  inevitable.  The  first 
college,  still  flourishing,  was  started  in  Lebanon  in  1828,  by  the  M.  E. 
church,  and  named  after  Bishop  McKendree.  Illinois  College,  at  Jackson¬ 
ville,  supported  by  the  Presbyterians,  followed  in  1880.  In  1832  the  Bap¬ 
tists  built  Shurtleff  College,  at  Alton.  Then  the  Presbyterians  built  Knox 
College,  at  Galesburg,  in  1838,  and  the  Episcopalians  built  Jubilee  College, 
at  Peoria,  in  1847.  After  these  early  years  colleges  have  rained  down. 
A  settler  could  hardly  encamp  on  the  prairie  but  a  college  would  spring 
up  by  his  wagon.  The  State  now  has  one  very  well  endowed  and  equipped 
university,  namely,  the  Northwestern  University,  at  Evanston,  with  six 
colleges,  ninety  instructors,  over  1,000  students,  and  $ 1,500,000  endow¬ 

Rev.  J.  M.  Peck  was  the  first  educated  Protestant  minister  m  tne 
State.  He  settled  at  Rock  Spring,  in  St.  Clair  County,  1820,  and  left  his 
impress  on  the  State.  Before  1837  only  party  papers  were  published,  but 
Mr.  Peck  published  a  Gazetteer  of  Illinois.  Soon  after  John  Russell,  of 
Bluffdale,  published  essays  and  tales  showing  genius.  Judge  James  Hall 
published  The  Illinois  Monthly  Magazine  with  great  ability,  and  an  annual 
called  The  Western  Souvenir ,  which  gave  him  an  enviable  fame  all  over  the 
United  States.  From  these  beginnings  Illinois  has  gone  on  till  she  has 
more  volumes  in  public  libaaries  even  than  Massachusetts,  and  of  the 
44,500,000  volumes  in  all  the  public  libraries  of  the  United  States,  she 
has  one-thirteenth.  In  newspapers  she  stands  fourth.  Her  increase  is 
marvelous.  In  1850  she  issued  5,000,000  copies;  in  1860,  27,590,000  ;  in 
1870,  113,140,000.  In  1860  she  had  eighteen  colleges  and  seminaries ;  in 
1870  she  had  eighty.  That  is  a  grand  advance  for  the  war  decade. 

This  brings  us  to  a  record  unsurpassed  in  the  history  of  any  age, 




I  hardly  know  where  to  begin,  or  how  to  advance,  or  what  to  say.  I 
can  at  best  give  you  only  a  broken  synopsis  of  her  deeds,  and  you  must 
put  them  in  the  order  of  glory  for  yourself.  Her  sons  have  always  been 
foremost  on  fields  of  danger.  In  1832-33,  at  the  call  of  Gov.  Reynolds, 
her  sons  drove  Blackhawk  over  the  Mississippi. 

When  the  Mexican  war  came,  in  May,  1846,  8,370  men  offered  them¬ 
selves  when  only  3,720  could  be  accepted.  The  fields  of  Buena  Vista  and 
Vera  Cruz,  and  the  storming  of  Cerro  Gordo,  will  carry  the  glory  of  Illinois 
soldiers  along  after  the  infamy  of  the  cause  they  served  has  been  forgotten. 
But  it  was  reserved  till  our  day  for  her  sons  to  find  a  field  and  cause  and 
foemen  that  could  fitly  illustrate  their  spirit  and  heroism.  Illinois  put 
into  her  own  regiments  for  the  United  States  government  256,000  men, 
and  into  the  army  through  other  States  enough  to  swell  the  number  to 
290,000.  This  far  exceeds  all  the  soldiers  of  the  federal  government  in 
all  the  war  of  the  revolution.  Her  total  years  of  service  were  over  600,000. 
She  enrolled  men  from  eighteen  to  forty -five  years  of  age  when  the  law 
of  Congress  in  1864 — the  test  time — only  asked  for  those  from  twenty  to 
forty-five.  Her  enrollment  was  otherwise  excessive.  Her  people  wanted 
to  go,  and  did  not  take  the  pains  to  correct  the  enrollment.  Thus  the 
basis  of  fixing  the  quota  was  too  great,  and  then  the  quota  itself,  at  least 
in  the  trying  time,  was  far  above  any  other  State. 

Thus  the  demand  on  some  counties,  as  Monroe,  for  example,  took  every 
able-bodied  man  in  the  county,  and  then  did  not  have  enough  to  fill  the 
quota.  Moreover,  Illinois  sent  20,844  men  for  ninety  or  one  hundred  days, 
for  whom  no  credit  was  asked.  When  Mr.  Lincoln’s  attention  was  called 
to  the  inequality  of  the  quota  compared  with  other  States,  he  replied, 
“The  country  needs  the  sacrifice.  We  must  pot  the  whip  on  the  free 
horse.”  In  spite  of  all  these  disadvantages  Illinois  gave  to  the  country 
73,000  years  of  service  above  all  calls.  With  one-thirteenth  of  the  popu¬ 
lation  of  the  loyal  States,  she  sent  regularly  one-tenth  of  all  the  soldiers, 
and  in  the  peril  of  the  closing  calls,  when  patriots  were  few  and  weary, 
she  then  sent  one-eighth  of  all  that  were  called  for  by  her  loved  and  hon¬ 
ored  son  in  the  white  house.  Her  mothers  and  daughters  went  into  the 
fields  to  raise  the  grain  and  keep  the  children  together,  while  the  fathers 
and  older  sons  went  to  the  harvest  fields  of  the  world.  I  knew  a  father 
and  four  sons  who  agreed  that  one  of  them  must  stay  at  home ;  and  they 
pulled  straws  from  a  stack  to  see  who  might  go.  The  father  was  left. 
The  next  day  he  came  into  the  camp,  saying  :  “  Mother  says  she  can  get 

the  crops  in,  and  I  am  going,  too.”  I  know  large  Methodist  churches 
from  which  every  male  member  went  to  the  army.  Do  you  want  to  know 



what  these  heroes  from  Illinois  did  in  the  field  ?  Ask  any  soldier  with  a 
good  record  of  his  own,  who  is  thus  able  to  judge,  and  he  will  tell  you 
that  the  Illinois  men  went  in  to  win.  It  is  common  history  that  the  greater 
victories  were  won  in  the  West.  When  everything  else  looked  dark  Illi¬ 
nois  was  gaining  victories  all  down  the  river,  and  dividing  the  confederacy. 
Sherman  took  with  him  on  his  great  march  forty-live  regiments  of  Illinois 
infantry,  three  companies  of  artillery,  and  one  company  of  cavalry.  He 
could  not  avoid 


If  he  had  been  killed,  I  doubt  not  the  men  would  have  gone  right  on. 
Lincoln  answered  all  rumors  of  Sherman’s  defeat  with,  “  It  is  impossible  ; 
there  is  a  mighty  sight  of  fight  in  100,000  Western  men.”  Illinois  soldiers 
brought  home  300  battle-flags.  The  first  United  States  flag  that  floated 
over  Richmond  was  an  Illinois  flag.  She  sent  messengers  and  nurses  to 
every  field  and  hospital,  to  care  for  her  sick  and  wounded  sons.  She  said, 
u  These  suffering  ones  are  my  sons,  and  I  will  care  for  them.” 

When  individuals  had  given  all,  then  cities  and  towns  came  forward 
with  their  credit  to  the  extent  of  many  millions,  to  aid  these  men  and 
their  families. 

Illinois  gave  the  country  the  great  general  of  the  war — Ulysses  S. 
Grant — since  honored  with  two  terms  of  the  Presidency  of  the  United 

One  other  name  from  Illinois  comes  up  in  all  minds,  embalmed  in  all 
hearts,  that  must  have  the  supreme  place  in  this  story  of  our  glory  and 
of  our  nation’s  honor ;  that  name  is  Abraham  Lincoln,  of  Illinois. 

The  analysis  of  Mr.  Lincoln's  character  is  difficult  on  account  of  its 

In  this  age  we  look  with  admiration  at  his  uncompromising  honesty. 
And  well  we  may,  for  this  saved  us.  Thousands  throughout  the  length 
and  breadth  of  our  country  who  knew  him  only  as  “  Honest  Old  Abe/' 
voted  for  him  on  that  account ;  and  wisely  did  they  choose,  for  no  other 
man  could  have  carried  us  through  the  fearful  night  of  the  war.  When 
his  plans  were  too  vast  for  our  comprehension,  and  his  faith  in  the  cause 
too  sublime  for  our  participation ;  when  it  was  all  night  about  us,  and  all 
dread  before  us,  and  all  sad  and  desolate  behind  us ;  when  not  one  ray 
shone  upon  our  cause ;  when  traitors  were  haughty  and  exultant  at  the 
South,  and  fierce  and  blasphemous  at  the  North  ;  when  the  loyal  men  here 
seemed  almost  in  the  minority  ;  when  the  stoutest  heart  quailed,  the  bravest 
cheek  paled  ;  when  generals  were  defeating  each  other  for  place,  and 
contractors  were  leeching  out  the  very  heart’s  blood  of  the  prostrate 
republic :  when  every  thing  else  had  failed  us,  we  looked  at  this  calm, 
patient  man  standing  like  a  rock  in  the  storm,  and  said  :  “  Mr.  Lincoln 



is  honest,  and  we  can  trust  him  still.”  Holding  to  this  single  point  with 
the  energy  of  faith  and  despair  we  held  together,  and,  under  God,  he 
brought  us  through  to  victory. 

His  practical  wisdom  made  him  the  wonder  of  all  lands.  With  such 
certainty  did  Mr.  Lincoln  follow  causes  to  their  ultimate  effects,  that  his 
foresight  of  contingencies  seemed  almost  prophetic. 

He  is  radiant  with  all  the  great  virtues,  and  his  memory  shall  shed  a 
glory  upon  this  age  that  shall  fill  the  eyes  of  men  as  they  look  into  his¬ 
tory.  Other  men  have  excelled  him  in  some  point,  but,  taken  at  all 
points,  all  in  all,  he  stands  head  and  shoulders  above  every  other  man  of 
6,000  years.  An  administrator,  he  saved  the  nation  in  the  perils  of 
unparalleled  civil  war.  A  statesman,  he  justified  his  measures  by  their 
success.  A  philanthropist,  he  gave  liberty  to  one  race  and  salvation  to 
another.  A  moralist,  he  bowed  from  the  summit  of  human  power  to  the 
foot  of  the  Cross,  and  became  a  Christian.  A  mediator,  he  exercised  mercy 
under  the  most  absolute  abeyance  to  law.  A  leader,  he  was  no  partisan. 
A  commander,  he  was  untainted  with  blood.  A  ruler  in  desperate  times, 
he  was  unsullied  with  crime.  A  man,  he  has  left  no  word  of  passion,  no 
thought  of  malice,  no  trick  of  craft,  no  act  of  jealousy,  no  purpose  of 
selfish  ambition.  Thus  perfected,  without  a  model,  and  without  a  peer, 
he  was  dropped  into  these  troubled  years  to  adorn  and  embellish  all  that 
is  good  and  all  that  is  great  in  our  humanity,  and  to  present  to  all  coming 
time  the  representative  of  the  divine  idea  of  free  government. 

It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  away  down  in  the  future,  when  the 
republic  has  fallen  from  its  niche  in  the  wall  of  time  ;  when  the  great 
war  itself  shall  have  faded  out  in  the  distance  like  a  mist  on  the  horizon ; 
when  the  Anglo-Saxon  language  shall  be  spoken  only  by  the  tongue  of 
the  stranger ;  then  the  generations  looking  this  way  shall  see  the  great 
president  as  the  supreme  figure  in  this  vortex  of  historv 


It  is  impossible  in  our  brief  space  to  give  more  than  a  meager  sketch 
of  such  a  city  as  Chicago,  which  is  in  itself  the  greatest  marvel  of  the 
Prairie  State.  This  mysterious,  majestic,  mighty  city,  born  first  of  water, 
and  next  of  fire;  sown  in  weakness,  and  raised  in  power;  planted  among 
the  willows  of  the  marsh,  and  crowned  with  the  glory  of  the  mountains  ; 
sleeping  on  the  bosom  of  the  prairie,  and  rocked  on  the  bosom  of  the  sea ; 
the  youngest  city  of  the  world,  and  still  the  eye  of  the  prairie,  as  Damas¬ 
cus,  the  oldest  city  of  the  world,  is  the  eye  of  the  desert.  With  a  com¬ 
merce  far  exceeding  that  of  Corinth  on  her  isthmus,  in  the  highway  to 
the  East;  with  the  defenses  of  a  continent  piled  around  her  by  the  thou¬ 
sand  miles,  making  her  far  safer  than  Rome  on  the  banks  of  the  Tiber ; 





with  schools  eclipsing  Alexandria  and  Athens ;  with  liberties  more  con¬ 
spicuous  than  those  of  the  old  republics  ;  with  a  heroism  equal  to  the  first 
Carthage,  and  with  a  sanctity  scarcely  second  to  that  of  Jerusalem — set 
your  thoughts  on  all  this,  lifted  into  the  eyes  of  all  men  by  the  miracle  of 
its  growth,  illuminated  by  the  flame  of  its  fall,  and  transfigured  by  the 
divinity  of  its  resurrection,  and  you  will  feel,  as  I  do,  the  utter  impossi¬ 
bility  of  compassing  this  subject  as  it  deserves.  Some  impression  of  her 
importance  is  received  from  the  shock  her  burning  gave  to  the  civilized 

When  the  doubt  of  her  calamity  was  removed,  and  the  horrid  fact 
was  accepted,  there  went  a  shudder  over  all  cities,  and  a  quiver  over  all 
lands.  There  was  scarcely  a  town  in  the  civilized  world  that  did  not 
shake  on  the  brink  of  this  opening  chasm.  The  flames  of  our  homes  red¬ 
dened  all  skies.  The  city  was  set  upon  a  hill,  and  could  not  be  hid.  All 
eyes  were  turned  upon  it.  To  have  struggled  and  suffered  amid  the 
scenes  of  its  fall  is  as  distinguishing  as  to  have  fought  at  Thermopylae,  or 
Salamis,  or  Hastings,  or  Waterloo,  or  Bunker  Hill. 

Its  calamity  amazed  the  world,  because  it  was  felt  to  be  the  common 
property  of  mankind. 

The  early  history  of  the  city  is  full  of  interest,  just  as  the  early  his¬ 
tory  of  such  a  man  as  Washington  or  Lincoln  becomes  public  property, 
and  is  cherished  by  every  patriot. 

Starting  with  560  acres  in  1833,  it  embraced  and  occupied  23,000 
acres  in  1869,  and,  having  now  a  population  of  more  than  500,000,  it  com¬ 
mands  general  attention. 

The  first  settler — Jean  Baptiste  Pointe  au  Sable,  a  mulatto  from  the 
West  Indies — came  and  began  trade  with  the  Indians  in  1796.  John 
Kinzie  became  his  successor  in  1804,  in  which  year  Fort  Dearborn  was 

A  mere  trading-post  was  kept  here  from  that  time  till  about  the  time 
of  the  Blackhawk  war,  in  1832.  It  was  not  the  city.  It  was  merely  a 
cock  crowing  at  midnight.  The  morning  was  not  yet.  In  1833  the  set¬ 
tlement  about  the  fort  was  incorporated  as  a  town.  The  voters  were 
divided  on  the  propriety  of  such  corporation,  twelve  voting  for  it  and  one 
against  it.  Four  years  later  it  was  incorporated  as  a  city,  and  embraced 
560  acres. 

The  produce  handled  in  this  city  is  an  indication  of  its  power.  Grain 
and  flour  were  imported  from  the  East  till  as  late  as  1837.  The  first 
exportation  by  way  of  experiment  was  in  1839.  Exports  exceeded  imports 
first  in  1842.'  The  Board  of  Trade  was  organized  in  1848,  but  it  was  so 
weak  that  it  needed  nursing  till  1855.  Grain  was  purchased  by  the 
wagon-load  in  the  street.  1 

I  remember  sitting  with  my  father  on  a  load  of  wheat,  in  the  long 



line  of  wagons  along  Lake  street,  while  the  buyers  came  and  untied  the 
bags,  and  examined  the  grain,  and  made  their  bids.  That  manner  of 
business  had  to  cease  with  the  day  of  small  things.  Now  our  elevators 
will  hold  15,000,000  bushels  of  grain.  The  cash  value  of  the  produce 
handled  in  a  year  is  $215,000,000,  and  the  produce  weighs  7,000,000 
tons  or  700,000  car  loads.  This  handles  thirteen  and  a  half  ton  each 
minute,  all  the  year  round.  One  tenth  of  all  the  wheat  in  the  United 
States  is  handled  in  Chicago.  Even  as  long  ago  as  1853  the  receipts  of 
grain  in  Chicago  exceeded  those  of  the  goodly  city  of  St.  Louis,  and  in 
1854  the  exports  of  grain  from  Chicago  exceeded  those  of  New  York  and 
doubled  those  of  St.  Petersburg,  Archangel,  or  Odessa,  the  largest  grain 
markets  in  Europe. 

The  manufacturing  interests  of  the  city  are  not  contemptible.  In 
1873  manufactories  employed  45,000  operatives ;  in  1876,60,000.  The 
manufactured  product  in  1875  was  worth  $177,000,000. 

No  estimate  of  the  size  and  power  of  Chicago  would  be  adequate 
that  did  not  put  large  emphasis  on  the  railroads.  Before  they  came 
thundering  along  our  streets  canals  were  the  hope  of  our  country.  But 
who  ever  thinks  now  of  traveling  by  canal  packets?  In  June,  1852, 
there  were  only  forty  miles  of  railroad  connected  with  the  city.  The 
old  Galena  division  of  the  Northwestern  ran  out  to  Elgin.  But  now, 
who  can  count  the  trains  and  measure  the  roads  that  seek  a  terminus  or 
connection  in  this  city?  The  lake  stretches  away  to  the  north,  gathering 
in  to  this  center  all  the  harvests  that  might  otherwise  pass  to  the  north 
of  us.  If  you  will  take  a  map  and  look  at  the  adjustment  of  railroads, 
you  will  see,  first,  that  Chicago  is  the  great  railroad  center  of  the  world, 
as  New  York  is  the  commercial  city  of  this  continent;  and,  second,  that 
the  railroad  lines  form  the  iron  spokes  of  a  great  wheel  whose  hub  is 
this  city.  The  lake  furnishes  the  only  break  in  the  spokes,  and  this 
seems  simply  to  have  pushed  a  few  spokes  together  on  each  shore.  See 
the  eighteen  trunk  lines,  exclusive  of  eastern  connections. 

Pass  round  the  circle,  and  view  their  numbers  and  extent.  There 
is  the  great  Northwestern,  with  all  its  branches,  one  branch  creeping 
along  the  lake  shore,  and  so  reaching  to  the  north,  into  the  Lake  Superior 
regions,  away  to  the  right,  and  on  to  the  Northern  Pacific  on  the  left, 
swinging  around  Green  Bay  for  iron  and  copper  and  silver,  twelve  months 
in  the  year,  and  reaching  out  for  the  wealth  of  the  great  agricultural 
belt  and  isothermal  line  traversed  by  the  Northern  Pacific.  Another 
branch,  not  so  far  north,  feeling  for  the  heart  of  the  Badger  State. 
Another  pushing  lower  down  the  Mississippi — all  these  make  many  con¬ 
nections,  and  tapping  all  the  vast  wheat  regions  of  Minnesota,  Wisconsin, 
Iowa,  and  all  the  regions  this  side  of  sunset.  There  is  that  elegant  road, 
the  Chicago,  Burlington  &  Quincy,  running  out  a  goodly  number  of 







branches,  and  reaping  the  great  fields  this  side  of  the  Missouri  River. 
I  can  only  mention  the  Chicago,  Alton  &  St.  Louis,  our  Illinois  Central, 
described  elsewhere,  and  the  Chicago  &  Rock  Island.  Further  around 
we  come  to  the  lines  connecting  us  with  all  the  eastern  cities.  The 
Chicago,  Indianapolis  &  St.  Louis,  the  Pittsburgh,  Fort  Wayne  & 
Chicago,  the  Lake  Shore  &  Michigan  Southern,  and  the  Michigan  Cen¬ 
tral  and  Great  W estern,  give  us  many  highways  to  the  seaboard.  Thus  we 
reach  the  Mississippi  at  five  points,  from  St.  Paul  to  Cairo  and  the  Gulf 
itself  by  two  routes.  We  also  reach  Cincinnati  and  Baltimore,  and  Pitts¬ 
burgh  and  Philadelphia,  and  New  York.  North  and  south  run  the  water 
courses  of  the  lakes  and  the  rivers,  broken  just  enough  at  this  point  to 
make  a  pass.  Through  this,  from  east  to  west,  run  the  long  lines  that 
stretch  from  ocean  to  ocean. 

This  is  the  neck  of  the  glass,  and  the  golden  sands  of  commerce 
must  pass  into  our  hands.  Altogether  we  have  more  than  10,000  miles 
of  railroad,  directly  tributary  to  this  city,  seeking  to  unload  their  wealth 
in  our  coffers.  All  these-  roads  have  come  themselves  by  the  infallible 
instinct  of  capital.  Not  a  dollar  was  ever  given  by  the  city  to  secure 
one  of  them,  and  only  a  small  per  cent,  of  stock  taken  originally  by  her 
citizens,  and  that  taken  simply  as  an  investment.  Coming  in  the  natural 
order  of  events,  they  will  not  be  easily  diverted. 

There  is  still  another  showing  to  all  this.  The  connection  between 
New  York  and  San  Francisco  is  by  the  middle  route.  This  passes  inevit¬ 
ably  through  Chicago.  St.  Louis  wants  the  Southern  Pacific  or  Kansas 
Pacific,  and  pushes  it  out  through  Denver,  and  so  on  up  to  Cheyenne. 
But  before  the  road  is  fairly  under  way,  the  Chicago  roads  shove  out  to 
Kansas  City,  making  even  the  Kansas  Pacific  a  feeder,  and  actually  leav¬ 
ing  St.  Louis  out  in  the  cold.  It  is  not  too  much  to  expect  that  Dakota, 
Montana,  and  Washington  Territory  will  find  their  great  market  in  Chi¬ 

But  these  are  not  all.  Perhaps  I  had  better  notice  here  the  ten  or 
fifteen  new  roads  that  have  just  entered,  or  are  just  entering,  our  city. 
Their  names  are  all  that  is  necessary  to  give.  Chicago  &  St.  Paul,  look¬ 
ing  up  the  Red  River  country  to  the  British  possessions ;  the  Chicago, 
Atlantic  &  Pacific ;  the  Chicago,  Decatur  &  State  Line ;  the  Baltimore  & 
Ohio;  the  Chicago,  Danville  &  Vincennes;  the  Chicago  &  LaSalle  Rail¬ 
road  ;  the  Chicago,  Pittsburgh  &  Cincinnati ;  the  Chicago  and  Canada 
Southern ;  the  Chicago  and  Illinois  River  Railroad.  These,  with  their 
connections,  and  with  the  new  connections  of  the  old  roads,  already  in 
process  of  erection,  give  to  Chicago  not  less  than  10,000  miles  of  new- 
tributaries  from  the  richest  land  on  the  continent.  Thus  there  will  be 
added  to  the  reserve  power,  to  the  capital  within  reach  of  this  city,  not 
less  than  81,000,000,000. 



Add  to  all  this  transporting  power  the  ships  that  sail  one  every  nine 
minutes  of  the  business  hours  of  the  season  of  navigation ;  add,  also,  the 
canal  boats  that  leave  one  every  five  minutes  during  the  same  time — and 
you  will  see  something  of  the  business  of  the  citv. 



has  been  leaping  along  to  keep  pace  with  the  growth  of  the  country 
around  us.  In  1852,  our  commerce  reached  the  hopeful  sum  of 
820,000,000.  In  1870  it  reached  8100,000,000.  In  1871  it  was  pushed 
up  above  *450,000,000.  And  in  1875  it  touched  nearly  double  that. 

One-half  of  our  imported  goods  come  directly  to  Chicago.  Grain 
enough  is  exported  directly  from  our  docks  to  the  old  world  to  employ  a 
semi-weekly  line  of  steamers  of  3,000  tons  capacity.  This  branch  is 
not  likely  to  be  greatly  developed.  Even  after  the  great  Welland  Canal 
is  completed  we  shall  have  onlv  fourteen  feet  of  water.  The  oueat  ocean 
vessels  will  continue  to  control  the  trade. 

The  banking  capital  of  Chicago  is  824,431,000.  Total  exchange  in 
1875,  8659,000,000.  Her  wholesale  business  in  1875  was  8294,000.000. 
The  rate  of  taxes  is  less  than  in  any  other  great  city. 

The  schools  of  Chicago  are  unsurpassed  in  America.  Out  of  a  popu¬ 
lation  of  300,000  there  were  only  186  persons  between  the  ages  of  six 
and  twenty-one  unable  to  read.  This  is  the  best  known  record. 

In  I8bl  the  mail  system  was  condensed  into  a  half-breed,  who  went 
on  foot  to  Niles,  Mich.,  once  in  two  weeks,  and  brought  back  what  papers 
and  news  he  could  find.  As  late  as  1846  there  was  often  only  one  mail 
a  week.  A  post-office  was  established  in  Chicago  in  1833,  and  the  post¬ 
master  nailed  up  old  boot-legs  on  one  side  of  his  shop  to  serve  as  boxes 
for  the  nabobs  and  literarv  men. 

It  is  an  interesting  fact  in  the  growth  of  the  young  city  that  in  the 
active  life  of  the  business  men  ot  that  day  the  mail  matter  has  grown  to 
a  daily  average  of  over  6,500  pounds.  It  speaks  equally  well  for  the 
intelligence  of  the  people  and  the  commercial  importance  of  the  place, 
that  the  mail  matter  distributed  to  the  territory  immediately  tributary  to 
Chicago  is  seven  times  greater  than  that  distributed  to  the  territory 
immediately  tributary  to  St.  Louis. 

The  improvements  that  have  characterized  the  citv  are  as  startling 
as  the  city  itself.  In  1831,  Mark  Beaubien  established  a  ferrv  over  the 
river,  and  put  himself  under  bonds  to  carry  all  the  citizens  free  for  the 

privilege  of  charging  strangers.  Now  there  are  twenty-four  large  bridges 
and  two  tunnels. 

In  1833  the  government  expended  830,000  on  the  harbor.  Then 
commenced  that  series  of  manoeuvers  with  the  river  that  has  made  it  one 



of  the  world’s  curiosities.  It  used  to  wind  around  in  the  lower  end  of 
the  town,  and  make  its  way  rippling  over  the  sand  into  the  lake  at  the 
foot  of  Madison  street.  They  took  it  up  and  put  it  down  where  it  now 
is.  It  was  a  narrow  stream,  so  narrow  that  even  moderately  small  crafts 
had  to  go  up  through  the  willows  and  cat’s  tails  to  the  point  near  Lake 
street  bridge,  and  back  up  one  of  the  branches  to  get  room  enough  in 
which  to  turn  around. 

In  1844  the  quagmires  in  the  streets  were  first  pontooned  by  plank 
roads,  which  acted  in  wet  weather  as  public  squirt-guns.  Keeping  you 
out  of  the  mud,  they  compromised  by  squirting  the  mud  over  you.  The 
wooden-block  pavements  came  to  Chicago  in  1857.  In  1840  water  was 
delivered  by  peddlers  in  carts  or  by  hand.  Then  a  twenty-five  horse¬ 
power  engine  pushed  it  through  hollow  or  bored  logs  along  the  streets 
till  1854,  when  it  was  introduced  into  the  houses  by  new  works.  The 
first  fire-engine  was  used  in  1835,  and  the  first  steam  fire-engine  in  1859. 
Gas  was  utilized  for  lighting  the  city  in  1850.  The  Young  Men’s  Chris¬ 
tian  Association  was  organized  in  1858,  and  horse  railroads  carried  them 
to  their  work  in  1859.  The  museum  was  opened  in  1863.  The  alarm 
telegraph  adopted  in  1864.  The  opera-house  built  in  1865.  The  city 
grew  from  560  acres  in  1833  to  23,000  in  1869.  In  1834,  the  taxes 
amounted  to  148.90,  and  the  trustees  of  the  town  borrowed  $60  more  for 
opening  and  improving  streets.  In  1835,  the  legislature  authorized  a  loan 
of  $2,000,  and  the  treasurer  and  street  commissioners  resigned  rather  than 
plunge  the  town  into  such  a  gulf. 

Now  the  city  embraces  36  square  miles  of  territory,  and  has  30  miles 
of  water  front,  besides  the  outside  harbor  of  refuge,  of  400  acres,  inclosed 
by  a  crib  sea-wall.  One-third  of  the  city  has  been  raised  up  an  average 
of  eight  feet,  giving  good  pitch  to  the  263  miles  of  sewerage.  The  water 
of  the  city  is  above  all  competition.  It  is  received  through  two  tunnels 
extending  to  a  crib  in  the  lake  two  miles  from  shore.  The  closest  analy¬ 
sis  fails  to  detect  any  impurities,  and,  received  35  feet  below  the  surface, 
it  is  always  clear  and  cold.  The  first  tunnel  is  five  feet  two  inches  in 
diameter  and  two  miles  long,  and  can  deliver  50,000,000  of  gallons  per 
day.  The  second  tunnel  is  seven  feet  in  diameter  and  six  miles  long, 
running  four  miles  under  the  city,  and  can  deliver  100,000,000  of  gal¬ 
lons  per  day.  This  water  is  distributed  through  410  miles  oi  water- 

The  three  grand  engineering  exploits  of  the  city  are :  First,  lifting 
the  city  up  on  jack-screws,  whole  squares  at  a  time,  without  interrupting 
the  business,  thus  giving  us  good  drainage  ;  second,  running  the  tunnels 
under  the  lake,  giving  us  the  best  water  in  the  world ;  and  third,  the 
turning  the  current  of  the  river  in  its  own  channel,  delivering  us  from  the 
old  abominations,  and  making  decency  possible.  They  redound  about 



equally  to  the  credit  of  the  engineering,  to  the  energy  of  the  people,  and 
to  the  health  of  the  city. 

That  which  really  constitutes  the  city,  its  indescribable  spirit,  its  soul, 
the  way  it  lights  up  in  every  feature  in  the  hour  of  action,  has  not  been 
touched.  In  meeting  strangers,  one  is  often  surprised  how  some  homely 
women  marry  so  well.  Their  forms  are  bad,  their  gait  uneven  and  awk¬ 
ward,  their  complexion  is  dull,  their  features  are  misshapen  and  mismatch¬ 
ed,  and  when  we  see  them  there  is  no  beauty  that  we  should  desire  them. 
But  when  once  they  are  aroused  on  some  subject,  they  put  on  new  pro¬ 
portions.  They  light  up  into  great  power.  The  real  person  comes  out 
from  its  unseemly  ambush,  and  captures  us  at  will.  They  have  power. 
They  have  ability  to  cause  things  to  come  to  pass.  We  no  longer  wonder 
why  they  are  in  such  high  demand.  So  it  is  with  our  city. 

There  is  no  grand  scenery  except  the  two  seas,  one  of  water,  the 
other  of  prairie.  Nevertheless,  there  is  a  spirit  about  it,  a  push,  a  breadth, 
a  power,  that  soon  makes  it  a  place  never  to  be  forsaken.  One  soon 
ceases  to  believe  in  impossibilities.  Balaams  are  the  only  prophets  that  are 
disappointed.  The  bottom  that  has  been  on  the  point  of  falling  out  has 
been  there  so  long  that  it  has  grown  fast.  It  can  not  fall  out.  It  has  all 
the  capital  of  the  world  itching  to  get  inside  the  corporation. 

The  two  great  laws  that  govern  the  growth  and  size  of  cities  are, 
first,  the  amount  of  territory  for  which  they  are  the  distributing  and 
receiving  points  ;  second,  the  number  of  medium  or  moderate  dealers  that 
do  this  distributing.  Monopolists  build  up  themselves,  not  the  cities. 
They  neither  eat,  wear,  nor  live  in  proportion  to  their  business.  Both 
these  laws  help  Chicago. 

The  tide  of  trade  is  eastward — not  up  or  down  the  map,  but  across 
the  map.  The  lake  runs  up  a  wingdam  for  500  miles  to  gather  in  the 
business.  Commerce  can  not  ferry  up  there  for  seven  months  in  the  year, 
and  the  facilities  for  seven  months  can  do  the  work  for  twelve.  Then  the 
great  region  west  of  us  is  nearly  all  good,  productive  land.  Dropping 
south  into  the  trail  of  St.  Louis,  you  fall  into  vast  deserts  and  rocky  dis¬ 
tricts,  useful  in  holding  the  world  together.  St.  Louis  and  Cincinnati, 
instead  of  rivaling  and  hurting  Chicago,  are  her  greatest  sureties  of 
dominion.  They  are  far  enough  away  to  give  sea-room, — farther  off  than 
Paris  is  from  London, — and  yet  they  are  near  enough  to  prevent  the 
springing  up  of  any  other  great  city  between  them. 

St.  Louis  will  be  helped  by  the  opening  of  the  Mississippi,  but  also 
hurt.  That  will  put  New  Orleans  on  her  feet,  and  with  a  railroad  running 
over  into  Texas  and  so  West,  she  will  tap  the  streams  that  now  crawl  up 
the  Texas  and  Missouri  road.  The  current  is  East,  not  North,  and  a  sea¬ 
port  at  New  Orleans  can  not  permanently  help  St.  Louis. 

Chicago  is  in  the  field  almost  alone,  to  handle  the  wealth  of  one- 



fourth  of  the  territory  of  this  great  republic.  This  strip  of  seacoast 
divides  its  margins  between  Portland,  Boston,  New  York,  Philadelphia, 
Baltimore  and  Savannah,  or  some  other  great  port  to  be  created  for  the 
South  in  the  next  decade.  But  Chicago  has  a  dozen  empires  casting  their 
treasures  into  her  lap.  On  a  bed  of  coal  that  can  run  all  the  machinery 
of  the  world  for  500  centuries ;  in  a  garden  that  can  feed  the  race  by.  the 
thousand  years;  at  the  head  of  the  lakes  that  give  her  a  temperature  as  a 
summer  resort  equaled  by  no  great  city  in  the  land ;  with  a  climate  that 
insures  the  health  of  her  citizens ;  surrounded  by  all  the  great  deposits 
of  natural  wealth  in  mines  aud  forests  and  herds,  Chicago  is  the  wonder 
of  to-day,  and  will  be  the  city  of  the  future. 


During  the  war  of  1812,  Fort  Dearborn  became  the  theater  of  stirring 
events.  The  garrison  consisted  of  fifty-four  men  under  command  of 
Captain  Nathan  Heald,  assisted  by  Lieutenant  Helm  (son-in-law  of  Mrs. 
Kinzie)  and  Ensign  Ronan.  Dr.  Voorhees  was  surgeon.  The  only  resi¬ 
dents  at  the  post  at  that  time  were  the  wives  of  Captain  Heald  and  Lieu¬ 
tenant  Helm,  and  a  few  of  the  soldiers,  Mr.  Kinzie  and  his  family,  and 
a  few  Canadian  voyageurs ,  with  their  wives  and  children.  The  soldiers 
and  Mr.  Kinzie  were  on  most  friendly  terms  with  the  Pottawattamies 
and  Winnebagos,  the  principal  tribes  around  them,  but  they  could  not 
win  them  from  their  attachment  to  the  British. 

One  evening  in  April,  1812,  Mr.  Kinzie  sat  playing  on  his  violin  and 
his  children  were  dancing  to  the  music,  when  Mrs.  Kinzie  came  rushing 
into  the  house,  pale  with  terror,  and  exclaiming:  “The  Indians!  the 
Indians  !  ”  “  What  ?  Where  ?  ”  eagerly  inquired  Mr.  Kinzie.  “  LTp 

at  Lee’s,  killing  and  scalping,”  answered  the  frightened  mother,  who, 
when  the  alarm  was  given,  was  attending  Mrs.  Barnes  (just  confined) 
living  not  far  off.  Mr.  Kinzie  and  his  family  crossed  the  river  and  took 
refuge  in  the  fort,  to  which  place  Mrs.  Barnes  and  her  infant  not  a  day 
old  were  safely  conveyed.  The  rest  of  the  inhabitants  took  shelter  in  the 
fort.  This  alarm  was  caused  by  a  scalping  party  of  Winnebagos,  who 
hovered  about  the  fort  several  days,  when  they  disappeared,  and  for  several 
weeks  the  inhabitants  were  undisturbed. 

On  the  7th  of  August,  1812,  General  Hull,  at  Detroit,  sent  orders  to 
Captain  Heald  to  evacuate  Fort  Dearborn,  and  to  distribute  all  the  United 
States  property  to  the  Indians  in  the  neighborhood — a  most  insane  order. 
The  Pottawattamie  chief,  who  brought  the  dispatch,  had  more  wisdom 
than  the  commanding  general.  He  advised  Captain  Heald  not  to  make 
the  distribution.  Said  he  :  “  Leave  the  fort  and  stores  as  they  are,  and 

let  the  Indians  make  distribution  for  themselves ;  and  while  they  are 
engaged  in  the  business,  the  white  people  may  escape  to  Fort  Wayne.’ 




Captain  Heald  held  a  council  with  the  Indians  on  the  afternoon  of 
the  12th,  in  which  his  officers  refused  to  join,  for  they  had  been  informed 
that  treachery  was  designed — that  the  Indians  intended  to  murder  the 
white  people  in  the  council,  and  then  destroy  those  in  the  fort.  Captain 
Heald,  however,  took  the  precaution  to  open  a  port-hole  displaying  a 
cannon  pointing  directly  upon  the  council,  and  by  that  means  saved 
his  life. 

Mr.  Kinzie,  who  knew  the  Indians  well,  begged  Captain  Heald  not 
to  confide  in  their  promises,  nor  distribute  the  arms  and  munitions  among 
them,  for  it  would  only  put  power  into  their  hands  to  destroy  the  whites. 
Acting  upon  this  advice,  Heald  resolved  to  withhold  the  munitions  of 
war ;  and  on  the  night  of  the  13th,  after  the  distribution  of  the  other 
property  had  been  made,  the  powder,  ball  and  liquors  were  thrown  into 
the  river,  the  muskets  broken  up  and  destroyed. 

Black  Partridge,  a  friendly  chief,  came  to  Captain  Heald,  and  said: 
“  Linden  birds  have  been  singing  in  my  ears  to-day:  be  careful  on  the 
march  you  are  going  to  take.’5  On  that  dark  night  vigilant  Indians  had 
crept  near  the  fort  and  discovered  the  destruction  of  their  promised  booty 
going  on  within.  The  next  morning  the  powder  was  seen  floating  on  the 
surface  of  the  river.  The  savages  were  exasperated  and  made  loud  com¬ 
plaints  and  threats. 

On  the  following  day  when  preparations  were  making  to  leave  the 
fort,  and  all  the  inmates  were  deeply  impressed  with  a  sense  of  impend¬ 
ing  danger,  Capt.  Wells,  an  uncle  of  Mrs.  Heald,  was  discovered  upon 
the  Indian  trail  among  the  sand-hills  on  the  borders  of  the  lake,  not  far 
distant,  with  a  band  of  mounted  Miamis,  of  whose  tribe  he  was  chief, 
having  been  adopted  by  the  famous  Miami  warrior,  Little  Turtle.  When 
news  of  Hull’s  surrender  reached  Fort  Wayne,  he  had  started  with  this 
force  to  assist  Heald  in  defending  Fort  Dearborn.  He  was  too  late. 
Every  means  for  its  defense  had  been  destroyed  the  night  before,  and 
arrangements  were  made  for  leaving  the  fort  on  the  morning  of  the  loth. 

It  was  a  warm  bright  morning  in  the  middle  of  August.  Indications 
were  positive  that  the  savages  intended  to  murder  the  white  people ;  and 
when  they  moved  out  of  the  southern  gate  of  the  fort,  the  march  was 
like  a  funeral  procession.  The  band,  feeling  the  solemnity  of  the  occa¬ 
sion,  struck  up  the  Dead  March  in  Saul. 

Capt.  Wells,  who  had  blackened  his  face  with  gun-powder  in  token 
of  his  fate,  took  the  lead  with  his  band  of  Miamis,  followed  by  Capt. 
Heald,  with  his  wife  by  his  side  on  horseback.  Mr.  Kinzie  hoped  by  his 
personal  influence  to  avert  the  impending  blow,  and  therefore  accompanied 
them,  leaving  his  family  in  a  boat  in  charge  of  a  friendly  Indian,  to  be 
taken  to  his  trading  station  at  the  site  of  Niles,  Michigan,  in  the  event  o. 
his  death. 




The  procession  moved  slowly  along  the  lake  shore  till  they  reached 
the  sand-hills  between  the  prairie  and  the  beach,  when  the  Pottawattamie 
escort,  under  the  leadership  of  Blackbird,  filed  to  the  right,  placing  those 
hills  between  them  and  the  white  people.  Wells,  with  his  Miamis,  had 
kept  in  the  advance.  They  suddenly  came  rushing  back,  Wells  exclaim¬ 
ing,  44  They  are  about  to  attack  us ;  form  instantly.”  These  words  were 
quickly  followed  by  a  storm  of  bullets,  which  came  whistling  over  the 
little  hills  which  the  treacherous  savages  had  made  the  covert  for  their 
murderous  attack.  The  white  troops  charged  upon  the  Indians,  drove 
them  back  to  the  prairie,  and  then  the  battle  was  waged  between  fifty- 
four  soldiers,  twelve  civilians  and  three  or  four  women  (the  cowardly 
Miamis  having  fled  at  the  outset)  against  five  hundred  Indian  warriors. 
The  white  people,  hopeless,  resolved  to  sell  their  lives  as  dearly  as  possible. 
Ensign  Honan  wielded  his  weapon  vigorously,  even  after  falling  upon  his 
knees  weak  from  the  loss  of  blood.  Capt.  Wells,  who  was  by  the  side  of 
his  niece,  Mrs.  Heald,  when  the  conflict  began,  behaved  with  the  greatest 
coolness  and  courage.  He  said  to  her,  44  We  have  not  the  slightest  chance 
for  life.  We  must  part  to  meet  no  more  in  this  world.  God  bless  vou.” 
And  then  he  dashed  forward.  Seeing  a  young  warrior,  painted  like  a 
demon,  climb  into  a  wagon  in  which  were  twelve  children,  and  tomahawk 
them  all,  he  cried  out,  unmindful  of  his  personal  danger,  44  If  that  is  your 
game,  butchering  women  and  children,  I  will  kill  too.”  He  spurred  his 
horse  towards  the  Indian  camp,  where  they  had  left  their  squaws  and 
papooses,  hotly  pursued  by  swift-footed  young  warriors,  who  sent  bullets 
whistling  after  him.  One  of  these  killed  his  horse  and  wounded  him 
severely  in  the  leg.  With  a  yell  the  young  braves  rushed  to  make  him 
their  prisoner  and  reserve  him  for  torture.  He  resolved  not  to  be  made 
a  captive,  and  by  the  use  of  the  most  provoking  epithets  tried  to  induce 
them  to  kill  him  instantly.  He  called  a  fiery  young  chief  a  squaw ,  when 
the  enraged  warrior  killed  Wells  instantly  with  his  tomahawk,  jumped 
upon  his  body,  cut  out  his  heart,  and  ate  a  portion  of  the  warm  morsel 
with  savage  delight ! 

In  this  fearful  combat  women  bore  a  conspicuous  part.  Mrs.  Heald 
was  an  excellent  equestrian  and  an  expert  in  the  use  of  the  rifle.  She 
fought  the  savages  bravely,  receiving  several  severe  wounds.  Though 
faint  from  the  loss  of  blood,  she  managed  to  keep  her  saddle.  A  savage 
raised  his  tomahawk  to  kill  her,  when  she  looked  him  full  in  the  face, 
and  with  a  sweet  smile  and  in  a  gentle  voice  said,  in  his  own  language, 
44  Surely  you  will  not  kill  a  squaw  !  ”  The  arm  of  the  savage  fell,  and 
the  life  of  the  heroic  woman  was  saved. 

Mrs.  Helm,  the  step-daughter  of  Mr.  Kinzie,  had  an  encounter  with 
a  stout  Indian,  who  attempted  to  tomahawk  her.  Springing  to  one  side, 
she  received  the  glancing  blow  on  her  shoulder,  and  at  the  same  instant 



seized  the  savage  round  the  neck  with  her  arms  and  endeavored  to  get 
hold  of  his  scalping  knife,  which  hung  in  a  sheath  at  his  breast.  While 
she  was  thus  struggling  she  was  dragged  from  her  antagonist  by  another 
powerful  Indian,  who  bore  her,  in  spite  of  her  struggles,  to  the  margin 
of  the  lake  and  plunged  her  in.  To  her  astonishment  she  was  held  by 
him  so  that  she  would  not  drown,  and  she  soon  perceived  that  she  was 
in  the  hands  of  the  friendly  Black  Partridge,  who  had  saved  her  life. 

The  wife  of  Sergeant  Holt,  a  large  and  powerful  woman,  behaved  as 
bravely  as  an  Amazon.  She  rode  a  fine,  high-spirited  horse,  which  the 
Indians  coveted,  and  several  of  them  attacked  her  with  the  butts  of  their 
guns,  for  the  purpose  of  dismounting  her ;  but  she  used  the  sword  which 
she  had  snatched  from  her  disabled  husband  so  skillfully  that  she  foiled 
them ;  and,  suddenly  wheeling  her  horse,  she  dashed  over  the  prairie, 
followed  by  the  savages  shouting,  “  The  brave  woman  !  the  brave  woman  ! 
Don’t  hurt  her  !  ”  They  finally  overtook  her,  and  while  she  was  fighting 
them  in  front,  a  powerful  savage  came  up  behind  her,  seized  her  by  the 
neck  and  dragged  her  to  the  ground.  Horse  and  woman  were  made 
captives.  Mrs.  Holt  was  a  long  time  a  captive  among  the  Indians,  but 
was  afterwards  ransomed. 

In  this  sharp  conflict  two-thirds  of  the  white  people  were  slain  and 
wounded,  and  all  their  horses,  baggage  and  provision  were  lost.  Only 
twenty-eight  straggling  men  now  remained  to  fight  five  hundred  Indians 
rendered  furious  by  the  sight  of  blood.  They  succeeded  in  breaking 
through  the  ranks  of  the  murderers  and  gaining  a  slight  eminence  on  the 
prairie  near  the  Oak  Woods.  The  Indians  did  not  pursue,  but  gathered 
on  their  flanks,  while  the  chiefs  held  a  consultation  on  the  sand-hills,  and 
showed  signs  of  willingness  to  parley.  It  would  have  been  madness  on 
the  part  of  the  whites  to  renew  the  fight ;  and  so  Capt.  Heald  went  for¬ 
ward  and  met  Blackbird  on  the  open  prairie,  where  terms  of  surrender 
were  soon  agreed  upon.  It  was  arranged  that  the  white  people  should 
give  up  their  arms  to  Blackbird,  and  that  the  survivors  should  become 
prisoners  of  war,  to  be  exchanged  for  ransoms  as  soon  as  practicable. 
With  this  understanding  captives  and  captors  started  for  the  Indian 
camp  near  the  fort,  to  which  Mrs.  Helm  had  been  taken  bleeding  and 
suffering  b}r  Black  Partridge,  and  had  met  her  step-father  and  learned 
that  her  husband  was  safe. 

A  new  scene  of  horror  was  now  opened  at  the  Indian  camp.  The 
wounded,  not  being  included  in  the  terms  of  surrender,  as  it  was  inter¬ 
preted  by  the  Indians,  and  the  British  general,  Proctor,  having  offered  a 
liberal  bounty  for  American  scalps,  delivered  at  Malden,  nearly  all  the 
wounded  men  were  killed  and  scalped,  and  the  price  of  the  trophies  was 
afterwards  paid  by  the  British  government. 




[This  was  engraved  from  a  daguerreotype,  taken  when  Shabbona  was  83  years  old.] 

This  celebrated  Indian  chief,  whose  portrait  appears  in  this  work,  deserves 
more  than  a  passing  notice.  Although  Shabbona  was  not  so  conspicuous  as 

Tecumseh  or  Black  Hawk,  yet  in  point  of  merit  he  was  superior  to  either 
of  them. 

Shabbona  was  born  at  an  Indian  village  on  the  Kankakee  River,  now  in 
Will  County,  about  the  year  1775.  While  young  he  was  made  chief  of  the 
band,  and  went  to  Shabbona  Grove,  now  DeKalb  County,  where  they  were 
found  in  the  early  settlement  of  the  county. 

In  the  war  of  1812,  Shabbona,  with  his  warriors,  joined  Tecumseh.  was 



aid  to  that  great  chief,  and  stood  by  his  side  when  he  fell  at  the  battle  of 
the  Thames.  At  the  time  of  the  Winnebago  war,  in  1827,  he  visited  almost 
every  village  among  the  Pottawatomies,  and  by  his  persuasive  arguments 
prevented  them  from  taking  part  in  the  war.  By  request  of  the  citizens 
of  Chicago,  Shabbona,  accompanied  by  Billy  Caldwell  (Sauganash),  visited 
Big  Foot’s  village  at  Geneva  Lake,  in  order  to  pacify  the  warriors,  as  fears 
were  entertained  that  they  were  about  to  raise  the  tomahawk  against  the 
whites.  Here  Shabbona  was  taken  prisoner  by  Big  Foot,  and  his  life 
threatened,  but  on  the  following  day  was  set  at  liberty.  From  that  time 
the  Indians  (through  reproach)  styled  him  “  the  white  man’s  friend,’’ 
and  many  times  his  life  was  endangered. 

Before  the  Black  Hawk  war,  Shabbona  met  in  council  at  two  differ¬ 
ent  times,  and  by  his  influence  prevented  his  people  from  taking  part  with 
the  Sacs  and  Foxes.  After  the  death  of  Black  Partridge  and  Senachwine, 
no  chief  among"  the  Pottawatomies  exerted  so  much  influence  as  Shabbona. 
Black  Hawk,  aware  of  this  influence,  visited  him  at  two  different  times,  in 
order  to  enlist  him  in  his  cause,  but  was  unsuccessful.  While  Black  Hawk 
was  a  prisoner  at  Jefferson  Barracks,  he  said,  had  it  not  been  for  Shabbona 
the  whole  Pottawatomie  nation  would  have  joined  his  standard,  and  he 
could  have  continued  the  war  for  years. 

To  Shabbona  many  of  the  early  settlers  of  Illinois  owe  the  pres¬ 
ervation  of  their  lives,  for  it  is  a  well-known  fact,  had  he  not  notified  the 
people  of  their  danger,  a  large  portion  of  them  would  have  fallen  victims 
to  the  tomahawk  of  savages.  By  saving  the  lives  of  whites  he  endangered 
his  own,  for  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  threatened  to  kill  him,  and  made  two 
attempts  to  execute  their  threats.  They  killed  Pypeogee,  his  son,  and 
Pyps,  his  nephew,  and  hunted  him  down  as  though  he  was  a  wild  beast. 

Shabbona  had  a  reservation  of  two  sections  of  land  at  his  Grove,  but 
by  leaving  it  and  going  west  for  a  short  time,  the  Government  declared 
the  reservation  forfeited,  and  sold  it  the  same  as  other  vacant  land.  On 
Shabbona’s  return,  and  finding  his  possessions  gone,  he  was  very  sad  and 
broken  down  in  spirit,  and  left  the  Grove  for  ever.  The  citizens  of  Ottawa 
raised  money  and  bought  him  a  tract  of  land  on  the  Illinois  River,  above 
Seneca,  in  Grundy  County,  on  which  they  built  a  house,  and  supplied 
him  with  means  to  live  on.  He  lived  here  until  his  death,  which  occurred 
on  the  17th  of  July,  1859,  in  the  eighty-fourth  year  of  his  age,  and  was 
buried  with  great  pomp  in  the  cemetery  at  Morris.  His  squaw,  Pokanoka, 
was  drowned  in  Mazen  Creek,  Grundy  County,  on  the  80th  of  November, 
1864,  and  was  buried  by  his  side. 

In  1861  subscriptions  were  taken  up  in  many  of  the  river  towns,  to 
erect  a  monument  over  the  remains  of  Shabbona,  but  the  war  breaking 
out,  the  enterprise  was  abandoned.  Only  a  plain  marble  slab  marks  the 
resting-place  of  this  friend  of  the  white  man. 

Abstract  of  Illinois  State  Laws. 


No  promissory  note,  cheek,  draft,  hill  of  exchange,  order,  or  note,  nego- 
tiable  instrument  payable  at  sight,  or  on  demand,  or  on  presentment,  shall 
be  entitled  to  days  of  grace .  All  other  bills  of  exchange ,  drafts  or  notes  are 
entitled  to  three  days  of  grace.  All  the  above  mentioned  paper  falling 
due  on  Sunday ,  New  Nears  Nay ,  the  Fourth  of  July ,  Christmas ,  or  any 
day  appointed  or  recommended  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  or 
the  G-overnor  of  the  State  as  a  day  of  fast  or  thanksgiving,  shall  be  deemed 
as  due  on  the  day  previous,  and  should  two  or  more  of  these  days  come 
together,  then  such  instrument  shall  be  treated  as  due  on  the  day  previous 
to  the  first  of  said  days.  No  defense  can  be  made  against  a  negotiable 
instrument  ( assigned  before  due')  in  the  hands  of  the  assignee  without 
notice,  except  fraud  was  used  in  obtaining  the  same.  To  hold  an  indorser , 
due  diligence  must  be  used  by  suit ,  in  collecting  of  the  maker,  unless  suit 
would  have  been  unavailing.  Notes  payable  to  person  named  or  to  order, 
in  order  to  absolutely  transfer  title ,  must  be  indorsed  by  the  payee.  Notes 
payable  to  bearer  may  be  transferred  by  delivery ,  and  when  so  payable 
every  indorser  thereon  is  held  as  a  guarantor  of  payment  unless  otherwise 

In  computing  interest  or  discount  on  negotiable  instruments,  a  month 
shall  be  considered  a  calendar  month  or  twelfth  of  a  year ,  and  for  less 
than  a  month,  a  day  shall  be  figured  a  thirtieth  part  of  a  month.  Notes 
only  bear  interest  when  so  expressed,  but  after  due  they  draw  the  legal 
interest,  even  if  not  stated. 


The  legal  rate  of  interest  is  six  per  cent.  Parties  may  agree  in  writ¬ 
ing  on  a  rate  not  exceeding  ten  per  cent.  If  a  rate  of  interest  greater 
than  ten  per  cent,  is  contracted  for,  it  works  a  forfeiture  of  the  whole  of 
said  interest ,  and  only  the  principal  can  be  recovered. 


When  no  will  is  made ,  the  property  of  a  deceased  person  is  distrib¬ 
uted  as  follows : 



First.  To  his  or  her  children  and  their  descendants  in  equal  parts  ; 
the  descendants  of  the  deceased  child  or  grandchild  taking  the  share  of 
their  deceased  parents  in  equal  parts  among  them. 

Second.  Where  there  is  no  child,  nor  descendant  of  such  child,  and 
no  widow  or  surviving  husband,  then  to  the  parents,  brothers  and  sisters 
of  the  deceased,  and  their  descendants,  in  equal  parts,  the  surviving 
parent,  if  either  be  dead,  taking  a  double  portion  ;  and  if  there  is  no 
parent  living,  then  to  the  brothers  and  sisters  of  the  intestate  and  their 


Third.  When  there  is  a  widoiv  or  surviving  husband ,  and  no  child  or 
children ,  or  descendants  of  the  same,  then  one-half  of  the  real  estate  and 
the  whole  of  the  personal  estate  shall  descend  to  such  widoiv  or  surviving 
husband ,  absolutely,  and  the  other  half  of  the  real  estate  shall  descend  as 
in  other  cases  where  there  is  no  child  or  children  or  descendants  of  the 


Fourth.  When  there  is  a  widow  or  surviving  husband  and  also  a  child 
or  children ,  or  descendants  of  the  latter,  then  one  third  of  all  the  personal 
estate  to  the  widow  or  surviving  husband  absolutely. 

Fifth.  If  there  is  no  child ,  parent ,  brother  or  sister ,  or  descendants  of 
either  of  them,  and  no  widow  or  surviving  husband,  then  in  equal  parts 
to  the  next  of  kin  to  the  intestate  in  equal  degree.  Collaterals  shall  not 
be  represented  except  with  the  descendants  of  brothers  and  sisters  of  the 
intestate,  and  there  shall  be  no  distinction  betiveen  kindred  of  the  whole 
and  the  half  blood. 

Sixth.  If  any  intestate  leaves  a  widow  or  surviving  husband  and  no 
kindred ,  then  to  such  widoiv  or  surviving  husband  ;  and  if  there  is  no  such 
widow  or  surviving  husband,  it  shall  escheat  to  and  vest  in  the  county 
where  the  same,  or  the  greater  portion  thereof,  is  situated. 


No  exact  form  of  words  are  necessary  in  order  to  make  a  will  good -at 
law.  Every  male  person  of  the  age  of  twenty-one  years ,  and  ever y  female 
of  the  age  of  eighteen  years ,  of  sound  mind  and  memory ,  can  make  a  valid 
will ;  it  must  be  in  writing ,  signed  by  the  testator  or  by  some  one  in  his 
or  her  presence  and  by  his  or  her  direction,  and  attested  by  two  01  moie 
credible  witnesses.  Care  should  be  taken  that  the  witnesses  are  not  inter¬ 
ested  in  the  will.  Persons  knowing  themselves  to  have  been  named  in  the 
will  or  appointed  executor,  must  within  thirty  days  of  the  death  of 
deceased  cause  the  will  to  be  proved  and  recorded  in  the  proper  county, 
or  present  it,  and  refuse  to  accept  /  on  failure  to  do  so  are  liable  to  forfeit 
the  sum  of  twenty  dollars  per  month.  Inventory  to  be  made  by  executor 
or  administrator  within  three  months  from  date  of  letters  testamentary  or 



of  administration.  Executors  and  administrators5  compensation  not  to 
exceed  six  per  cent,  on  amount  of  personal  estate,  and  three  per  cent, 
on  money  realized  from  real  estate,  with  such  additional  allowance  a? 
shall  be  reasonable  for  extra  services.  Appraisers '  compensation  $2  pei 


Notice  requiring  all  claims  to  be  presented  against  the  estate  shall  btf 
given  by  the  executor  or  administrator  within  six  months  of  being  quali¬ 
fied.  Any  person  having  a  claim  and  not  presenting  it  at  the  time  fixed 
by  said  notice  is  required  to  have  summons  issued  notifying  the  executor 
or  administrator  of  his  having  filed  his  claim  in  court ;  in  such  cases  the 
costs  have  to  be  paid  by  the  claimant.  Claims  should  be  filed  within  two 
years  from  the  time  administration  is  granted  on  an  estate,  as  after  that 
time  they  are  forever  barred,  unless  other  estate  is  found  that  was  not  in¬ 
ventoried.  Married  women,  inf  ants,  persons  insane,  imprisoned  or  without 
the  United  States,  in  the  employment  of  the  United  States,  or  of  this 
State,  have  two  years  after  their  disabilities  are  removed  to  file  claims. 

Claims  are  classified  and  paid  out  of  the  estate  in  the  folio  wing  manner: 

First.  Funeral  expenses. 

Second.  The  widow's  award,  if  there  is  a  widow  ;  or  children  if  there 
are  children,  and  no  widow. 

Third.  Expenses  attending  the  last  illness ,  not  including  physician’s 


Fourth.  Debts  due  the  common  school  or  township  fund . 

Fifth.  All  expenses  of  proving  the  ivill  and  taking  out  letters  testa¬ 
mentary  or  administration,  and  settlement  of  the  estate,  and  the  physi¬ 
cian's  bill  in  the  last  illness  of  deceased. 

Sixth.  Where  the  deceased  has  received  money  in  trust  for  any  pur¬ 
pose,  his  executor  or  administrator  shall  pay  out  of  his  estate  the  amount 
received  and  not  accounted  for. 

Seventh.  All  other  debts  and  demands  of  whatsoever  kind,  without 
regard  to  quality  or  dignity,  which  shall  be  exhibited  to  the  court  within 
two  years  from  the  granting  of  letters. 

Award  to  Widow  and  Children ,  exclusive  of  debts  and  legacies  or  be¬ 
quests,  except  funeral  expenses : 

First.  The  family  pictures  and  wearing  apparel,  jewels  and  ornaments 
of  herself  and  minor  children. 

Second.  School  books  and  the  family  library  of  the  value  of  $100. 

Third .  One  sewing  machine. 

Fourth.  Necessary  beds,  bedsteads  and  bedding  for  herself  and  family. 

Fifth.  The  stoves  and  pipe  used  in  the  family,  with  the  necessary 
cooking  utensils,  or  in  case  they  have  none,  $50  in  money. 

Sixth.  Household  and  kitchen  furniture  to  the  value  of  $100. 

Seventh.  One  milch  cow  and  calf  for  every  four  members  of  her  family. 



Eighth.  Two  sheep  for  each  member  of  her  family,  and  the  fleeces 
taken  from  the  same,  and  one  horse ,  saddle  and  bridle. 

Ninth.  Provisions  for  herself  and  family  for  one  year. 

Tenth.  Food  for  the  stock  above  specified  for  six  months. 

Eleventh.  Fuel  for  herself  and  family  for  three  months. 

Twelfth.  One  hundred  dollars  worth  of  other  property  suited  to  her 

condition  in  life,  to  be  selected  by  the  widow. 

The  widow  if  she  elects  may  have  in  lieu  of  the  said  award,  the  same 
personal  property  or  money  in  place  thereof  as  is  or  may  be  exempt  from 
execution  or  attachment  against  the  head  of  a  family. 


The  owners  of  real  and  personal  property,  on  the  first  day  of  May  in 

each  year,  are  liable  for  the  taxes  thereon. 

Assessments  should  be  completed  before  the  fourth  Monday  in  June , 
at  which  time  the  town  board  of  review  meets  to  examine  assessments, 
hear  objections ,  and  make  such  changes  as  ought  to  be  made.  The  county 
board  have  also  power  to  correct  or  change  assessments. 

The  tax  books  are  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  town  collector  on  or 
before  t*  e  tenth  day  of  December,  who  retains  them  until  the  tenth  day 
of  March  following,  when  he  is  required  to  return  them  to  the  county 

treasurer,  who  then  collects  all  delinquent  taxes. 

No  costs  accrue  on  real  estate  taxes  till  advertised ,  which  takes  place 
the  first  day  of  April,  when  three  weeks’  notice  is  required  before  judg¬ 
ment.  Cost  of  advertising,  twenty  cents  each  tract  of  land,  and  ten  cents 

each  lot. 

Judgment  is  usually  obtained  at  May  term  of  County  Court.  Costs 
six  cents  each  tract  of  land,  and  five  cents  each  lot.  Sale  takes  place  in 
June.  Costs  in  addition  to  those  before  mentioned,  twenty-eight  cents 
each  tract  of  land,  and  twenty-seven  cents  each  town  lot. 

Real  estate  sold  for  taxes  may  be  redeemed  any  time  before  the  expi¬ 
ration  of  two  years  from  the  date  of  sale,  by  payment  to  the  County  Clerk 
of  the  amount  for  which  it  was  sold  and  twenty-five  per  cent,  thereon  if 
redeemed  within  six  months,  fifty  per  cent,  if  between  six  and  twelve 
months,  if  between  twelve  and  eighteen  months  seventy-five  per  cent., 
and  if  between  eighteen  months  and  two  years  one  hundred  per  cent., 
and  in  addition,  all  subsequent  taxes  paid  by  the  purchaser,  with  ten  per 
cent,  interest  thereon,  also  one  dollar  each  tract  if  notice  is  given  by  the 
purchaser  of  the  sale,  and  a  fee  of  twenty-five  cents  to  the  clerk  for  his 



Justices  have  jurisdiction  in  all  civil  cases  on  contracts  for  the  recovery 
of  moneys  for  damages  for  injury  to  real  property ,  or  taking,  detaining,  or 



injuring  personal  property ;  for  rent;  for  all  cases  to  recover  damages  done 
real  or  personal  property  by  railroad  companies,  in  actions  of  replevin ,  and 
in  actions  for  damages  for  fraud  in  the  sale ,  purchase ,  or  exchange  of  per¬ 
sonal  property ,  when  the  amount  claimed  as  due  is  not  over  $200.  They 
have  also  jurisdiction  in  all  cases  for  violation  of  the  ordinances  of  cities , 
towns  or  villages.  A  justice  of  the  peace  may  orally  order  an  officer  -or  a 
private  person  to  arrest  any  one  committing  or  attempting  to  commit  a 
criminal  offense.  He  also  upon  complaint  can  issue  his  warrant  for  the 
arrest  of  any  person  accused  of  having  committed  a  crime ,  and  have  him 
brought  before  him  for  examination. 


Have  jurisdiction  in  all  matters  of  probate  (except  in  counties  having  a 
population  of  one  hundred  thousand  or  over),  settlement  of  estates  of 
deceased  persons ,  appointment  of  guardians  and  conservators ,  and  settle¬ 
ment  of  their  accounts;  all  matters  relating  to  apprentices ;  proceedings 
for  the  collection  of  taxes  and  assessments ,  and  in  proceedings  of  executors, 
administrators ,  guardians  and  conservators  for  the  sale  of  real  estate.  In 
law  cases  they  have  concurrent  jurisdiction  with  Circuit  Courts  in  all 
cases  where  justices  of  the  peace  now  have,  or  hereafter  may  have, 
jurisdiction  when  the  amount  claimed  shall  not  exceed  $1,000,  and  in  all 
criminal  offenses  where  the  punishment  is  not  imprisonment  in  the  peni¬ 
tentiary,  or  death,  and  in  all  cases  of  appeals  from  justices  of  the  peace 
and  police  magistrates ;  excepting  when  the  county  judge  is  sitting  as  a 
justice  of  the  peace.  Circuit  Courts  have  unlimited  jurisdiction. 


Accounts  five  years.  Notes  and  written  contracts  ten  years.  Judg¬ 
ments  twenty  years.  Partial  payments  or  new  promise  in  writing,  within 
or  after  said  period,  will  revive  the  debt.  Absence  from  the  State  deducted, 
and  when  the  cause  of  action  is  barred  by  the  law  of  another  State,  it  has 
the  same  effect  here.  Slander  and  libel,  one  year.  Personal  injuries,  two 
years.  To  recover  land  or  make  entry  thereon,  twenty  years.  Action  to 
foreclose  mortgage  or  trust  deed,  or  make  a  sale,  within  ten  years. 

All  persons  in  possession  of  land,  and  paying  taxes  for  seven  consecu¬ 
tive  years,  with  color  of  title,  and  all  persons  paying  taxes  for  seven  con¬ 
secutive  years,  with  color  of  title,  on  vacant  land,  shall  be  held  to  be  the 
legal  owners  to  the  extent  of  their  paper  title. 


May  sue  and  be  sued.  Husband  and  wife  not  liable  for  each  other's  debts, 
either  before  or  after  marriage,  but  both  are  liable  for  expenses  and  edu¬ 
cation  of  the  family. 




She  may  contract  the  same  as  if  unmarried ,  except  that  in  a  partner¬ 
ship  business  she  can  not,  without  consent  of  her  husband,  unless  he  has 
abandoned  or  deserted  her ,  or  is  idiotic  or  insane,  or  confined  in  peniten¬ 
tiary  ;  she  is  entitled  and  can  recover  her  own  earnings,  but  neither  hus¬ 
band  nor  wife  is  entitled  to  compensation  for  any  services  rendered  for  the 
other.  At  the  death  of  the  husband,  in  addition  to  widow’s  award,  a 
married  woman  has  a  dower  interest  (one-third)  in  all  real  estate  owned 
by  her  husband  after  their  marriage,  and  which  has  not  been  released  by 
her,  and  the  husband  has  the  same  interest  in  the  real  estate  of  the  wife 
at  her  death. 


Home  worth  $1,000,  and  the  following  Personal  Property :  Lot  of  ground 
and  buildings  thereon,  occupied  as  a  residence  by  the  debtor,  being  a  house¬ 
holder  and  having  a  family,  to  the  value  of  $1,000.  Exemption  continues 
after  the  death  of  the  householder  for  the  benefit  of  widow  and  family,  some 
one  of  them  occupying  the  homestead  until  youngest  child  shall  become 
twenty-one  years  of  age ,  and  until  death  of  widow.  There  is  no  exemption 
from  sale  for  taxes ,  assessments,  debt  or  liability  incurred  for  the  purchase 
or  improvement  of  said  homestead.  No  release  or  waiver  of  exemption  is 
valid,  unless  in  writing,  and  subscribed  by  such  householder  and  wife  (if 
he  have  one),  and  acknowledged  as  conveyances  of  real  estate  are  required 
to  be  acknowledged.  The  following  articles  of  personal  property  owned 
by  the  debtor,  are  exempt  from  execution ,  writ  of  attachment ,  and  distress 
for  rent :  The  necessary  wearing  apparel ,  Bibles,  school  books  and  family 
pictures  of  every  person  ;  and,  2d,  one  hundred  dollars  worth  of  other 
property  to  be  selected  by  the  debtor,  and,  in  addition,  when  the  debtor 
is  the  head  of  a  family  and  resides  with  the  same,  three  hundred  dollars 
worth  of  other  property  to  be  selected  by  the  debtor ;  provided  that  such 
selection  and  exemption  shall  not  be  made  by  the  debtor  or  allowed  to 
him  or  her  from  any  money,  salary  or  wages  due  him  or  her  from  any 
person  or  persons  or  corporations  whatever. 

When  the  head  of  a  family  shall  die,  desert  or  not  reside  with  the 
same,  the  family  shall  be  entitled  to  and  receive  all  the  benefit  and  priv¬ 
ileges  which  are  by  this  act  conferred  upon  the  head  of  a  family  residing 
with  the  same.  No  personal  property  is  exempt  from  execution  when 
judgment  is  obtained  for  the  wages  of  laborers  or  servants .  Wages  of  a 
laborer  who  is  the  head  of  a  family  can  not  be  garnisheed,  except  the  sum 
due  him  be  in  excess  of  $25. 




To  be  valid  there  must  be  a  valid  consideration.  Special  care  should 
be  taken  to  have  them  signed,  sealed,  delivered,  and  properly  acknowl¬ 
edged,  with  the  proper  seal  attached.  Witnesses  are  not  required.  The 
acknowledgement  must  be  made  in  this  state,  before  Master  in  Chancery . 
Notary  Public ,  United  States  Commissioner ,  Circuit  or  County  Clerk,  Justice 
of  Peace ,  or  any  Court  of  Record  having  a  seal ,  or  any  Judge ,  Justice ,  or 
Clerk  of  any  such  Court.  When  taken  before  a  Notary  Public ,  or  United 
States  Commissioner ,  the  same  shall  be  attested  by  his  official  seal ,  when 
taken  before  a  Court  or  the  Clerk  thereof,  the  same  shall  be  attested  by 
the  seal  of  such  Court ,  and  when  taken  before  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  resid¬ 
ing  out  of  the  county  where  the  real  estate  to  be  conveyed  lies,  there  shall 
be  added  a  certificate  of  the  County  Clerk  under  his  seal  of  office,  that  lie 
was  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  in  the  county  at  the  time  of  taking  the  same. 
A  deed  is  good  without  such  certificace  attached,  but  can  not  be  used  in 
evidence  unless  such  a  certificate  is  produced  or  other  competent  evidence 
introduced.  Acknowledgements  made  out  of  the  state  must  either  be 
executed  according  to  the  laws  of  this  state,  or  there  should  be  attached 
a  certificate  that  it  is  in  conformity  with  the  laws  of  the  state  or  country 
where  executed.  Where  this  is  not  done  the  same  may  be  proved  by  any 
other  legal  way.  Acknowledgments  where  the  Homestead  rights  are  to 
be  waived  must  state  as  follows:  “Including  the  release  and  waiver  of 
the  right  of  homestead.” 

Notaries  Public  can  take  acknowledgements  any  where  in  the  state. 

Sheriffs ,  if  authorized  by  the  mortgagor  of  real  or  personal  property 
in  his  mortgage,  may  sell  the  property  mortgaged. 

In  the  case  of  the  death  of  grantor  or  holder  of  the  equity  of  redemp¬ 
tion  of  real  estate  mortgaged,  or  conveyed  by  deed  of  trust  where  equity 
of  redemption  is  waived,  and  it  contains  power  of  sale,  must  be  foreclosed 
in  the  same  manner  as  a  common  mortgage  in  court. 


Horses ,  mules ,  asses ,  neat  cattle ,  swine ,  sheep ,  or  goats  found  straying 
at  any  time  during  the  year,  in  counties  where  such  animals  are  not  allowed 
to  run  at  large,  or  between  the  last  day  of  October  and  the  15th  day  of 
April  in  other  counties,  the  owner  thereof  being  unknown ,  may  be  taken  up 
as  estrays. 

No  person  not  a  householder  in  the  county  where  estray  is  found  can 
lawfully  take  up  an  estray,  and  then  only  upon  or  about  his  farm  or  place 
of  residence.  Estrays  should  not  be  used  before  advertised ,  except  animals 
giving  milk,  which  may  be  milked  for  their  benefit. 



Notices  must  be  posted  up  within  five  (5)  days  in  three  (3)  of  the 
most  public  places  in  the  town  or  precinct  in  which  estray  was  found,  giv¬ 
ing  the  residence  of  the  taker  up,  and  a  particular  description  of  the 
estray,  its  age,  color,  and  marks  natural  and  artificial,  and  stating  before 
what  justice  of  the  peace  in  such  town  or  precinct,  and  at  what  time,  not 
less  than  ten  (10)  nor  more  than  fifteen  (15)  days  from  the  time  of  post¬ 
ing  such  notices,  he  will  apply  to  have  the  estray  appraised. 

A  copy  of  such  notice  should  be  filed  by  the  taker  up  with  the  town 
clerk ,  whose  duty  it  is  to  enter  the  same  at  large,  in  a  book  kept  by  him 
for  that  purpose. 

If  the  owner  of  estray  shall  not  have  appeared  and  proved  ownership , 
and  taken  the  same  away,  first  paying  the  taker  up  his  reasonable  charges 
for  taking  up,  keeping,  and  advertising  the  same,  the  taker  up  shall  appear 
before  the  justice  of  the  peace  mentioned  in  above  mentioned  notice,  and 
make  an  affidavit  as  required  by  law. 

As  the  affidavit  has  to  be  made  before  the  justice,  and  all  other  steps  as 
to  appraisement,  etc.,  are  before  him,  who  is  familiar  therewith,  they  are 
therefore  omitted  here. 

Any  person  taking  up  an  estray  at  any  other  place  than  about  or 
upon  his  farm  or  residence,  or  ivithout  complying  with  the  law ,  shall  forfeit 
and  pay  a  fine  of  ten  dollars  with  costs. 

Ordinary  diligence  is  required  in  taking  care  of  estrays ,  but  in  case 
they  die  or  get  away  the  taker  is  not  liable  for  the  same. 


It  is  unlawful  for  any  person  to  kill,  or  attempt  to  kill  or  destroy,  in 
any  manner,  any  prairie  hen  or  chicken  or  woodcock  between  the  15th  day 
of  January  and  the  1st  day  of  September;  or  any  deer ,  fawn ,  wild-turkey, 
partridge  or  pheasant  between  the  1st  day  of  February  and  the  1st  day 
of  October;  or  any  quail  between  the  1st  day  of  February  and  1st  day  of 
November ;  or  any  wild  goose,  duck,  snipe,  brant  or  other  water  fowl 
between  the  1st  day  of  May  and  15tli  day  of  August  in  each  year. 
Penalty  :  Fine  not  less  than  $5  nor  more  than  $25,  for  each  bird  or 
animal,  and  costs  of  suit,  and  stand  committed  to  county  jail  until  fine  is 
paid,  but  not  exceeding  ten  days.  It  is  unlauful  to  hunt  with  gun ,  dog 
or  net  within  the  inclosed  grounds  or  lands  of  another  without  permission. 
Penalty:  Fine  not  less  than  $3  nor  more  than  $100,  to  be  paid  into 
school  fund. 


Whenever  any  of  the  following  articles  shall  be  contracted  for,  or 
sold  or  delivered,  and  no  special  contract  or  agreement  shall  be  made. to 
the  contrary,  the  weight  per  bushel  shall  be  as  follows,  to-wit : 



Stone  Coal,  -  -  - 

-  80 

Unslacked  Lime, 

-  80 

Corn  in  the  ear, 

-  70 

Wheat,  - 

-  60 

Irish  Potatoes, 

-  60 

White  Beans, 

-  60 

Clover  Seed,  -  -  - 

-  60 

Onions,  - 

-  57 

Shelled  Corn, 

-  56 

Rye,  -  -  -  .  - 

Flax  Seed,  - 


-  56 

Sweet  Potatoes,  - 

-  55 

Turnips,  - 

-  55 

Fine  Salt,  -  -  - 



Buckwheat,  -  -  -  -52 

Coarse  Salt,  50 

Barley,  -  -  -  -  -  48 

Corn  Meal,  48 

Castor  Beans,  -  -  -  46 

Timothy  Seed,  -  -  -  -  45 

Hemp  Seed,  -  -  -  -  44 

Malt,  -----  88 

Dried  Peaches,  -  -  -  33 

Oats,  -----  32 

Dried  Apples,  -  -  -  24 

Bran,  -----  20 

Blue  Grass  Seed,  -  -  -  14 

Hair  (plastering),  -  -  8 

Penalty  for  giving  less  than  the  above  standard  is  double  the  amount 
of  property  wrongfully  not  given,  and  ten  dollars  addition  thereto. 


The  owner  or  occupant  of  every  public  grist  mill  in  this  state  shall 
grind  all  grain  brought  to  his  mill  in  its  turn.  The  toll  for  both  steam 
and  water  mills,  is,  for  grinding  and  bolting  wheat ,  rye,  or  other  grain ,  one 
eighth  part;  for  grinding  Indian  corn ,  oats ,  barley  and  buckwheat  not 
required  to  be  bolted ,  one  seventh  part;  for  grinding  malt,  and  chopping  all 
kinds  of  grain,  one  eighth  part.  It  is  the  duty  of  every  miller  when  his 
mill  is  in  repair,  to  aid  and  assist  in  loading  and  unloading  all  grain  brought 
to  him  to  be  ground,  and  he  is  also  required  to  keep  an  accurate  half 
bushel  measure ,  and  an  accurate  set  of  toll  dishes  or  scales  for  weighing 
the  grain.  The  penalty  for  neglect  or  refusal  to  comply  with  the  law  is 
|5,  to  the  use  of  any  person  to  sue  for  the  same,  to  be  recovered  before 
any  justice  of  the  peace  of  the  county  where  penalty  is  incurred.  Millers 
are  accountable  for  the  safe  keeping  of  all  grain  left  in  his  mill  for  the 
purpose  of  being  ground,  with  bags  or  casks  containing  same  (except  it 
results  from  unavoidable  accidents),  provided  that  such  bags  or  casks  are 
distinctly  marked  with  the  initial  letters  of  the  owner  s  name. 


Owners  of  cattle,  horses,  hogs,  sheep  or  goats  may  have  one  earmark 
and  one  brand,  but  which  shall  be  different  from  his  neighbor's ,  and  may 
be  recorded  by  the  county  clerk  of  the  county  in  which  such  property  is 
kept.  Th efee  for  such  record  is  fifteen  cents.  The  record  of  such  shall 
be  open  to  examination  free  of  charge.  In  cases  of  disputes  as  to  maiks 
or  brands,  such  record  is  prima  facie  evidence.  Owners  ot  cattle,  houses, 
hogs,  sheep  or  goats  that  may  have  been  branded  by  the  tonne i  owner , 



may  be  re-branded  in  presence  of  one  or  more  of  his  neighbors,  who  shall 
certify  to  the  facts  of  the  marking  or  branding  being  done,  when  done, 
and  in  what  brand  or  mark  they  were  re-branded  or  re-marked,  which 
certificate  may  also  be  recorded  as  before  stated. 


Children  may  be  adopted  by  any  resident  of  this  state,  by  filing  a 
petition  in  the  Circuit  or  County  Court  of  the  county  in  which  he  resides, 
asking  leave  to  do  so,  and  if  desired  may  ask  that  the  name  of  the  child 
be  changed.  Such  petition,  if  made  by  a  person  having  a  husband  or 
wife,  will  not  be  granted,  unless  the  husband  or  wife  joins  therein,  as  the 
adoption  must  be  by  them  jointly. 

The  petition  shall  state  name,  sex,  and  age  of  the  child,  and  the  new 
name,  if  it  is  desired  to  change  the  name.  Also  the  name  and  residence 
of  the  parents  of  the  child,  if  known,  and  of  the  guardian,  if  any,  and 
whether  the  parents  or  guardians  consent  to  the  adoption. 

The  court  must  find,  before  granting  decree,  that  the  parents  of  the 
child ,  or  the  survivors  of  them,  have  deserted  his  or  her  family  or  such 
child  for  one  year  next  preceding  the  application,  or  if  neither  are  living, 
the  guardian ;  if  no  guardian,  the  next  of  kin  in  this  state  capable  of  giving 
consent,  has  had  notice  of  the  presentation  of  the  petition  and  consents 
to  such  adoption.  If  the  child  is  of  the  age  of  fourteen  years  or  upwards, 
the  adoption  can  not  be  made  without  its  consent. 


There  is  in  every  county  elected  a  surveyor  known  as  county  sur¬ 
veyor,  who  has  power  to  appoint  deputies,  for  whose  official  acts  he  is 
responsible.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  county  surveyor ,  either  by  himself  or 
his  deputy,  to  make  all  surveys  that  he  may  be  called  upon  to  make  within 
his  county  as  soon  as  may  be  after  application  is  made.  The  necessary 
chainmen  and  other  assistance  must  be  employed  by  the  person  requiring 
the  same  to  be  done,  and  to  be  by  him  paid,  unless  otherwise  agreed ;  but 
the  chainmen  must  be  disinterested  persons  and  approved  by  the  surveyor 
and  sworn  by  him  to  measure  justly  and  impartially. 

The  County  Board  in  each  count}7  is  required  by  law  to  provide  a  copy 
of  the  United  States  field  notes  and  plats  of  their  surveys  of  the  lands 
in  the  county  to  be  kept  in  the  recorder's  office  subject  to  examination 
by  the  public,  and  the  county  surveyor  is  required  to  make  his  surveys 
in  conformity  to  said  notes,  plats  and  the  laws  of  the  United  States  gov¬ 
erning  such  matters.  The  surveyor  is  also  required  to  keep  a  record 
of  all  surveys  made  by  him,  which  shall  be  subject  to  inspection  by  any 
one  interested,  and  shall  be  delivered  up  to  his  successor  in  office.  A 



certified  copy  of  the  said  surveyor’s  record  shall  be  prima  facie  evidence 
of  its  contents. 

The  fees  of  county  surveyors  are  six  dollars  per  day.  The  county 
surveyor  is  also  ex  officio  inspector  of  mines ,  and  as  such,  assisted  by  some 
practical  miner  selected  by  him,  shall  once  each  year  inspect  all  the 
mines  in  the  county,  for  which  they  shall  each  receive  such  compensa¬ 
tion  as  may  be  fixed  by  the  County  Board,  not  exceeding  $5  a  day,  to 
be  paid  out  of  the  county  treasury. 


AVTeie  piacticable  from  the  nature  of  the  ground,  persons  traveling 
in  any  kind  of  vehicle,  must  turn  to  the  right  of  the  center  of  the  road,  so 
as  to  permit  each  carriage  to  pass  without  interfering  with  each  other. 
The  penalty  for  a  violation  of  this  provision  is  $5  for  every  offense,  to 
be  recovered  by  the  party  injured;  but  to  recover,  there  must  have 
occurred  some  injury  to  person  or  property  resulting  from  the  violation. 
The  owners  of  any  carriage  traveling  upon  any  road  in  this  State  for  the 
conveyance  of  passengers  who  shall  employ  or  continue  in  his  emplovment 
as  driver  any  person  who  is  addicted  to  drunkenness ,  or  the  excessive  use  of 
spiritous  liquors,  after  he  has  had  notice  of  the  same,  shall  forfeit ,  at  the 
rate  of  $5  per  day,  and  if  any  driver  while  actually  engaged  in  driving 
any  .such  carriage,  shall  be  guilty  of  intoxication  to  such  a  degree  as  to 
endanger  the  safety  of  passengers ,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  owner,  on 
receiving  written  notice  of  the  fact,  signed  hy  one  of  the  passengers ,  and 
certified  by  him  on  oath ,  forthwith  to  discharge  such  driver.  If  such  owner 
shall  have  such  driver  in  his  employ  within  three  months  after  such  notice, 
he  is  liable  for  $5  per  day  for  the  time  he  shall  keep  said  driver  in  his 
employment  after  receiving  such  notice. 

Persons  driving  any  carriage  on  any  public  highway  are  prohibited 
from  running  their  horses  upon  any  occasion  under  a  penalty  of  a  fine  not 
exceeding  $10,  or  imprisonment  not  exceeding  sixty  days,  at  the  discre¬ 
tion  of  the  court.  Horses  attached  to  any  carriage  used  to  convey  passen¬ 
gers  for  hire  must  be  properly  hitched  or  the  lines  placed  in  the  hands  of 
some  other  person  before  the  driver  leaves  them  for  any  purpose.  For 
violation  of  this  provision  each  driver  shall  forfeit  twenty  dollars ,  to  be 
recovered  by  action,  to  be  commenced  within  six  months.  It  is  under¬ 
stood  by  the  term  carriage  herein  to  mean  any  carriage  or  vehicle  used 
for  the  transportation  of  passengers  or  goods  or  either  of  them. 

The  commissioners  of  highways  in  the  different  towns  have  the  care 
and  superintendence  of  highways  and  bridges  therein.  They  have  all 
the  powers  necessary  to  lay  out,  vacate,  regulate  and  repair  all  roads* 
build  and  repair  bridges.  In  addition  to  the  above,  it  is  their  duty  to 
erect  and  keep  in  repair  at  the  forks  or  crossing-place  of  the  most 



important  roads  post  and  guide  boards  with  plain  inscriptions,  giving 
directions  and  distances  to  the  most  noted  places  to  which  such  road  may 
lead ;  also  to  make  provisions  to  prevent  thistles,  burdock,  and  cockle 
burrs,  mustard,  yellow  dock,  Indian  mallow  and  jimson  weed  from 
seeding,  and  to  extirpate  the  same  as  far  as  practicable,  and  to  prevent 
all  rank  growth  of  vegetation  on  the  public  highways  so  far  as  the  same 
may  obstruct  public  travel,  and  it  is  in  their  discretion  to  erect  watering 
places  for  public  use  for  watering  teams  at  such  points  as  may  be  deemed 


The  Commissioners,  on  or  before  the  1st  day  of  May  of  each  year, 
shall  make  out  and  deliver  to  their  treasurer  a  list  of  all  able-bodied  men 
in  their  town,  excepting  paupers,  idiots,  lunatics,  and  such  others  as  are 
exempt  by  law,  and  assess  against  each  the  sum  of  two  dollars  as  a  poll 
tax  for  highway  purposes.  Within  thirty  days  after  such  list  is  delivered 
they  shall  cause  a  written  or  printed  notice  to  be  given  to  each  person  so 
assessed,  notifying  him  of  the  time  when  and  place  where  such  tax  must 
be  paid,  or  its  equivalent  in  labor  performed  ;  they  may  contract  with 
persons  owing  such  poll  tax  to  perform  a  certain  amount  of  labor  on  any 
road  or  bridge  in  payment  of  the  same,  and  if  such  tax  is  not  paid  nor 
labor  performed  by  the  first  Monday  of  July  of  such  year,  or  within  ten 
days  after  notice  is  given  after  that  time,  they  shall  bring  suit  therefor 
against  such  person  before  a  justice  of  the  peace,  who  shall  hear  and 
determine  the  case  according  to  law  for  the  offense  complained  of,  and 
shall  forthwith  issue  an  execution,  directed  to  any  constable  of  the  county 
where  the  delinquent  shall  reside,  who  shall  forthwith  collect  the  moneys 
therein  mentioned. 

The  Commissioners  of  Highways  of  each  town  shall  annually  ascer-t 
tain,  as  near  as  practicable,  how  much  money  must  be  raised  by  tax  on  real 
and  personal  property  for  the  making  and  repairing  of  roads,  only,  to  any 
amount  they  may  deem  necessary,  not  exceeding  forty  cents  on  each  one 
hundred  dollars’  worth,  as  valued  on  the  assessment  roll  of  the  previous 
}Tear.  The  tax  so  levied  on  property  lying  within  an  incorporated  village, 
town  or  city,  shall  be  paid  over  to  the  corporate  authorities  of  such  town, 
village  or  city.  Commissioners  shall  receive  $1.50  for  each  day  neces¬ 
sarily  employed  in  the  discharge  of  their  duty. 

Overseers.  At  the  first  meeting  the  Commissioners  shall  choose  one 
of  their  number  to  act  General  Overseer  of  Highways  in  their  township, 
whose  duty  it  shall  be  to  take  charge  of  and  safely  keep  all  tools,  imple¬ 
ments  and  machinery  belonging  to  said  town,  and  shall,  by  the  direction 
of  the  Board,  have  general  supervision  of  all  roads  and  bridges  in  their 



As  all  township  and  county  officers  are  familiar  with  their  duties,  it 
is  only  intended  to  give  the  points  of  the  law  that  the  public  should  be 
familiar  with.  The  manner  of  laying  out,  altering  or  vacating  roads,  etc., 
will  not  be  here  stated,  as  it  would  require  more  space  than  is  contem¬ 
plated  in  a  work  of  this  kind.  It  is  sufficient  to  state  that,  the  first  step 
is  by  petition,  addressed  to  the  Commissioners,  setting  out  what  is  prayed 
for,  giving  the  names  of  the  owners  of  lands  if  known,  if  not  known  so 
state,  over  which  the  road  is  to  pass,  giving  the  general  course,  its  place 
of  beginning,  and  where  it  terminates.  It  requires  not  less  than  twelve 
freeholders  residing  within  three  miles  of  the  road  who  shall  sign  the 
petition.  Public  roads  must  not  be  less  than  fifty  feet  wide,  nor  more 
than  sixty  feet  wide.  Roads  not  exceeding  two  miles  in  length,  if  peti¬ 
tioned  for,  may  be  laid  out,  not  less  than  forty  feet.  Private  roads 
for  piivate  ancf  public  use,  may  be  laid  out  of  the  width  of  three  rods,  on 
petition  of  the  person  directly  interested  ;  the  damage  occasioned  thereby 
shall  be  paid  by  the  premises  benefited  thereby,  and  before  the  road  is 
opened.  If  not  opened  in  two  years,  the  order  shall  be  considered 
rescinded.  Commissioners  in  their  discretion  may  permit  persons  who 
live  on  or  have  private  roads,  to  work  out  their  road  tax  thereon.  Public 
loads  must  be  opened  in  five  days  from  date  of  filing  order  of  location, 
or  be  deemed  vacated. 


Whenever  one  or  more  owners  or  occupants  of  land  desire  to  construct 
a  drain  or  ditch  across  the  land  of  others  for  agricultural ,  sanitary  or 
mining  purposes ,  the  proceedings  are  as  follows: 

File  a  petition  in  the  Circuit  or  County  Court  of  the  county  in  which 
the  proposed  ditch  or  drain  is  to  be  constructed,  setting  forth  the  neces¬ 
sity  for  the  same,  with  a  description  of  its  proposed  starting  point,  route 
and  terminus,  and  if  it  shall  be  necessary  for  the  drainage  of  the  land  or 
coal  mines  or  for  sanitary  purposes,  that  a  drain,  ditch,  levee  or  similar 
work  be  constructed,  a  description  of  the  same.  It  shall  also  set  forth 
the  names  of  all  persons  owning  the  land  over  which  such  drain  or  ditch 
shall  be  constructed,  or  if  unknown  stating  that  fact. 

No  private  property  shall  be  taken  or  damaged  for  the  purpose  of 
constructing  a  ditch,  drain  or  levee,  without  compensation,  if  claimed  by 
the  owner,  the  same  to  be  ascertained  by  a  jury;  but  if  the  construction 
of  such  ditch,  drain  or  levee  shall  be  a  benefit  to  the  owner,  the  same 
shall  be  a  set  off  against  such  compensation. 

If  the  pi'oceedings  seek  to  affect  the  property  of  a  minor,  lunatic  or 
married  woman,  the  guardian,  conservator  or  husband  of  the  same  shall 
be  made  party  defendant.  The  petition  may  be  amended  and  parties 
made  defendants  at  any  time  when  it  is  necessary  to  a  fair  trial. 



When  the  petition  is  presented  to  the  judge,  he  shall  note  therein 
when  he  will  hear  the  same,  and  order  the  issuance  of  summonses  and 
the  publication  of  notice  to  each  non-resident  or  unknown  defendant. 

The  petition  may  be  heard  by  such  judge  in  vacation  as  well  as  in 
term  time.  Upon  the  trial,  the  jury  shall  ascertain  the  just  compensation 
to  each  owner  of  the  property  sought  to  be  damaged  by  the  construction 
of  such  ditch,  drain  or  levee,  and  truly  report  the  same. 

As  it  is  only  contemplated  in  a  work  of  this  kind  to  give  an  abstract 
of  the  laws,  and  as  the  parties  who  have  in  charge  the  execution  of  the 
further  proceedings  are  likely  to  be  familiar  with  the  requirements  of  the 
statute,  the  necessary  details  are  not  here  inserted. 


The  County  Board  of  any  county  in  this  State  may  hereafter  alh/w 
such  bounty  on  ivolf  scalps  as  the  board  may  deem  reasonable. 

Any  person  claiming  a  bounty  shall  produce  the  scalp  or  scalps  with 
the  ears  thereon,  within  sixty  days  after  the  wolf  or  wolves  shall  have 
been  caught,  to  the  Clerk  of  the  County  Board,  who  shall  administer  to 
said  person  the  following  oath  or  affirmation,  to-wit:  “lou  do  solemnly 
swear  (or  affirm,  as  the  case  may  be),,  that  the  scalp  or  scalps  here  pro¬ 
duced  by  you  was  taken  from  a  wolf  or  wolves  killed  and  first  captured 
by  yourself  within  the  limits  of  this  county,  and  within  the  sixty  days 
last  past.” 


When  the  reversion  expectant  on  a  lease  of  any  tenements  or  here¬ 
ditaments  of  any  tenure  shall  be  surrendered  or  merged,  the  estate  which 
shall  for  the  time  being  confer  as  against  the  tenant  under  the  same  lease 
the  next  vested  right  to  the  same  tenements  or  hereditaments,  shall,  to 
the  extent  and  for  the  purpose  of  preserving  such  incidents  to  and  obli¬ 
gations  on  the  same  reversion,  as  but  for  the  surrender  or  merger  thereof, 
would  have  subsisted,  be  deemed  the  reversion  expectant  on  the  same 


Every  poor  person  who  shall  be  unable  to  earn  a  livelihood  in  conse¬ 
quence  ot  any  bodily  infirmity ,  idiocy ,  lunacy  or  unavoidable  cause ,  shall 
be  supported  by  the  father,  grand-father,  mother,  grand-mother,  children, 
grand-children,  brothers  or  sisters  of  such  poor  person,  if  they  or  either 
of  them  be  of  sufficient  ability ;  but  if  any  of  such  dependent  class  shall 
have  become  so  from  intemperance  or  other  bad  conduct ,  they  shall  not  be 
entitled  to  support  from  any  relation  except  parent  or  child. 



The  children  shall  first  be  called  on  to  support  their  parents,  if  they 
are  able  ;  but  if  not,  the  parents  of  such  poor  person  shall  then  be  called 
on,  if  of  sufficient  ability ;  and  if  there  be  no  parents  or  children  able, 
then  the  brothers  and  sisters  of  such  dependent  person  shall  be  called 
upon  ;  and  if  there  be  no  brothers  or  sisters  of  sufficient  ability,  the 
grand-children  of  such  person  shall  next  be  called  on ;  and  if  they  are 
not  able,  then  the  grand-parents.  Married  females,  while  their  husbands 
live,  shall  not  be  liable  to  contribute  for  the  support  of  their  poor  relations 
except  out  of  their  separate  property.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  state’s 
(county)  attorney,  to  make  complaint  to  the  County  Court  of  his  county 
against  all  the  relatives  of  such  paupers  in  this  state  liable  to  his  support 
and  prosecute  the  same.  In  case  the  state’s  attorney  neglects,  or  refuses,  to 
complain  in  such  cases,  then  it  is  the  duty  of  the  overseer  of  the  poor  to 
do  so.  The  person  called  upon  to  contribute  shall  have  at  least  ten  days’ 
notice  of  such  application  by  summons.  The  court  has  the  power  to 
determine  the  kind  of  support,  depending  upon  the  circumstances  of  the 
parties,  and  may  also  order  two  or  more  of  the  different  degrees' to  main¬ 
tain  such  poor  person,  and  prescribe  the  proportion  of  each,  according  to 
their  ability.  The  court  may  specify  the  time  for  which  the  relative  shall 
contribute — in  fact  has  control  over  the  entire  subject  matter,  with  power 
to  enforce  its  orders.  Every  county  (except  those  in  which  the  poor  are 
supported  by  the  towns,  and  in  such  cases  the  towns  are  liable)  is  required 
to  relieve  and  support  all  poor  and  indigent  persons  lawfully  resident 
therein.  Residence  means  the  actual  residence  of  the  party,  or  the  place 
where  he  was  employed ;  or  in  case  he  was  in  no  employment,  then  it 
shall  be  the  place  where  he  made  his  home.  When  any  person  becomes 
chargeable  as  a  pauper  in  any  county  or  town  who  did  not  reside  at  the 
commencement  of  six  months  immediately  preceding  his  becoming  so, 
but  did  at  that  time  reside  in  some  other  county  or  town  in  this  state, 
then  the  county  or  town,  as  the  case  may  be,  becomes  liable  for  the  expense 
of  taking  care  of  such  person  until  removed,  and  it  is  the  duty  of  the 
overseer  to  notify  the  proper  authorities  of  the  fact.  If  any  person  shall 
bring  and  leave  any  pauper  in  any  county  in  this  state  where  such  pauper 
had  no  legal  residence,  knowing  him  to  be  such,  he  is  liable  to  a  fine  ol 
8100.  In  counties  under  township  organization,  the  supervisors  in  each 
town  are  ex-officio  overseers  of  the  poor.  The  overseers  of  the  poor  act 
under  the  directions  of  the  County  Board  in  taking  care  of  the  poor  and 
granting  of  temporary  relief ;  also,  providing  for  non-resident  persons  not 
paupers  who  may  be  taken  sick  and  not  able  to  pay  their  way,  and  in  case 
of  death  cause  such  person  to  be  decently  buried. 

The  residence  of  the  inmates  of  poorhouses  and  other  charitable 
institutions  for  voting  purposes  is  their  former  place  of  abode. 




In  counties  under  township  organization,  the  town  assessor  and  com¬ 
missioner  of  highways  are  the  fence-viewers  in  their  respective  towns. 
In  other  counties  the  County  Board  appoints  three  in  each  precinct  annu- 
ally.  A  lawful  fence  is  four  and  one-half  feet  high ,  in  good  repair,  con¬ 
sisting  of  rails,  timber,  boards,  stone,  hedges,  or  whatever  the  fence- 
viewers  of  the  town  or  precinct  where  the  same  shall  lie,  shall  consider 
equivalent  thereto,  but  in  counties  under  township  organization  the  annual 
town  meeting  may  establish  any  other  kind  of  fence  as  such,  or  the  County 
Board  in  other  counties  may  do  the  same.  Division  fences  shall  be  made 
and  maintained  in  just  proportion  by  the  adjoining  owners,  except  when 
the  owner  shall  choose  to  let  his  land  lie  open,  but  after  a  division  fence  is 
built  by  agreement  or  otherwise,  neither  party  can  remove  his  part  of  such 
fence  so  long  as  he  may  crop  or  use  such  land  for  farm  purposes,  or  without 
giving  the  other  party  one  year’s  notice  in  writing  of  his  intention  to  remove 
his  portion.  When  any  person  shall  enclose  his  land  upon  the  enclosure 
of  another,  he  shall  refund  the  owner  of  the  adjoining  lands  a  just  pro¬ 
portion  of  the  value  at  that  time  of  such  fence.  The  value  of  fence  and 
the  just  proportion  to  be  paid  or  built  and  maintained  by  each  is  to  be 
ascertained  by  two  fence-viewers  in  the  town  or  precinct.  Such  fence- 
viewers  have  power  to  settle  all  disputes  between  different  owners  as  to 
fences  built  or  to  be  built,  as  well  as  to  repairs  to  be  made.  Each  party 
chooses  one  of  the  viewers,  but  if  the  other  party  neglects,  after  eight 
days’  notice  in  writing,  to  make  his  choice,  then  the  other  party  may 
select  both.  It  is  sufficient  to  notify  the  tenant  or  party  in  possession, 
when  the  owner  is  not  a  resident  of  the  town  or  precinct.  The  two 
fence-viewers  chosen,  after  viewing  the  premises,  shall  hear  the  state¬ 
ments  of  the  parties ,  in  case  they  can’t  agree,  they  shall  select  another 
fence-viewer  to  act  with  them,  and  the  decision  of  any  two  of  them  is 
final.  The  decision  must  be  reduced  to  writing,  and  should  plainly  set 
out  description  of  fence  and  all  matters  settled  by  them,  and  must  be 
filed  in  the  office  of  the  town  clerk  in  counties  under  township  organiza¬ 
tion,  and  in  other  counties  with  the  county  clerk. 

Where  any  person  is  liable  to  contribute  to  the  erection  or  the 
repairing  of  a  division  fence,  neglects  or  refuses  so  to  do,  the  party 
injured,  after  giving  sixty  days  notice  in  writing  when  a  fence  is  to  be 
erected,  or  ten  days  when  it  is  only  repairs,  may  proceed  to  have  the 
work  done  at  the  expense  of  the  party  whose  duty  it  is  to  do  it,  to  be 
recovered  from  him  with  costs  of  suit,  and  the  party  so  neglecting  shall 
also  be  liable  to  the  party  injured  for  all  damages  accruing  from  such 
neglect  or  refusal,  to  be  determined  by  any  two  fence-viewers  selected 
as  before  provided,  the  appraisement  to  be  reduced  to  writing  and  signed. 



Where  a  person  shall  conclude  to  remove  his  part  of  a  division  fence, 
and  let  his  land  lie  open,  and  having  given  the  year’s  notice  required,  the 
adjoining  owner  may  cause  the  value  of  said  fence  to  be  ascertained  bv 
fence-viewers  as  before  provided,  and  on  payment  or  tender  of  the 
amount  of  such  valuation  to  the  owner,  it  shall  prevent  the  removal.  .  A 
party  removing  a  division  fence  without  notice  is  liable  for  the  damages 
accruing  thereby. 

Where  a  fence  has  been  built  on  the  land  of  another  through  mis¬ 
take,  the  owner  may  enter  upon  such  premises  and  remove  his  fence  and 
material  within  six  months  after  the  division  line  has  been  ascertained. 
Where  the  material  to  build  such  a  fence  has  been  taken  from  the  land 
on  which  it  was  built,  then  before  it  can  be  removed,  the  person  claiming 
must  first  pay  for  such  material  to  the  owner  of  the  land  from  which  it 
was  taken,  nor  shall  such  a  fence  be  removed  at  a  time  when  the  removal 
will  throw  open  or  expose  the  crops  of  the  other  party ;  a  reasonable 
time  must  be  given  beyond  the  .six  months  to  remove  crops. 

The  compensation  of  fence-viewers  is  one  dollar  and  fifty  cents  a 
day  each,  to  be  paid  in  the  first  instance  by  the  party  calling  them,  but 
in  the  end  all  expenses,  including  amount  charged  by  the  fence-viewers, 
must  be  paid  equally  by  the  parties,  except  in  cases  where  a  party  neglects 
or  refuses  to  make  or  maintain  a  just  proportion  of  a  division  fence,  when 
the  party  in  default  shall  pay  them. 


Where  stock  of  any  kind  breaks  into  any  person’s  enclosure,  the 
fence  being  good  and  sufficient ,  the  owner  is  liable  for  the  damage  done  ; 
but  where  the  damage  is  done  by  stock  running  at  large ,  contrary  to  law , 
the  owner  is  liable  where  there  is  not  such  a  fence.  Where  stock  is 
found  trespassing  on  the  enclosure  of  another  as  aforesaid,  the  owner  oi 
occupier  of  the  premises  may  take  possession  of  such  stock  and  keep  the 
same  until  damages,  with  reasonable  charges  for  keeping  and  feeding  and 
all  costs  of  suit,  are  paid.  Any  person  taking  or  rescuing  such  stock  so 
held  without  his  consent,  shall  be  liable  to  a  fine  of  not  less  than  three 
nor  more  than  five  dollars  for  each  animal  rescued,  to  be  recovered  by 
suit  before  a  justice  of  the  peace  for  the  use  of  the  school  fund.  Within 
twenty-four  hours  after  taking  such  animal  into  his  possession,  the  per¬ 
son  taking  it  up  must  give  notice  of  the  fact  to  the  owner,  if  known,  or 
if  unknown,  notices  must  be  posted  in  some  public  place  near  the  premises. 


The  owner  of  lands,  or  his  legal  representatives,  can  sue  for  and 
recover  rent  therefor,  in  any  of  the  following  cases  : 

First.  When  rent  is  due  and  in  arrears  on  a  lease  for  life  or  lives. 




Second.  When  lands  are  held  and  occupied  by  any  person  without 
any  special  agreement  for  rent. 

Third.  When  possession  is  obtained  under  an  agreement,  written 
or  verbal,  for  the  purchase  of  the  premises  and  before  deed  given,  the 
right  to  possession  is  terminated  by  forfeiture  on  con-compliance  with  the 
agreement,  and  possession  is  wrongfully  refused  or  neglected  to  be  given 
upon  demand  made  in  writing  by  the  party  entitled  thereto.  Provided 
that  all  payments  made  by  the  vendee  or  his  representatives  or  assigns, 
may  be  set  off  against  the  rent. 

Fourth.  When  land  has  been  sold  upon  a  judgment  or  a  decree  of 
court,  when  the  party  to  such  judgment  or  decree,  or  person  holding  under 
him.  wrongfully  refuses,  or  neglects,  to  surrender  possession  of  the  same, 
after  demand  in  writing  by  the  person  entitled  to  the  possession. 

Fifth.  When  the  lands  have  been  sold  upon  a  mortgage  or  trust 
deed,  and  the  mortgagor  or  grantor  or  person  holding  under  him,  wrong¬ 
fully  refuses  or  neglects  to  surrender  possession  of  the  same,  after  demand 
in  writing  by  the  person  entitled  to  the  possession. 

If  any  tenant,  or  any  person  who  shall  come  into  possession  from  or 
under  or  by  collusion  with  such  tenant,  shall  willfully  hold  over  any  lands, 
etc.,  after  the  expiration  the  term  of  their  lease,  and  after  demand  made 
in  writing  for  the  possession  thereof,  is  liable  to  pay  double  rent.  A 
tenancy  from  year  to  year  requires  sixty  days  notice  in  writing,  to  termi¬ 
nate  the  same  at  the  end  of  the  year;  such  notice  can  be  given  at  any 
time  within  four  months  preceding  the  last  sixty  days  of  the  year. 

A  tenancy  by  the  month,  or  less  than  a  year,  where  the  tenant  holds 
over  without  any  special  agreement,  the  landlord  may  terminate  the 

tenancy,  by  thirty  days  notice  in  writing. 

When  rent  is  due,  the  landlord  may  serve  a  notice  upon  the  tenant, 
stating  that  unless  the  rent  is  paid  within  not  less  than  five  days,  his  lease 
will  be  terminated  ;  if  the  rent  is  not  paid,  the  landlord  may  consider  the 
lease  ended.  When  default  is  made  in  any  of  the  terms  of  a  lease,  it 
shall  not  be  necessary  to  give  more  than  ten  days  notice  to  quit  or  of  the 
termination  of  such  tenancy ;  and  the  same  may  be  terminated  on  gfv  ing 
such  notice  to  quit,  at  any  time  after  such  default  in  any  of  the  terms  of 
such  lease  ;  which  notice  may  be  substantially  in  the  following  form,  viz: 

To - .  You  are  hereby  notified  that,  in  consequence  of  your  default 

in  (here  insert  the  character  of  the  default),  of  the  premises  now  occupied 
by  you,  being  etc.  (here  describe  the  premises),  I  have  elected  to  detei- 
mine  your  lease,  and  you  are  hereby  notified  to  quit  and  deliver  up  pos¬ 
session  of  the  same  to  me  within  ten  days  of  this  date  (dated,  etc.) 

The  above  to  be  signed  by  the  lessor  or  his  agent,  and  no  other  notice 
or  demand  of  possession  or  termination  of  such  tenancy  is  necessary. 

Demand  may  be  made,  or  notice  served,  by  delivering  a  written  or 



printed,  or  partly  either,  copy  thereof  to  the  tenant,  or  leaving  the  same 
with  some  person  above  the  age  of  twelve  years  residing  on  or  in  posses¬ 
sion  of  the  premises ;  and  in  case  no  one  is  in  the  actual  possession  of  the 
said  piemises,  then  by  posting  the  same  on  the  premises.  When  the 
tenancy  is  for  a  certain  time,  and  the  term  expires  by  the  terms  of  the 
lease,  the  tenant  is  then  bound  to  surrender  possession,  and  no  notice 
to  quit  or  demand  of  possession  is  necessary. 

Distress  for  rent.— In  all  cases  of  distress  for  rent,  the  landlord,  by 
himself,  his  agent  or  attorney,  may  seize  for  rent  any  personal  property  of 
his  tenant  that  may  be  found  in  the  county  where  the  tenant  resides  ;  the 

property  of  any  other  person,  even  if  found  on  the  premises,  is  not 

An  inventory  of  the  property  levied  upon,  with  a  statement  of  the 
amount  of  rent  claimed,  should  be  at  once  filed  with  some  justice  of  the 
peace,  if  not  over  $200 ;  and  if  above  that  sum,  with  the  clerk  of  a  court 
of  record  of  competent  jurisdiction.  Property  may  be  released,  by  the 
party  executing  a  satisfactory  bond  for  double  the  amount. 

The  landlord  may  distrain  for  rent,  any  time  within  six  months  after 
the  expiration  of  the  term  of  the  lease,  or  when  terminated. 

In  all  cases  where  the  premises  rented  shall  be  sub-let,  or  the  lease 
assigned,  the  landlord  shall  have  the  same  right  to  enforce  lien  against 
such  lessee  or  assignee,  that  he  has  against  the  tenant  to  whom  the  pre¬ 
mises  were  rented. 

When  a  tenant  abandons  or  removes  from  the  premises  or  any  part 
thereof,  the  landlord,  or  his  agent  or  attorney,  may  seize  upon  any  grain 
or  other  crops  grown  or  growing  upon  the  premises,  or  part  thereof  so 
abandoned,  whether  the  rent  is  due  or  not.  If  such  grain,  or  other  crops, 
or  any  part  thereof,  is  not  fully  grown  or  matured,  the  landlord,  or  his 
agent  or  attorney,  shall  cause  the  same  to  be  properly  cultivated,  harvested 
or  gathered,  and  may  sell  the  same,  and  from  the  proceeds  pay  all  his 
labor,  expenses  and  rent.  The  tenant  may,  before  the  sale  of  such  pro¬ 
perty,  redeem  the  same  by  tendering  the  rent  and  reasonable  compensation 
for  work  done,  or  he  may  replevy  the  same. 

Exemption. — The  same  articles  of  personal  property  which  are  bylaw 
exempt  from  execution,  except  the  crops  as  above  stated,  is  also  exempt 
from  distress  for  rent. 

If  any  tenant  is  about  to  or  shall  permit  or  attempt  to  sell  and 
remove  from  the  premises,  without  the  consent  of  his  landlord,  such 
portion  of  the  crops  raised  thereon  as  will  endanger  the  lien  of  the  land¬ 
lord  upon  such  crops,  for  the  rent,  it  shall  be  lawful  for  the  landlord  to 
distress  before  rent  is  due. 




Any  person  who  shall  by  contract ,  express  or  implied,  or  partly  both, 
with  the  owner  of  any  lot  or  tract  of  land,  furnish  labor  or  material,  or 
services  as  an  architect  or  superintendent,  in  building,  altering,  lepaiiing 
or  ornamenting  any  house  or  other  building  or  appurtenance  thereto  on 
such  lot,  or  upon  any  street  or  alley,  and  connected  with  such  improve¬ 
ments,  shall  have  a  lien  upon  the  whole  of  such  lot  or  tract  of  land,  and 
upon  such  house  or  building  and  appurtenances,  for  the  amount  due  to 
him  for  such  labor,  material  or  services.  If  the  contract  is  expressed ,  and 
the  time  for  the  completion  of  the  work  is  beyond  three  years  from  the  com¬ 
mencement  thereof ;  or,  it  the  time  of  payment  is  beyond  one  year  from 
the  time  stipulated  for  the  completion  of  the  work,  then  no  lien  exists. 
If  the  contract  is  implied ,  then  no  lien  exists,  unless  the  work  be  done  or 
material  is  furnished  within  one  year  from  the  commencement  of  the  work 
or  delivery  of  the  materials.  As  between  different  creditors  having  liens, 
no  preference  is  given  to  the  one  whose  contract  was  first  made  ,  but  each 
shares  pro-rata.  Incumbrances  existing  on  the  lot  or  tract  of  the  land  at 
the  time  the  contract  is  made,  do  not  operate  on  the  improvements,  and 
are  only  preferred  to  the  extent  of  the  value  of  the  land  at  the  time  of 
making  the  contract.  The  above  lien  can  not  be  enforced  unless  suit  is 
commenced  within  six  months  after  the  last  payment  for  labor  or  mateiials 
shall  have  become  due  and  payable.  Sub-contractors,  mechanics,  woikmen 
and  other  persons  furnishing  any  material,  or  performing  any  labor  for  a 
contractor  as  before  specified,  have  a  lien  to  the  extent  of  the  amount  due 
the  contractor  at  the  time  the  following  notice  is  served  upon  the  owner 
of  the  land  who  imide  the  contract: 

To - ,  You  are  hereby  notified,  that  I  have  been  employed  by - 

(here  state  whether  to  labor  or  furnish  material,  and  substantially  the 
nature  of  the  demand)  upon  your  (here  state  in  general  terms  description 
and  situation  of  building),  and  that  I  shall  hold  the  (building,  or  as  the 
case  may  be),  and  your  interest  in  the  ground,  liable  for  the  amount  that 
may  (is  or  may  become)  due  me  on  account  thereof.  Signature, 

Date, - 

If  there  is  a  contract  in  writing  between  contractor  and  sub-contractor, 
a  copy  of  it  should  be  served  with  above  notice,  and  said  notice  must  be 
served  within  forty  days  from  the  completion  of  such  sub-contract,  if  there 
is  one  ;  if  not,  then  from  the  time  payment  should  have  been  made  to  the 
person  performing  the  labor  or  furnishing  the  material.  If  the  owner  is 
not  a  resident  of  the  county,  or  can  not  be  found  therein,  then  the  above 
notice  must  be  filed  with  the  clerk  of  the  Circuit  Court,  with  his  fee,  fifty 
cents,  and  a  copy  of  said  notice  must  be  published  in  a  newspaper  pub¬ 
lished  in  the  county,  for  four  successive  weeks. 



When  the  owner  or  agent  is  notified  as  above,  he  can  retain  any 
money  due  the  contractor  sufficient  to  pay  such  claim  ;  if  more  than  one 
claim,  and  not  enough  to  pay  all,  they  are  to  be  paid  pro  rata. 

The  owner  has  the  right  to  demand  in  writing,  a  statement  of  the 
contractor,  of  what  he  owes  for  labor,  etc.,  from  time  to  time  as  the  work 
progresses,  and  on  his  failure  to  comply,  forfeits  to  the  owner  $50.for 
every  offense. 

The  liens  referred  to  cover  any  and  all  estates,  whether  in  fee  for 
lire,  for  years,  or  any  other  interest  which  the  owner  may  have. 

To  enforce  the  lien  of  sub- contractors,  suit  must  be  commenced  within 
three  months  from  the  time  of  the  performance  of  the  sub-contract,  or 
during  the  work  or  furnishing  materials. 

Hotel,  inn  and  boarding-house  keepers,  have  a  lien  upon  the  baggage 
and  other  valuables  of  their  guests  or  boarders,  brought  into  such  hotel, 
inn  or  boarding-house,  by  their  guests  or  boarders,  for  the  proper  charges 
due  from  such  guests  or  boarders  for  their  accommodation,  board  and 
lodgings,  and  such  extras  as  are  furnished  at  their  request. 

Stable-keepers  and  other  persons  have  a  lien  upon  the  horses,  car¬ 
riages  and  harness  kept  by  them,  for  the  proper  charges  due  for  the  keep¬ 
ing  thereof  and  expenses  bestowed  thereon  at  the  request  of  the  owner 
or  the  person  having  the  possession  of  the  same. 

Agisters  (persons  who  take  care  of  cattle  belonging  to  others),  and 
persons  keeping,  yarding,  feeding  or  pasturing  domestic  animals,  shall 
have  a  lien  upon  the  animals  agistered,  kept,  yarded  or  fed,  for  the  proper 
charges  due  for  such  service. 

All  persons  who  may  furnish  any  railroad  corporation  in  this  state 
with  fuel,  ties,  material,  supplies  or  any  other  article  or  thing  necessary 
for  the  construction,  maintenance,  operation  or  repair  of  its  road  by  con¬ 
tract,  or  may  perform  work  or  labor  on  the  same,  is  entitled  to  be  paid  as 
part  of  the  current  expenses  of  the  road,  and  have  a  lien  upon  all  its  pro- 
perty.  Sub-contractors  or  laborers  have  also  a  lien.  The  conditions  and 
limitations  both  as  to  contractors  and  sub-contractors,  are  about  the  same 
as  herein  stated  as  to  general  liens. 


$ - means  dollars,  being  a  contraction  of  U.  S.,  which  was  formerly 

placed  before  any  denomination  of  money,  and  meant,  as  it  means  now, 
United  States  Currency. 

£ - means  pounds,  English  money. 

@  stands  for  at  or  to.  lb  for  pound,  and  bbl.  for  barrel ;  ^  for  per  or 
by  the .  Thus,  Butter  sells  at  20 @ 30c  ^  lb,  and  Flour  at  $8@12  ^  bbl. 

%  for  per  cent  and  #  for  number. 

May  1. — Wheat  sells  at  $1.20@1.25,  “seller  June."  Seller  June 



means  that  the  person  who  sells  the  wheat  has  the  privilege  of  delivering 
it  at  any  time  during  the  month  of  June. 

Selling  short,  is  contracting  to  deliver  a  certain  amount  of  grain  or 
stock,  at  a  fixed  price,  within  a  certain  length  of  time,  when  the  seller 
has  not  the  stock  on  hand.  It  is  for  the  interest  of  the  person  selling 
“short,”  to  depress  the  market  as  much  as  possible,  in  order  that  he  may 
buy  and  fill  his  contract  at  a  profit.  Hence  the  “  shorts  ”  are  termed 
“  bears.” 

Buying  long ,  is  to  contract  to  purchase  a  certain  amount  of  grain  or 
shares  of  stock  at  a  fixed  price,  deliverable  within  a  stipulated  time, 
expecting  to  make  a  profit  by  the  rise  of  prices.  The  “longs”  are 
termed  “bulls,”  as  it  is  for  their  interest  to  “  operate  ”  so  as  to  “toss” 
the  prices  upward  as  much  as  possible. 


Form  of  note  is  legal,  worded  in  the  simplest  way,  so  that  the 
amount  and  time  of  payment  are  mentioned. 

$100.  Chicago,  Ill.,  Sept.  15,  1876. 

Sixty  days  from  date  I  promise  to  pay  to  E.  F.  Brown, 
or  order,  One  Hundred  dollars,  for  value  received. 

L.  D.  Lowry. 

A  note  to  be  payable  in  any  thing  else  than  money  needs  only  the 
facts  substituted  for  money  in  the  above  form. 


Orders  should  be  worded  simply,  thus : 

Mr.  F.  H.  Coats  :  Chicago,  Sept.  15,  1876. 

Please  pay  to  H.  Birdsall,  Twenty-five  dollars,  and  charge  to 

F.  D.  Silva. 


Receipts  should  always  state  when  received  and  what  for,  thus : 

$100.  Chicago,  Sept.  15,  1876. - 

Received  of  J.  W.  Davis,  One  Hundred  dollars,  for  services 
rendered  in  grading  his  lot  in  Fort  Madison,  on  account. 

Thomas  Brady. 

If  receipt  is  in  full  it  should  be  so  stated. 


W.  N.  Mason,  Salem,  Illinois,  Sept.  15,  1876. 

Bought  of  A.  A.  Graham. 

4  Bushels  of  Seed  Wheat,  at  $1.50  -  -  -  +  $6.00 

2  Seamless  Sacks  “  .80  -  -  .60 

Received  payment,  $6.60 

A.  A.  Graham. 




An  agreement  is  where  one  party  promises  to  another  to  do  a  certain 
thing  in  a  certain  time  for  a  stipulated  sum.  Good  business  men  always 
reduce  an  agreement  to  writing,  which  nearly  always  saves  misunder¬ 
standings  and  trouble.  No  particular  form  is  necessary,  but  the  facts  must 
be  clearly  and  explicitly  stated,  and  there  must,  to  make  it  valid,  be  a 
reasonable  consideration. 


This  Agreement,  made  the  Second  day  of  October,  1876,  between 
John  Jones,  of  Aurora,  County  of  Kane,  State  of  Illinois,  of  the  first  part, 
and  Thomas  Whiteside,  of  the  same  place,  of  the  second  part  — 

WITNESSETH,  that  the  said  John  Jones,  in  consideration  of  the  agree¬ 
ment  of  the  party  of  the  second  part,  hereinafter  contained,  contracts  and 
agrees  to  and  with  the  said  Thomas  Whiteside,  that  he  will  deliver,  in 
good  and  marketable  condition,  at  the  Village  of  Batavia,  Ill.,  during  the 
month  of  November,  of  this  year,  One  Hundred  Tons  of  Prairie  Hay,  in 
the  following  lots,  and  at  the  following  specified  times ;  namely,  twenty-’ 
five  tons  by  the  seventh  of  November,  twenty-five  tons  additional  by  the 
fourteenth  of  the  month,  twenty-five  tons  more  by  the  twenty -first,  and 
the  entire  one  hundred  tons  to  be  all  delivered  by  the  thirtieth  of 

And  the  said  Thomas  Whiteside,  in  consideration  of  the  prompt 
fulfillment  of  this  contract,  on  the  part  of  the  party  of  the  first  part, 
contracts  to  and  agrees  with  the  said  John  Jones,  to  pay  for  said  hay  five 
dollars  per  ton,  for  each  ton  as  soon  as  delivered. 

In  case  of  failure  of  agreement  by  either  of  the  parties  hereto,  it  is 
hereby  stipulated  and  agreed  that  the  party  so  failing  shall  pa}^  to  the 
other,  One  Hundred  Dollars,  as  fixed  and  settled  damages. 

In  witness  whereof,  we  have  hereunto  set  our  hands  the  day  and 
year  first  above  written.  John  Jones, 

Thomas  Whiteside. 


This  Agreement,  made  the  first  day  of  May,  one  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  seventy-six,  between  Reuben  Stone,  of  Chicago,  County 
of  Cook,  State  of  Illinois,  party  of  the  first  part,  and  George  Barclay,  of 
Englewood,  County  of  Cook,  State  of  Illinois,  party  of  the  second  part  — 

Witnesseth,  that  said  George  Barclay  agrees  faithfully  and  dili¬ 
gently  to  work  as  clerk  and  salesman  for  the  said  Reuben  Stone,  for 
and  during  the  space  of  one  year  from  the  date  hereof,  should  both 
live  such  length  of  time,  without  absenting  himself  from  his  occupation; 



during  which  time  he,  the  said  Barclay,  in  the  store  of  said  Stone,  of 
Chicago,  will  carefully  and  honestly  attend,  doing  and  performing  all 
duties  as  clerk  and  salesman  aforesaid,  in  accordance  and  in  all  respects 
as  directed  and  desired  by  the  said  Stone. 

In  consideration  of  which  services,  so  to  be  rendered  by  the  said 
Barclay,  the  said  Stone  agrees  to  pay  to  said  Barclay  the  annual  sum  of 
one  thousand  dollars,  payable  in  twelve  equal  monthly  payments,  each 
upon  the  last  day  of  each  month  ;  provided  that  all  dues  for  days  of 
absence  from  business  by  said  Barclay,  shall  be  deducted  from  the  sum 
otherwise  by  the  agreement  due  and  payable  by  the  said  Stone  to  the  said 

Witness  our  hands.  Reuben  Stone. 

George  Barclay. 


A  bill  of  sale  is  a  written  agreement  to  another  party,  for  a  consider¬ 
ation  to  convey  his  right  and  interest  in  the  personal  property.  The 
purchaser  must  take  actual  possession  of  the  property.  Juries  have 
power  to  determine  upon  the  fairness  or  unfairness  of  a  bill  of  sale. 


Know  all  Men  by  this  instrument,  that  I,  Louis  Clay,  of  Princeton, 
Illinois,  of  the  first  part,  for  and  in  consideration  of  Five  Hundred 
and  Ten  dollars,  to  me  paid  by  John  Floyd,  of  the  same  place,  of  the 
second  part,  the  receipt  whereof  is  hereby  acknowledged,  have  sold,  and 
by  this  instrument  do.  convey  unto  the  said  Floyd,  party  of  the  second 
part,  his  executors,  administrators,  and  assigns,  my  undivided  half  of 
ten  acres  of  corn,  now  growing  on  the  farm  of  Thomas  Tyrrell,  in  the 
town  above  mentioned ;  one  pair  of  horses,  sixteen  sheep,  and  five  cows, 
belonging  to  me,  and  in  my  possession  at  the  farm  aforesaid ;  to  have  and 
to  hold  the  same  unto  the  party  of  the  second  part,  his  executors  and 
assigns,  forever.  And  I  do,  for  myself  and  legal  representatives,  agree 
with  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  and  his  legal  representatives,  to 
warrant  and  defend  the  sale  of  the  afore-mentioned  property  and  chattels 
unto  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  and  his  legal  representatives, 
against  all  and  every  person  whatsoever. 

In  witness  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  affixed  my  hand,  this  tenth  day 
of  October,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-six. 

Louis  Clay. 


A  bond  is  a  written  admission  on  the  part  of  the  maker  in  which  he 
pledges  a  certain  sum  to  another,  at  a  certain  time. 




Know  all  Men  by  this  instrument,  that  I,  George  Edgerton,  of 
Watseka,  Iroquois  County,  State  of  Illinois,  am  firmly  bound  unto  Peter 
Kirchoff,  of  the  place  aforesaid,  in  the  sum  of  five  hundred  dollars,  to  be 
paid  to  the  said  Peter  Kirchoff,  or  his  legal  representatives ;  to  which 
payment,  to  be  made,  I  bind  myself,  or  my  legal  representatives,  by  this 

Sealed  with  my  seal,  and  dated  this  second  day  of  November,  one 
thousand  eight  hundred  and  sixty-four. 

The  condition  of  this  bond  is  such  that  if  I,  George  Edgerton,  my 
heirs,  administrators,  or  executors,  shall  promptly  pay  the  sum  of  two 
hundred  and  fifty  dollars  in  three  equal  annual  payments  from  the  date 
hereof,  with  annual  interest,  then  the  above  obligation  to  be  of  no  effect ; 
otherwise  to  be  in  full  force  and  valid. 

Sealed  and  delivered  in 

presence  of  George  Edgerton.  [l.s.] 

William  Turner. 


A  chattel  mortgage  is  a  mortgage  on  personal  property  for  payment 
of  a  certain  sum  of  money,  to  hold  the  property  against  debts  of  other 
creditors.  The  mortgage  must  describe  the  property,  and  must  be 
acknowledged  before  a  justice  of  the  peace  in  the  township  or  precinct 
where  the  mortgagee  resides,  and  entered  upon  his  docket,  and  must  be 
recorded  in  the  recorder’s  office  of  the  county. 


This  Indenture,  made  and  entered  into  this  first  day  of  January, 
in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-five, 
between  Theodore  Lottinville,  of  the  town  of  Geneseo  in  the  County 
of  Henry,  and  State  of  Illinois,  party  of  the  first  part,  and  Paul  Henshaw, 
of  the  same  town,  county,  and  State,  part}r  of  the  second  part. 

Witnesseth,  that  the  said  party  of  the  first  part,  for  and  in  consider¬ 
ation  of  the  sum  of  one  thousand  dollars,  in  hand  paid,  the  receipt  whereof 
is  hereby  acknowledged,  does  hereby  grant,  sell,  convey,  and  confirm  unto 
the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  all  and 
singular  the  following  described  goods  and  chattels,  to  wit: 

Two  three-year  old  roan-colored  horses,  one  Burdett  organ,  No.  987, 
one  Brussels  carpet,  15x20  feet  in  size,  one  marble-top  center  table,  one 
Home  Comfort  cooking  stove,  No.  8,  one  black  walnut  bureau  with  mirror 
attached,  one  set  of  parlor  chairs  (six  in  number),  upholstered  in  green 
rep,  with  lounge  corresponding  with  same  in  style  and  color  of  upholstery, 
nowin  possession  of  said  Lottinville,  at  No.  4  Prairie  Ave.,  Geneseo,  Ill.; 



Together  with  all  and  singular,  the  appurtenances  thereunto  belong¬ 
ing,  or  in  any  wise  appertaining ;  to  have  and  to  hold  the  above  described 
goods  and  chattels,  unto  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs  and 
assigns,  forever. 

Provided,  always,  and  these  presents  are  upon  this  express  condition, 
that  if  the  said  Theodore  Lottinville,  his  heirs,  executors,  administrators, 
or  assigns,  shall,  on  or  before  the  first  day  of  January,  A.D.,  one  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  seventy-six,  pay,  or  cause  to  be  paid,  to  the  said  Paul 
Ranslow,  or  his  lawful  attorney  or  attorneys,  heirs,  executors,  adminis¬ 
trators,  or  assigns,  the  sum  of  One  Thousand  dollars,  together  with  the 
interest  that  may  accrue  thereon,  at  the  rate  of  ten  per  cent,  per  annum, 
from  the  first  day  of  January,  A.D.  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
seventy-five,  until  paid,  according  to  the  tenor  of  one  promissory  note 
bearing  even  date  herewith  for  the  payment  of  said  sum  of  money,  that 
then  and  from  thenceforth,  these  presents,  and  everything  herein  con¬ 
tained,  shall  cease,  and  be  null  and  void,  anything  herein  contained  to  the 
contrary  notwithstanding. 

Provided,  also,  that  the  said  Theodore  Lottinville  may  retain  the 
possession  of  and  have  the  use  of  said  goods  and  chattels  until  the  day 
of  payment  aforesaid  ;  and  also,  at  his  own  expense,  shall  keep  said  goods 
and  chattels;  and  also  at  the  expiration  of  said  time  of  payment,  if  said 
sum  of  money,  together  with  the  interest  as  aforesaid,  shall  not  be  paid, 
shall  deliver  up  said  goods  and  chattels,  in  good  condition,  to  said  Paul 
Ranslow,  or  his  heirs,  executors,  administrators,  or  assigns. 

And  provided,  also,  that  if  default  in  payment  as  aforesaid,  by  said 
party  of  the  first  part,  shall  be  made,  or  if  said  party  of  the  second  part 
shall  at  any  time  before  said  promissory  note  becomes  due,  feel  himself 
unsafe  or  insecure,  that  then  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  or  his 
attorney,  agent,  assigns,  or  heirs,  executors,  or  administrators,  shall  have 
the  right  to  take  possession  of  said  goods  and  chattels,  wherever  they 
may  or  can  be  found,  and  sell  the  same  at  public  or  private  sale,  to  the 
highest  bidder  for  cash  in  hand,  after  giving  ten  days’  notice  of  the  time 
and  place  of  said  sale,  together  with  a  description  of  the  goods  and  chat¬ 
tels  to  be  sold,  by  at  least  four  advertisements,  posted  up  in  public  places 
in  the  vicinity  where  said  sale  is  to  take  place,  and  proceed  to  make  the 
sum  of  money  and  interest  promised  as  aforesaid,  together  with  all  reason¬ 
able  costs,  charges,  and  expenses  in  so  doing  ;  and  if  there  shall  be  any 
overplus,  shall  pay  the  same  without  delay  to  the  said  party  of  the  first 
part,  or  his  legal  representatives. 

In  testimony  whereof,  the  said  party  of  the  first  part  has  hereunto 
set  his  hand  and  affixed  his  seal,  the  day  and  year  first  above  written. 
Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  in 

presence  of  Theodore  Lottinville.  [l.s.] 

Samuel  J.  Tilden. 




This  Indenture,  made  this  second  day  of  June,  1875,  between  David 
Patton  of  the  Town  of  Bisbee,  State  of  Illinois,  of  the  first  part,  and  John 
Doyle  of  the  same  place,  of  the  second  part, 

Witnesseth,  that  the  said  David  Patton,  for  and  in  consideration  of 
the  covenants  hereinafter  mentioned  and  reserved,  on  the  part  of  the  said 
John  Doyle,  his  executors,  administrators,  and  assigns,  to  be  paid,  kept, 
and  performed,  hath  let,  and  by  these  presents  doth  grant,  demise,  and 
let,  unto  the  said  John  Doyle,  his  executors,  administrators,  and  assigns, 
all  that  parcel  of  land  situate  in  Bisbee  aforesaid,  bounded  and  described 
as  follows,  to  wit  : 

[Here  describe  the  land.~\ 

Together  with  all  the  appurtenances  appertaining  thereto.  To  have 
and  to  hold  the  said  premises,  with  appurtenances  thereto  belonging,  unto 
the  said  Doyle,  his  executors,  administrators,  and  assigns,  for  the  term  of 
five  years,  from  the  first  day  of  October  next  following,  at  a  yearly  rent 
of  Six  Hundred  dollars,  to  be  paid  in  equal  payments,  semi-annually,  as 
long  as  said  buildings  are  in  good  tenantable  condition. 

And  the  said  Doyle,  by  these  presents,  covenants  and  agrees  to  pay 
all  taxes  and  assessments,  and  keep  in  repair  all  hedges,  ditches,  rail,  and 
other  fences ;  (the  said  David  Patton,  his  heirs,  assigns  and  administra¬ 
tors,  to  furnish  all  timber,  brick,  tile,  and  other  materials  necessary  for 
such  repairs.) 

Said  Doyle  further  covenants  and  agrees  to  apply  to  said  land,  in  a 
farmer-like  manner,  all  manure  and  compost  accumulating  upon  said 
farm,  and  cultivate  all  the  arable  land  in  a  husbandlike  manner,  accord¬ 
ing  to  the  usual  custom  among  farmers  in  the  neighborhood  ;  he  also 
agrees  to  trim  the  hedges  at  a  seasonable  time,  preventing  injury  from 
cattle  to  such  hedges,  and  to  all  fruit  and  other  trees  on  the  said  premises. 
That  he  will  seed  down  with  clover  and  timothy  seed  twenty  acres  yearly 
of  arable  land,  ploughing  the  same  number  of  acres  each  Spring  of  land 
now  in  grass,  and  hitherto  unbroken. 

It  is  further  agreed,  that  if  the  said  Doyle  shall  fail  to  perform  the 
whole  or  any  one  of  the  above  mentioned  covenants,  then  and  in  that 
case  the  said  David  Patton  may  declare  this  lease  terminated,  by  giving 
three  months’  notice  of  the  same,  prior  to  the  first  of  October  of  any 
year,  and  may  distrain  any  part  of  the  stock,  goods,  or  chattels,  or  other 
property  in  possession  of  said  Doyle,  for  sufficient  to  compensate  for  the 
non-performance  of  the  above  written  covenants,  the  same  to  be  deter¬ 
mined,  and  amounts  so  to  be  paid  to  be  determined,  by  three  arbitrators, 
chosen  as  follows :  Each  of  the  parties  to  this  instrument  to  choose  one, 



and  the  two  so  chosen  to  select  a  third  ;  the  decision  of  said  arbitrators 
to  be  final. 

In  witness  whereof,  we  have  hereto  set  our  hands  and  seals. 

Signed,  sealed,  and  delivered 

in  presence  of  David  Patton,  [l.s.] 

James  Waldron.  John  Doyle.  [l.s.] 


This  Instrument,  made  the  first  day  of  October,  1875,  witnesseth 
that  Amos  Griest  of  Yorkville,  County  of  Kendall,  State  of  Illinois,  hath 
rented  from  Aaron  Young  of  Logansport  aforesaid,  the  dwelling  and  lot 
No.  13  Ohio  Street,  situated  in  said  City  of  Yorkville,  for  five  years 
from  the  above  date,  at  the  yearly  rental  of  Three  Hundred  dollars,  pay¬ 
able  monthly,  on  the  first  day  of  each  month,  in  advance,  at  the  residence 
of  said  Aaron  Young. 

At  the  expiration  of  said  above  mentioned  term,  the  said  Griest 
agrees  to  give  the  said  Young  peaceable  possession  of  the  said  dwelling, 
in  as  good  condition  as  when  taken,  ordinary  wear  and  casualties  excepted. 

In  witness  whereof,  we  place  our  hands  and  seals  the  day  and  year 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  Amos  Griest.  [l.s.] 

in  presence  of 

Nicholas  Schutz,  Aaron  Young,  [l.s.] 

Notary  Public. 


This  certifies  that  I  have  let  and  rented,  this  first  day  of  January, 
1876,  unto  Jacob  Schmidt,  my  house  and  lot,  No.  15  Erie  Street,  in  the 
City  of  Chicago,  State  of  Illinois,  and  its  appurtenances ;  he  to  have  the 
free  and  uninterrupted  occupation  thereof  for  one  year  from  this  date,  at 
the  yearly  rental  of  Two  Hundred  dollars,  to  be  paid  monthly  in  advance  ; 
rent  to  cease  if  destroyed  by  fire,  or  otherwise  made  untenantable. 

Peter  Funk. 


This  certifies  that  I  have  hired  and  taken  from  Peter  Funk,  his 
house  and  lot,  No.  15  Erie  Street,  in  the  City  of  Chicago,  State  of  Illi¬ 
nois,  with  appurtenances  thereto  belonging,  for  one  year,  to  commence 
this  day,  at  a  yearly  rental  of  Two  Hundred  dollars,  to  be  paid  monthly 
in  advance ;  unless  said  house  becomes  untenantable  from  fire  or  other 
causes,  in  which  case  rent  ceases ;  and  I  further  agree  to  give  and  yield 
said  premises  one  year  from  this  first  day  of  January  1876,  in  as  good 
condition  as  now,  ordinary  wear  and  damage  by  the  elements  excepted. 

Given  under  my  hand  this  day.  Jacob  Schmidt. 




To  F.  W.  Arlen, 

Sir :  Please  observe  that  the  term  of  one  year,  for  which  the  house 
and  land,  situated  at  No.  6  Indiana  Street,  and  now  occupied  bv  you, 
were  rented  to  you,  expired  on  the  first  day  of  October,  1875,  and  as  I 
desire  to  repossess  said  premises,  you  are  hereby  requested  and  required 
to  vacate  the  same.  Respectfully  Yours, 

P.  T.  Barnum. 

Lincoln,.  Neb.,  October  4,  1875. 


Dear  Sir  : 

The  premises  I  now  occupy  as  your  tenant,  at  No.  6  Indiana  Street, 
I  shall  vacate  on  the  first  day  of  November,  1875.  You  will  please  take 
notice  accordingly. 

Dated  this  tenth  day  of  October,  1875.  F.  W.  Arlen. 

To  P,  T.  Barnum,  Esq. 


This  Indenture,  made  this  sixteenth  day  of  May,  in  the  year  of 
our  Lord,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-two,  between  William 
Stocker,  of  Peoria,  County  of  Peoria,  and  State  of  Illinois,  and  Olla,  his 
wife,  party  of  the  first  part,  and  Edward  Singer,  party  of  the  second  part. 

Whereas,  the  said  party  of  the  first  part  is  justly  indebted  to  the  said 
party  of  the  second  part,  in  the  sum  of  Two  Thousand  dollars,  secured 
to  be  paid  {)y  two  certain  promissory  notes  (bearing  even  date  herewith) 
the  one  due  and  payable  at  the  Second  National  Bank  in  Peoria,  Illinois, 
with  interest,  on  the  sixteenth  day  of  May,  in  the  year  one  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  seventy-three  ;  the  other  due  and  payable  at  the  Second 
National  Bank  at  Peoria,  Ill.,  with  interest,  on  the  sixteenth  day  of  May, 
in  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  sevent}r-four. 

Now,  therefore,  this  indenture  witnesseth,  that  the  said  party  of  the 
first  part,  for  the  better  securing  the  payment  of  the  money  aforesaid, 
with  interest  thereon,  according  to  the  tenor  and  effect  of  the  said  two 
promissory  notes  above  mentioned  ;  and,  also  in  consideration  of  the  fur¬ 
ther  sum  of  one  dollar  to  them  in  hand  paid  by  the  said  party  of  the  sec¬ 
ond  part,  at  the  delivery  of  these  presents,  the  receipt  whereof  is  hereby 
acknowledged,  have  granted,  bargained,  sold,  and  conveyed,  and  by  these 
presents  do  grant,  bargain,  sell,  and  convey,  unto  the  said  party  of  the 
second  part,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  forever,  all  that  certain  parcel  of  land, 
situate,  etc. 

[. Describing  the  premises .] 

To  ha^ve  and  to  hold  the  same,  together  with  all  and  singular  the 
Tenements,  Hereditaments,  Privileges  and  Appurtenances  thereunto 



belonging  or  in  any  wise  appertaining.  And  also,  all  the  estate,  interest, 
and  claim  whatsoever,  in  law  as  well  as  in  equity  which  the  party  of 
the  first  part  have  in  and  to  the  premises  hereby  conveyed  unto  the  said 
party  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  and  to  their  only  proper 
use,  benefit  and  behoof.  And  the  said  William  Stocker,  and  Olla,  his 
wife,  party  of  the  first  part,  hereby  expressly  waive,  relinquish,  release, 
and  convey  unto  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs,  executors, 
administrators,  and  assigns,  all  right,  title,  claim,  interest,  and  benefit 
whatever,  in  and  to  the  above  described  premises,  and  each  and  every 
part  thereof,  which  is  given  by  or  results  from  all  laws  of  this  state  per- 
taining  to  the  exemption  of  homesteads. 

Provided  always,  and  these  presents  are  upon  this  express  condition, 
that  if  the  said  party  of  the  first  part,  their  heirs,  executors,  or  adminis¬ 
trators,  shall  well  and  truly  pay,  or  cause  to  be  paid,  to  the  said  party  of 
the  second  part,  his  heirs,  executors,  administrators,  or  assigns,  the  afore¬ 
said  sums  of  money,  with  such  interest  thereon,  at  the  time  and  in  the 
manner  specified  in  the  above  mentioned  promissory  notes,  according  to 
the  true  intent  and  meaning  thereof,  then  in  that  case,  these  presents  and 
every  thing  herein  expressed,  shall  be  absolutely  null  and  void. 

In  witness  whereof,  the  said  party  of  the  first  part  hereunto  set  their 
hands  and  seals  the  day  and  year  first  above  written. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  in  presence  of 

James  Whitehead,  William  Stocker,  [l.s.] 

Fred.  Samuels.  Olla  Stocker.  [l.s.] 


This  Indenture,  made  this  sixth  day  of  April,  in  the  year  of  our 
Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-two,  between  Henry  Best 
of  Lawrence,  County  of  Lawrence,  State  of  Illinois,  and  Belle,  his  wife, 
of  the  first  part,  and  Charles  Pearson  of  the  same  place,  of  the  second  part, 

Witnesseth,  that  the  said  party  of  the  first  part,  for  and  in  consideration 
of  the  sum  of  Six  Thousand  dollars  in  hand  paid  by  the  said  party  of  the 
second  part,  the  receipt  whereof  is  hereby  acknowledged,  have  granted, 
bargained,  and  sold,  and  by  these  presents  do  grant,  bargain,  and  sell, 
unto  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  ail  the  fol¬ 
lowing  described  lot,  piece,  or  parcel  of  land,  situated  in  the  City  of  Law¬ 
rence,  in  the  County  of  Lawrence,  and  State  of  Illinois,  to  wit: 

[Here  describe  the  property .] 

Together  with  all  and  singular  the  hereditaments  and  appurtenances 
thereunto  belonging  or  in  any  wise  appertaining,  and  the  reversion  and 
reversions,  remainder  and  remainders,  rents,  issues,  and  profits  thereof: 
and  all  the  estate,  ngnt,  title,  interest,  claim,  and  demand  whatsoever,  of 
the  said  party  of  the  nrst  part,  either  in  law  or  equity,  of,  in,  and  to  the 



above  bargained  premises,  with  the  hereditaments  and  appurtenances. 
To  have  and  to  hold  the  said  premises  above  bargained  and  described, 
with  the  appurtenances,  unto  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs 
and  assigns,  forever.  And  the  said  Henry  Best,  and  Belle,  his  wife,  par¬ 
ties  of  the  first  part,  hereby  expressly  waive,  release,  and  relinquish  unto 
the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs,  executors,  administrators,  and 
assigns,  all  right,  title,  claim,  interest,  and  benefit  whatever,  in  and  to  the 
above  described  premises,  and  each  and  every  part  thereof,  which  is  given 
by  or  results  from  all  laws  of  this  state  pertaining  to  the  exemption  of 

And  the  said  Henry  Best,  and  Belle,  his  wife,  party  of  the  first 
part,  for  themselves  and  their  heirs,  executors,  and  administrators,  do 
covenant,  grant,  bargain,  and  agree,  to  and  with  the  said  party  of  the 
second  part,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  that  at  the  time  of  the  ensealing  and 
delivery  of  these  presents  they  were  well  seized  of  the  premises  above 
conveyed,  as  of  a  good,  sure,  perfect,  absolute,  and  indefeasible  estate  of 
inheritance  in  law,  and  in  fee  simple,  and  have  good  right,  full  power, 
and  lawful  authority  to  grant,  bargain,  sell,  and  convey  the  same,  in 
manner  and  form  aforesaid,  and  that  the  same  are  free  and  clear  from  all 
former  and  other  grants,  bargains,  sales,  liens,  taxes,  assessments,  and 
encumbrances  of  what  kind  or  nature  soever ;  and  the  above  bargained 
premises  in  the  quiet  and  peaceable  possession  of  the  said  party  of  the 
second  part,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  against  all  and  every  person  or  persons 
lawfully  claiming  or  to  claim  the  whole  or  any  part  thereof,  the  said  party 
of  the  first  part  shall  and  will  warrant  and  forever  defend. 

In  testimony  whereof,  the  said  parties  of  the  first  part  have  hereunto 
set  their  hands  and  seals  the  day  and  year  first  above  written. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered 

in  presence  of  Henry  Best,  [l.s.] 

Jerry  Linklater.  Belle  Best.  [l.s.] 


This  Indenture,  made  the  eighth  day  of  June,  in  the  year  of  our 
Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-four,  between  David  Tour, 
of  Plano,  County  of  Kendall,  State  of  Illinois,  party  of  the  first  part, 
and  Larry  O’Brien,  of  the  same  place,  party  of  the  second  part, 

Witnesseth,  that  the  said  party  of  the  first  part,  for  and  in  considera¬ 
tion  of  Nine  Hundred  dollars  in  hand  paid  by  the  said  party  of  the  sec¬ 
ond  part,  the  receipt  whereof  is  hereby  acknowledged,  and  the  said  party 
of  the  second  part  forever  released  and  discharged  therefrom,  has  remised, 
released,  sold,  conveyed,  and  quit-claimed,  and  by  these  presents  does 
remise,  release,  sell,  convey,  and  quit-claim,  unto  the  said  party  of  the 
second  part,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  forever,  all  the  right,  title,  interest, 



claim,  and  demand,  which  the  said  party  of  the  first  part  has  in  and  to 
the  following  described  lot,  piece,  or  parcel  of  land,  to  wit : 

[Here  describe  the  land.\ 

To  have  and  to  hold  the  same,  together  with  all  and  singular  the 
appurtenances  and  privileges  thereunto  belonging,  or  in  any  wise  there¬ 
unto  appertaining,  and  all  the  estate,  right,  title,  interest,  and  claim 
whatever,  of  the  said  party  of  the  first  part,  either  in  law  or  equity,  to 
the  only  proper  use,  benefit,  and  behoof  of  the  said  party  of  the  second 
part,  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever. 

In  witness  whereof  the  said  party  of  the  first  part  hereunto  set  his 
hand  and  seal  the  day  and  year  above  written. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  David  Tour,  [l.s.] 

in  presence  of 

Thomas  Ashley. 

The  above  forms  of  Deeds  and  Mortgage  are  such  as  have  heretofore 
been  generally  used,  but  the  following  are  much  shorter,  and  are  made 
equally  valid  by  the  laws  of  this  state. 


The  grantor  (here  insert  name  or  names  and  place  of  residence),  for 
and  in  consideration  of  (here  insert  consideration)  in  hand  paid,  conveys 
and  warrants  to  (here  insert  the  grantee’s  name  or  names)  the  following 
described  real  estate  (here  insert  description),  situated  in  the  County  of 
- in  the  State  of  Illinois. 

Dated  this - day  of  - A.  D.  18 - . 


The  grantor  (here  insert  grantor’s  name  or  names  and  place  of  resi¬ 
dence).  for  the  consideration  of  (here  insert  consideration)  convey  and 
quit-claim  to  (here  insert  grantee’s  name  or  names)  all  interest  in  the 
following  described  real  estate  (here  insert  description),  situated  in  the 
County  of  - in  the  State  of  Illinois. 

Dated  this - day  of  -  A.  D.  18 - . 


The  mortgagor  (here  insert  name  or  names)  mortgages  and  warrants 
to  (here  insert  name  or  names  of  mortgagee  or  mortgagees),  to  secure  the 
payment  of  (here  recite  the  nature  and  amount  of  indebtedness,  showing 
when  due  and  the  rate  of  interest,  and  whether  secured  by  note  or  other¬ 
wise),  the  following  described  real  estate  (here  insert  description  thereof), 
situated  in  the  County  of  - in  the  State  of  Illinois. 

Dated  this - day  of - A.  D.  18 - . 


Know  all  Men  by  these  presents,  that  I,  Peter  Ahlund,  of  Chicago, 
of  the  County  of  Cook,  and  State  of  Illinois,  for  and  in  consideration  of 
One  dollar,  to  me  in  hand  paid,  and  for  other  good  and  valuable  considera- 



tions,  the  receipt  whereof  is  hereby  confessed,  do  hereby  grant,  bargain, 
remise,  convey,  release,  and  quit-claim  unto  Joseph  Carlin  of  Chicago, 
of  the  County  of  Cook,  and  State  of  Illinois,  all  the  right,  title,  interest, 
claim,  or  demand  whatsoever,  I  may  have  acquired  in,  through,  or  by  a 
certain  Indenture  or  Mortgage  Deed,  bearing  date  the  second  day  of  Jan¬ 
uary,  A.  D.  1871,  and  recorded  in  the  Recorder’s  office  of  said  county, 
in  book  A  of  Deeds,  page  46,  to  the  premises  therein  described,  and  which 
said  Deed  was  made  to  secure  one  certain  promissory  note,  bearing  even 
date  with  said  deed,  for  the  sum  of  Three  Hundred  dollars. 

Witness  my  hand  and  seal,  this  second  day  of  November,  A.  D.  1874. 

Peter  Ahlund.  f l.s.1 

State  of  Illinois,  j 

Cook  County.  j  *  I,  George  Saxton,  a  Notary  Public  in 

and  for  said  county,  in  the  state  aforesaid,  do  hereby 
certify  that  Peter  Ahlund,  personally  known  to  me 
as  the  same  person  whose  name  is  subscribed  to  the 
foregoing  Release,  appeared  before  me  this  day  in 
[  nosealial  ]  person,  and  acknowledged  that  he  signed,  sealed,  and 

delivered  the  said  instrument  of  writing  as  his  free 
and  voluntary  act,  for  the  uses  and  purposes  therein 
set  forth. 

Given  under  my  hand  and  seal,  this  second  day  of 
November,  A.  D.  1874. 

George  Saxton,  N.  P. 


I,  Charles  Mansfield,  of  the  Town  of  Salem,  County  of  Jackson, 
State  of  Illinois,  being  aware  of  the  uncertainty  of  life,  and  in  failing 
health,  but  of  sound  mind  and  memory,  do  make  and  declare  this  to  be 
my  last  will  and  testament,  in  manner  following,  to  wit : 

First.  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  unto  my  oldest  son,  Sidney  H. 
Mansfield,  the  sum  of  Two  Thousand  Dollars,  of  bank  stock,  now  in  the 
Third  National  Bank  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  and  the  farm  owned  by  myself 
in  the  Town  of  Buskirk,  consisting  of  one  hundred  and  sixty  acres,  with 
all  the  houses,  tenements,  and  improvements  thereunto  belonging ;  to 
have  and  to  hold  unto  my  said  son,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  forever. 

Second.  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  to  each  of  my  daughters,  Anna 
Louise  Mansfield  and  Ida  Clara  Mansfield,  each  Two  Thousand  dollars  in 
bank  stock,  in  the  Third  National  Bank  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  and  also  each 
one  quarter  section  of  land,  owned  by  myself,  situated  in  the  Town  of 
Lake,  Illinois,  and  recorded  in  my  name  in  the  Recorder's  office  in  the 
county  where  such  land  is  located.  The  north  one  hundred  and  sixty 
acres  of  said  half  section  is  devised  to  my  eldest  daughter,  Anna  Louise. 




Third.  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  to  my  son,  Frank  Alfred  Mans¬ 
field,  Five  shares  of  Railroad  stock  in  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad, 
and  my  one  hundred  and  sixty  acres  of  land  and  saw  mill  thereon,  situ¬ 
ated  in  Manistee,  Michigan,  with  all  the  improvements  and  appurtenances 
thereunto  belonging,  which  said  real  estate  is  recorded  in  my  name  in  the 
county  where  situated. 

Fourth.  I  give  to  my  wife,  Victoria  Elizabeth  Mansfield,  all  my 
household  furniture,  goods,  chattels,  and  personal  property,  about  my 
home,  not  hitherto  disposed  of,  including  Eight  Thousand  dollars  of  bank 
stock  in  the  Third  National  Bank  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  Fifteen  shares  in 
the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  and  the  free  and  unrestricted  use,  pos¬ 
session,  and  benefit  of  the  home  farm,  so  long  as  she  may  live,  in  lieu  of 
dower,  to  which  she  is  entitled  by  law ;  said  farm  being  my  present  place 
of  residence. 

Fifth.  I  bequeath  to  my  invalid  father,  Elijah  H.  Mansfield,  the 
income  from  rents  of  my  store  building  at  145  Jackson  Street,  Chicago, 
Illinois,  during  the  term  of  his  natural  life.  Said  building  and  land  there¬ 
with  to  revert  to  my  said  sons  and  daughters  in  equal  proportion,  upon 
the  demise  of  my  said  father. 

Sixth.  It  is  also  my  will  and  desire  that,  at  the  death  of  my  wife, 
Victoria  Elizabeth  Mansfield,  or  at  any  time  when  she  may  arrange  to 
relinquish  her  life  interest  in  the  above  mentioned  homestead,  the  same 
may  revert  to  my  above-  named  children,  or  to  the  lawful  heirs  of  each. 

And  lastly.  I  nominate  and  appoint  as  executors  of  this  my  last  will 
and  testament,  my  wife,  Victoria  Elizabeth  Mansfield,  and  my  eldest  son, 
Sidney  H.  Mansfield. 

I  further  direct  that  my  debts  and  necessary  funeral  expenses  shad 
be  paid  from  moneys  now  on  deposit  in  the  Savings  Bank  of  Salem,  the 
residue  of  such  moneys  to  revert  to  my  wife,  Victoria  Elizabeth  Mansfield, 
for  her  use  forever. 

In  witness  whereof,  I,  Charles  Mansfield,  to  this  my  last  will  and 
testament,  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seal,  this  fourth  day  of  April, 
eighteen  hundred  and  seventy-two. 


Signed,  sealed,  and  declared  by  Charles 
Mansfield,  as  and  for  his  last  will  and 
testament,  in  the  presence  of  us,  who, 
at  his  request,  and  in  his  presence,  and 
in  the  presence  of  each  other,  have  sub- 
scribed  our  names  hereunto  as  witnesses 

Peter  A.  Schenck,  Sycamore,  Ills. 

Frank  E.  Dent,  Salem,  Ills. 

Charles  Mansfield,  [l.s.] 




Whereas  I,  Charles  Mansfield,  did,  on  the  fourth  day  of  April,  one 
thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-two,  make  my  last  will  and  testa¬ 
ment,  I  do  now,  by  this  writing,  add  this  codicil  to  my  said  will,  to  -be 
taken  as  a  part  thereof. 

Whereas,  by  the  dispensation  of  Providence,  my  daughter,  Anna 
Louise,  has  deceased  November  fifth,  eighteen  hundred  and  seventy-three, 
and  whereas,  a  son  has  been  born  to  me,  which  son  is  now  christened 
Richard  Albert  Mansfield,  I  give  and  bequeath  unto  him  my  gold  watch, 
and  all  right,  interest,  and  title  in  lands  and  bank  stock  and  chattels 
bequeathed  to  my  deceased  daughter,  Anna  Louise,  in  the  body  of  this  will. 

In  witness  whereof,  I  hereunto  place  my  hand  and  seal,  this  tenth 
day  of  March,  eighteen  hundred  and  seventy-five. 

Signed,  sealed,  published,  and  declared  to^ 
us  by  the  testator,  Charles  Mansfield,  as 
and  for  a  codicil  to  be  annexed  to  his 
last  will  and  testament.  And  we,  at 
his  request,  and  in  his  presence,  and  in 
the  presence  of  each  other,  have  sub¬ 
scribed  our  names  as  witnesses  thereto, 
at  the  date  hereof. 

Frank  E.  Dent,  Salem,  Ills. 

John  C.  Shay,  Salem,  Ills. 

Charles  Mansfield. 



May  be  legally  made  by  electing  or  appointing ,  according  to  the  usages 
or  customs  of  the  body  of  which  it  is  a  part,  at  any  meeting  held  for  that 
purpose,  two  or  more  of  its  members  as  trustees,  wardens  or  vestrymen,  and 
may  adopt  a  corporate  name.  The  chairman  or  secretary  of  such  meeting 
shall,  as  soon  as  possible,  make  and  file  in  the  office  of  the  recorder  of 
deeds  of  the  county,  an  affidavit  substantially  in  the  following  form : 

State  of  Illinois,  ) 

-  County.  |  SS* 

I,  - ,  do  solemnly  swear  (or  affirm,  as  the  case  may  be), 

that  at  a  meeting  of  the  members  of  the  (here  insert  the  name  of  the 
church,  society  or  congregation  as  known  before  organization),  held  at 

(here  insert  place  of  meeting),  in  the  County  of - ,  and  State  of 

Illinois,  on  the - day  of  - ,  A.D.  18 — ,  for  that  purpose,  the  fol¬ 

lowing  persons  were  elected  (or  appointed)  [ here  insert  their  names] 
trustees,  wardens,  vestrymen,  (or  officers  by  whatever  name  they  may 
choose  to  adopt,  with  powers  similar  to  trustees)  according  to  the  rules 
and  usages  of  such  (church,  society  or  congregation),  and  said - 



adopted  as  its  corporate  name  (here  insert  name),  and  at  said  meeting 
this  affiant  acted  as  (chairman  or  secretary,  as  the  case  may  be). 

Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before  me,  this - day  of  - ,  A.D. 

18 — Name  of  Affiant  -  - 

which  affidavit  must  be  recorded  by  the  recorder,  and  shall  be,  or  a  certi¬ 
fied  copy  made  by  the  recorder,  received  as  evidence  of  such  an  incorpo¬ 

No  certificate  of  election  after  the  first  need  be  filed  for  record. 

The  term  of  office  of  the  trustees  and  the  general  government  of  the 
society  can  be  determined  by  the  rules  or  by-laws  adopted.  Failure  to 
elect  trustees  at  the  time  provided  does  not  work  a  dissolution,  but  the 
old  trustees  hold  over.  A  trustee  or  trustees  may  be  removed,  in  the 
same  manner  by  the  society  as  elections  are  held  by  a  meeting  called  for 
that  purpose.  The  property  of  the  society  vests  in  the  corporation.  The 
corporation  may  hold,  or  acquire  by  purchase  or  otherwise,  land  not 
exceeding  ten  acres,  for  the  purpose  of  the  society.  The  trustees  have 
the  care,  custody  and  control  of  the  property  of  the  corporation,  and  can, 
ivhen  directed  by  the  society,  erect  houses  or  improvements,  and  repair 
and  alter  the  same,  and  may  also  when  so  directed  by  the  society, 
mortgage,  encumber,  sell  and  convey  any  real  or  personal  estate  belonging 
to  the  corporation,  and  make  all  proper  contracts  in  the  name  of  such 
corporation.  But  they  are  prohibited  by  law  from  encumbering  or  inter¬ 
fering  with  any  property  so  as  to  destroy  the  effect  of  any  gift,  grant, 
devise  or  bequest  to  the  corporation ;  but  such  gifts,  grants,  devises  oi 
bequests,  must  in  all  cases  be  used  so  as  to  carry  out  the  object  intended 
by  the  persons  making  the  same.  Existing  societies  may  organize  in  the 
manner  herein  set  forth,  and  have  all  the  advantages  thereof. 


The  business  of  publishing  books  by  subscription  having  so  often  been 
brought  into  disrepute  by  agents  making  representations  and  declarations 
not  authorized  by  the  publisher  ;  in  order  to  prevent  that  as  much  as  possi¬ 
ble,  and  that  there  may  be  more  general  knowledge  of  the  relation  such 
agents  bear  to  their  principal,  and  the  law  governing  such  cases,  the  fol¬ 
lowing  statement  is  made  : 

A  subscription  is  in  the  nature  of  a  contract  of  mutual  promises,  by 
which  the  subscriber  agrees  to  pay  a  certain  sum  for  the  work  described ; 
the  consideration  is  concurrent  that  the  publisher  shall  publish  the  book 
named ,  and  deliver  the  same,  for  which  the  subscriber  is  to  pay  the  price 
named.  The  nature  and  character  of  the  work  is  described  in  the  prospectus 
and  by  the  sample  shown.  These  should  be  carefully  examined  before  sub¬ 
scribing ,  as  they  are  the  basis  and  consideration  of  the  promise  to  pay, 



and  not  the  too  often  exaggerated  statements  of  the  agent ,  who  is  merely 
employed  to  solicit  subscriptions ,  for  which  he  is  usually  paid  a  commission 
for  each  subscriber,  and  has  no  authority  to  change  or  alter  the  conditions 
upon  which  the  subscriptions  are  authorized  to  be  made  by  the  publisher. 
Should  the  agent  assume  to  agree  to  make  the  subscription  conditional  or 
modify  or  change  the  agreement  of  the  publisher ,  as  set  out  by  prospectus 
and  sample,  in  order  to  bind  the  principal ,  the  subscriber  should  see  that 
such  conditions  or  changes  are  stated  over  or  in  connection  with  his  signa¬ 
ture ,  so  that  the  publisher  may  have  notice  of  the  same. 

All  persons  making  contracts  in  reference  to  matters  of  this  kind,  or 
any  other  business,  should  remember  that  the  law  as  to  written  contracts  is, 
that  they  can  not  be  varied,  altered  or  rescinded  verbally,  but  if  done  at  all, 
must  be  done  in  writing.  It  is  therefore  important  that  all  persons  contem¬ 
plating  subscribing  should  distinctly  understand  that  all  talk  before  or  after 
the  subscription  is  made,  is  not  admissible  as  evidence,  and  is  no  part  of  the 

Persons  employed  to  solicit  subscriptions  are  known  to.  the  trade  as 
canvassers.  They  are  agents  appointed  to  do  a  particular  business  in  a 
prescribed  mode,  and  have  no  authority  to  do  it  in  any  other  way  to  the 
prejudice  of  their  principal,  nor  can  they  bind  their  principal  in  any  other 
matter.  They  cannot  collect  money,  or  agree  that  payment  may  be  made 
in  anything  else  but  money.  They  can  not  extend  the  time  of  payment 
beyond  the  time  of  delivery,  nor  bind  their  principal  for  the  payment  of 
expenses  incurred  in  their  buisness. 

It  would  save  a  great  deal  of  trouble,  and  often  serious  loss,  if  persons, 
before  signing  their  names  to  any  subscription  book,  or  any  written  instru¬ 
ment,  would  examine  carefully  what  it  is  ;  if  they  can  not  read  themselves, 
should  call  on  some  one  disinterested  who  can. 






We,  the  people  of  the  United  States ,  in  order  to  form  a  more  perfect  union , 
establish  justice,  insure  domestic  tranquillity,  provide  for  the  common 
defense,  promote  the  general  welfare,  and  secure  the  blessings  of  liberty 
to  ourselves  and  our  posterity ,  do  ordain  and  establish  this  Constitution 
for  the  United  States  of  America. 

Article  I. 

Section  1.  All  legislative  powers  herein  granted  shall  be  vested  in 
a  Congress  of  the  United  States,  which  shall  consist  of  a  Senate  and 
House  of  Representatives. 

Sec.  2.  The  House  of  Representatives  shall  be  composed  of  mem¬ 
bers  chosen  every  second  year  by  the  people  of  the  several  states,  and  the 
electors  in  each  state  shall  have  the  qualifications  requisite  for  electors  of 
the  most  numerous  branch  of  the  State  Legislature. 

No  person  shall  be  a  representative  who  shall  not  have  attained  to  the 
age  of  twenty-five  years,  and  been  seven  years  a  citizen  of  the  United 
States,  and  who  shall  not,  when  elected,  be  an  inhabitant  of  that  state  in 
which  he  shall  be  chosen. 

Representatives  and  direct  taxes  shall  be  apportioned  among  the  sev¬ 
eral  states  which  may  be  included  within  this  Union,  according  to  their 
respective  numbers,  which  shall  be  determined  by  adding  to  the  whole 
number  of  free  persons,  including  those  bound  to  service  for  a  term  of 
years,  and  excluding  Indians  not  taxed,  three-fifths  of  all  other  persons. 
The  actual  enumeration  shall  be  made  within  three  years  after  the  first 
meeting  of  the  Congress  of  the  Lhiited  States,  and  within  every  subse¬ 
quent  term  of  ten  years,  in  such  manner  as  they  shall  by  law  direct.  The 
number  of  Representatives  shall  not  exceed  one  for  every  thirty  thousand, 
but  each  state  shall  have  at  least  one  Representative  ;  and  until  such 
enumeration  shall  be  made  the  State  of  New  Hampshire  shall  be  entitled 
to  choose  three,  Massachusetts  eight,  Rhode  Island  and  Providence  Plan¬ 
tations  one,  Connecticut  five,  New  York  six.  New  Jersey  four.  Pennsylva¬ 
nia  eight,  Delaware  one,  Maryland  six,  Virginia  ten,  North  Carolina  five, 
and  Georgia  three. 

When  vacancies  happen  in  the  representation  from  any  state,  the 
Executive  authority  thereof  shall  issue  writs  of  election  to  fill  such 

The  House  of  Representatives  shall  choose  their  Speaker  and  other 
officers,  and  shall  have  the  sole  power  of  impeachment. 

Sec.  3.  The  Senate  of  the  United  States  shall  be  composed  of  two 
Senators  from  each  state,  chosen  by  the  Legislature  thereof  for  six  years  ; 
and  each  Senator  shall  have  one  vote. 

Immediately  after  they  shall  be  assembled  in  consequence  of  the  first 
election,  they  shall  be  divided  as  equally  as  may  be  into  three  classes. 
The  seats  of  the  Senators  of  the  first  class  shall  be  vacated  at  the  expira- 



tion  of  the  second  year,  of  the  second  class  at  the  expiration  of  the  fourth 
year,  and  of  the  third  class  at  the  expiration  of  the  sixth  year,  so  that 
one-third  may  be  chosen  every  second  year;  and  if  vacancies  happen  by 
resignation  or  otherwise,  during  the  recess  of  the  Legislature  of  any  state, 
the  Executive  thereof  may  make  temporary  appointments  until  the  next 
meeting  of  the  Legislature,  which  shall  then  fill  such  vacancies. 

No  person  shall  be  a  Senator  who  shall  not  have  attained  to  the  ao-e 
of  thirty  years  and  been  nine  years  a  citizen  of  the  United  States,  and 
who  shall  not,  when  elected,  be  an  inhabitant  of  that  state  for  which  he 
shall  be  chosen. 

The  Vice-President  of  the  United  States  shall  be  President  of  the 
Senate,  but  shall  have  no  vote  unless  they  be  equally  divided. 

The  Senate  shall  choose  their  other  officers,  and  also  a  President  pro 
tempore ,  in  the  absence  of  the  Vice-President,  or  when  he  shall  exercise 
the  office  of  President  of  the  United  States. 

The  Senate  shall  have  the  sole  power  to  try  all  impeachments.  When 
sitting  for  that  purpose  they  shall  be  on  oath  or  affirmation.  When  the 
President  of  the  United  States  is  tried  the  Chief  Justice  shall  preside. 
And  no  person  shall  be  convicted  without  the  concurrence  of  two-thirds 
of  the  members  present. 

Judgment,  in  cases  of  impeachment,  shall  not  extend  further  than  to 
removal  from  office,  and  disqualification  to  hold  and  enjoy  any  office  of 
honor,  trust,  or  profit  under  the  United  States;  but  the  party  convicted 
shall  nevertheless  be  liable  and  subject  to  indictment,  trial,  judgment, 
and  punishment  according  to  law. 

Sec.  4.  The  times,  places  and  manner  of  holding  elections  for  Sen¬ 
ators  and  Representatives  shall  be  prescribed  in  each  state  by  the  Legis¬ 
lature  thereof ;  but  the  Congress  may  at  any  time  by  law  make  or  alter 
such  regulations,  except  as  to  the  places  of  choosing  Senators. 

The  Congress  shall  assemble  at  least  once  in  every  year,  and  such 
meeting  shall  be  on  the  first  Monday  in  December,  unless  they  shall  by 
law  appoint  a  different  day. 

Sec.  5.  Each  house  shall  be  the  judge  of  the  election,  returns,  and 
qualifications  of  its  own  members,  and  a  majority  of  each  shall  constitute 
a  quorum  to  do  business ;  but  a  smaller  number  may  adjourn  from  day  to 
day,  and  may  be  authorized  to  compel  the  attendance  of  absent  members 
in  such  manner  and  under  such  penalties  as  each  house  may  provide. 

Each  house  may  determine  the  rules  of  its  proceedings,  punish  its 
members  for  disorderly  behavior,  and,  with  the  concurrence  of  two-thirds, 
expel  a  member. 

Each  house  shall  keep  a  journal  of  its  proceedings,  and  from  time  to 
time  publish  the  same,  excepting  such  parts  as  may,  in  their  judgment, 
require  secrecy  ;  and  the  yeas  and  nays  of  the  members  of  either  house 
on  any  question  shall,  at  the  desire  of  one-fifth  of  those  present,  be  entered 
on  the  journal. 

Neither  house,  during  the  session  of  Congress,  shall,  without  the 
consent  of  the  other,  adjourn  for  more  than  three  days,  nor  to  an}r  other 
place  than  that  in  which  the  two  houses  shall  be  sitting. 

Sec.  6.  The  Senators  and  Representatives  shall  receive  a  compen¬ 
sation  for  their  services,  to  be  ascertained  by  law,  and  paid  out  of  the 
treasury  of  the  United  States.  They  shall  in  all  cases,  except  treason, 



felony,  and  breach  of  the  peace,  be  privileged  from  arrest  during  their 
attendance  at  the  session  of  their  respective  houses,  and  in  going  to  and 
returning  from  the  same ;  and  for  any  speech  or  debate  in  either  house 
they  shall  not  be  questioned  in  any  other  place. 

No  Senator  or  Representative  shall,  during  the  time  for  which  he  was 
elected,  be  appointed  to  any  civil  office  under  the  authority  of  the  United 
States,  which  shall  have  been  created,  or  the  emoluments  whereof  shall 
have  been  increased  during  such  time  ;  and  no  person  holding  any  office 
under  the  United  States,  shall  be  a  member  of  either  house  during  his 
continuance  in  office. 

Sec.  7.  All  bills  for  raising  revenue  shall  originate  in  the  House  of 
Representatives  ;  but  the  Senate  may  propose  or  concur  with  amendments 
as  on  other  bills. 

Every  bill  which  shall  have  passed  the  House  of  Representatives  and 
the  Senate,  shall,  before  it  becomes  a  law,  be  presented  to  the  President 
of  the  United  States ;  if  he  approve  he  shall  sign  it ;  but  if  not  he  shall 
return  it,  with  his  objections,  to  that  house  in  which  it  shall  have  origi¬ 
nated,  who  shall  enter  the  objections  at  large  on  their  journal,  and 
proceed  to  reconsider  it.  If,  after  such  reconsideration  two-thirds  of  that 
house  shall  agree  to  pass  the  bill,  it  shall  be  sent,  together  with  the  objec¬ 
tions,  to  the  other  house,  by  which  it  shall  likewise  be  reconsidered,  and  if 
approved  by  two-thirds  of  that  house,  it  shall  become  a  law.  But  in  all 
such  cases  the  votes  of  both  houses  shall  be  determined  by  y  eas  and  nays, 
and  the  names  of  the  persons  voting  for  and  against  the  bill  shall  be  entered 
on  the  journal  of  each  house  respectively.  If  any  bill  shall  not  be  returned 
by  the  President  within  ten  days  (Sundays  excepted),  after  it  shall  have 
been  presented  to  him,  the  same  shall  be  a  law,  in  like  manner  as  if  he 
had  signed  it,  unless  the  Congress,  by  their  adjournment,  prevent  its 
return,  in  which  case  it  shall  not  be  a  law. 

Every  order,  resolution,  or  vote  to  which  the  concurrence  of  the 
Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  may  be  necessary  (except  on  a 
question  of  adjournment),  shall  be  presented  to  the  President  of  the 
United  States,  and  before  the  same  shall  take  effect  shall  be  approved  by 
him,  or,  being  disapproved  by  him,  shall  be  re-passed  by  two-thirds  of 
the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives,  according  to  the  rules  and  lim¬ 
itations  prescribed  in  the  case  of  a  bill. 

Sec.  8.  The  Congress  shall  have  power — 

To  lay  and  collect  taxes,  duties,  imposts  and  excises,  to  pay  the  debts, 
and  provide  for  the  common  defense  and  general  welfare  of  the  United 
States ;  but  all  duties,  imposts,  and  excises  shall  be  uniform  throughout 
the  United  States ; 

To  borrow  money  on  the  credit  of  the  United  States ; 

To  regulate  commerce  with  foreign  nations,  and  among  the  several 
States,  and  with  the  Indian  tribes ; 

To  establish  a  uniform  rule  of  naturalization,  and  uniform  laws  on 
the  subject  of  bankruptcies  throughout  the  United  States ; 

To  coin  money,  regulate  the  value  thereof,  and  of  foreign  coin,  and 
fix  the  standard  of  weights  and  measures ; 

To  provide  for  the  punishment  of  counterfeiting  the  securities  and 
current  coin  of  the  United  States; 

To  establish  post  offices  and  post  roads ; 



To  promote  the  progress  of  sciences  and  useful  arts,  by  securing, 
for  limited  times,  to  authors  and  inventors,  the  exclusive  right  to  thetr 
respective  writings  and  discoveries  ; 

To  constitute  tribunals  inferior  to  the  Supreme  Court ; 

To  define  and  punish  piracies  and  felonies  committed  on  the  high 
seas,  and  offenses  against  the  law  of  nations ; 

To  declare  war,  grant  letters  of  marque  and  reprisal,  and  make  rules 
concerning  captures  on  land  and  water  ; 

To  raise  and  support  armies,  but  no  appropriation  of  money  to  that 
use  shall  be  for  a  longer  term  than  two  years ; 

To  provide  and  maintain  a  navy ; 

To  make  rules  for  the  government  and  regulation  of  the  land  and 
naval  forces ; 

To  provide  for  calling  forth  the  militia  to  execute  the  laws  of  the 
Union,  suppress  insurrections,  and  repel  invasions ; 

To  provide  for  organizing,  arming  and  disciplining  the  militia,  and 
for  governing  such  part  of  them  as  may  be  employed  in  the  service  of  the 
United  States,  reserving  to  the  states  respectively  the  appointment  of  the 
officers,  and  the  authority  of  training  the  militia  according  to  the  disci¬ 
pline  prescribed  by  Congress ; 

To  exercise  legislation  in  all  cases  whatsoever  over  such  district  (not 
exceeding  ten  miles  square)  as  may,  by  cession  of  particular  states,  and  the 
acceptance  of  Congress,  become  the  seat  of  the  government  of  the  United 
States,  and  to  exercise  like  authority  over  all  places  purchased  by  the 
consent  of  the  Legislature  of  the  state  in  which  the  same  shall  be,  for 
the  erection  of  forts,  magazines,  arsenals,  dock  yards,  and  other  needful 
buildings ;  and 

To  make  all  laws  which  shall  be  necessary  and  proper  for  carrying 
into  execution  the  foregoing  powers,  and  all  other  powers  vested  by  this 
Constitution  in  the  government  of  the  United  States,  or  in  any  depart¬ 
ment  or  officer  thereof. 

Sec.  9.  The  migration  or  importation  of  such  persons  as  any  of  the 
states  now  existing  shall  think  proper  to  admit,  shall  not  be  prohibited 
by  the  Congress  prior  to  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eight, 
but  a  tax  or  duty  may  be  imposed  on  such  importation,  not  exceeding  ten 
dollars  for  each  person. 

The  privilege  of  the  writ  of  habeas  corpus  shall  not  be  suspended, 
unless  when  in  cases  of  rebellion  or  invasion  the  public  safety  may 
require  it. 

No  bill  of  attainder  or  ex  post  facto  law  shall  be  passed. 

No  capitation  or  other  direct  tax  shall  be  laid,  unless  in  proportion 
to  the  census  or  enumeration  hereinbefore  directed  to  be  taken. 

No  tax  or  duty  shall  be  laid  on  articles  exported  from  any  state. 

No  preference  shall  be  given  by  any  regulation  of  commerce  or  rev¬ 
enue  to  the  ports  of  one  state  over  those  of  another;  nor  shall  vessels 
bound  to  or  from  one  state  be  obliged  to  enter,  clear,  or  pay  duties  in 

No  money  shall  be  drawn  from  the  Treasury,  but  in  consequence  of 
appropriations  made  by  law ;  and  a  regular  statement  and  account  of 
the  receipts  and  expeditures  of  all  public  money  shall  be  published  from 
time  to  time. 



No  title  of  nobility  shall  be  granted  by  the  United  States :  and  no 
person  holding  any  office  of  profit  or  trust  under  them,  shall,  without  the 
consent  of  the  Congress,  accept  of  any  present,  emolument,  office,  or  title 
of  any  kind  whatever,  from  any  king,  prince,  or  foreign  state. 

Sec.  10.  No  state  shall  enter  into  any  treaty,  alliance,  or  confeder¬ 
ation  ;  grant  letters  of  marque  and  reprisal ;  coin  money ;  emit  bills  of 
credit ;  make  anything  but  gold  and  silver  coin  a  tender  in  payment  of 
debts ;  pass  any  bill  of  attainder,  ex  post  facto  law,  or  law  impairing  the 
obligation  of  contracts,  or  grant  any  title  of  nobility. 

No  state  shall,  without  the  consent  of  the  Congress,  lay  any  imposts 
or  duties  on  imports  or  exports,  except  what  may  be  absolutely  necessary 
for  executing  its  inspection  laws,  and  the  net  produce  of  all  duties  and 
imposts  laid  by  any  state  on  imports  or  exports,  shall  be  for  the  use  of  the 
Treasury  of  the  United  States ;  and  all  such  laws  shall  be  subject  to  the 
revision  and  control  of  the  Congress. 

No  state  shall,  without  the  consent  of  Congress,  lay  any  duty  on 
tonnage,  keep  troops  or  ships  of  war  in  time  of  peace,  enter  into  any 
agreement  or  compact  with  another  state,  or  with  a  foreign  power,  or 
engage  in  war,  unless  actually  invaded,  or  in  such  imminent  danger  as  will 
not  admit  of  delay. 

Article  II. 

Section  1.  The  Executive  power  shall  be  vested  in  a  President  of 
the  United  States  of  America.  He  shall  hold  his  office  during  the  term 
of  four  years,  and,  together  with  the  Vice-President  chosen  for  the  same 
term,  be  elected  as  follows : 

Each  state  shall  appoint,  in  such  manner  as  the  Legislature  thereof 
may  direct,  a  number  of  Electors,  equal  to  the  whole  number  of  Senators 
and  Representatives  to  which  the  state  may  be  entitled  in  the  Congress ; 
but  no  Senator  or  Representative,  or  person  holding  an  office  of  trust  or 
profit  under  the  United  States,  shall  be  appointed  an  Elector. 

[  *  The  Electors  shall  meet  in  their  respective  states,  and  vote  by 
ballot  for  two  persons,  of  whom  one  at  least  shall  not  be  an  inhabitant  of 
the  same  state  with  themselves.  And  they  shall  make  a  list  of  all  the 
persons  voted  for,  and  of  the  number  of  votes  for  each  ;  which  list  they 
shall  sign  and  certify,  and  transmit,  sealed,  to  the  seat  of  the  government 
of  the  United  States,  directed  to  the  President  of  the  Senate.  The  Pres¬ 
ident  of  the  Senate  shall,  in  the  presence  of  the  Senate  and  House  of  Rep¬ 
resentatives,  open  all  the  certificates,  and  the  votes  shall  then  be  counted. 
The  person  having  the  greatest  number  of  votes  shall  be  the  President, 
if  such  number  be  a  majority  of  the  whole  number  of  Electors  appointed ; 
and  if  there  be  more  than  one  who  have  such  majority,  and  have  an  equal 
number  of  votes,  then  the  House  of  Representatives  shall  immediately 
choose  by  ballot  one  of  them  for  President ;  and  if  no  person  have  a  ma¬ 
jority,  then  from  the  five  highest  on  the  list  the  said  House  shall  in  like 
manner  choose  the  President.  But  in  choosing  the  President,  the  vote 
shall  be  taken  by  states,  the  representation  from  each  state  having  one 
vote  ;  a  quorum  for  this  purpose  shall  consist  of  a  member  or  members 
from  two-thirds  of  the  states,  and  a  majority  of  all  the  states  shall  be 
necessary  to  a  choice.  In  every  case,  after  the  choice  of  the  President, 

*  This  clause  between, brackets  has  been  superseded  and  annulled  by  the  Twelfth.amendment. 



the  person  having  the  greatest  number  of  votes  of  the  Electors  shall  be 
the  Vice-President.  But  if  there  should  remain  two  or  more  who  have 
equal  votes,  the  Senate  shall  choose  from  them  by  ballot  the  Vice-Presi¬ 

The  Congress  may  determine  the  time  of  choosing  the  Electors,  and 
the  day  on  which  they  shall  give  their  votes  ;  which  day  shall  be  the  same 
throughout  the  United  States. 

No  person  except  a  natural  born  citizen,  or  a  citizen  of  the  United 
States  at  the  time  of  the  adoption  of  this  Constitution,  shall  be  eligible 
to  the  office  of  President ;  neither  shall  any  person  be  eligible  to  that 
office  who  shall  not  have  attained  the  age  of  thirty-five  years,  and  been 
fourteen  years  a  resident  within  the  United  States. 

In  case  of  the  removal  of  the  President  from  office,  or  of  his  death, 
resignation,  or  inability  to  discharge  the  powers  and  duties  of  the  said 
office,  the  same  shall  devolve  on  the  Vice-Pr.esident,  and  the  Congress 
may  by  law  provide  for  the  case  of  removal,  death,  resignation,  or  inabil¬ 
ity,  both  of  the  President  and  Vice-President,  declaring  what  officer  shall 
then  act  as  President,  and  such  officer  shall  act  accordingly,  until  the  dis¬ 
ability  be  removed,  or  a  President  shall  be  elected. 

The  President  shall,  at  stated  times,  receive  for  his  services  a  com¬ 
pensation  which  shall  neither  be  increased  nor  diminished  during  the 
period  for  which  he  shall  have  been  elected,  and  he  shall  not  receive 
within  that  period  any  other  emolument  from  the  United  States  or  any  of 

Before  he  enters  on  the  execution  of  his  office,  he  shall  take  the  fol¬ 
lowing  oath  or  affirmation : 

“  I  do  solemnly  swear  (or  affirm)  that  I  will  faithfully  execute  the 
office  of  President  of  the  United  States,  and  will,  to  the  best  of  my  ability, 
preserve,  protect,  and  defend  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States.” 

Sec.  2.  The  President  shall  be  commander  in  chief  of  the  army  and 
navy  of  the  United  States,  and  of  the  militia  of  the  several  states,  when 
called  into  the  actual  service  of  the  United  States;  he  may  require  the 
opinion,  in  writing,  of  the  principal  officer  in  each  of  the  executive 
departments,  upon  any  subject  relating  to  the  duties  of  their  respective 
offices,  and  he  shall  have  power  to  grant  reprieves  and  pardon  for  offenses 
against  the  United  States,  except  in  cases  of  impeachment. 

He  shall  have  power,  by  and  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the 
Senate,  to  make  treaties,  provided  two-thirds  of  the  Senators  present  con¬ 
cur;  and  he  shall  nominate,  and  by  and  with  the  advice  of  the  Senate, 
shall  appoint  ambassadors,  other  public  ministers  and  consuls,  judges  of 
the  Supreme  Court,  and  all  other  officers  of  the  United  States  whose 
appointments  are  not  herein  otherwise  provided  for,  and  which  shall  be 
established  by  law ;  but  the  Congress  may  by  law  vest  the  appointment 
of  such  inferior  officers  as  they  think  proper  in  the  President  alone,  in 
the  courts  of  law,  or  in  the  heads  of  departments. 

The  President  shall  have  power  to  fill  up  all  vacancies  that  may 
happen  during  the  recess  of  the  Senate,  by  granting  commissions  which 
shall  expire  at  the  end  of  their  next  session. 

Sec.  3.  He  shall  from  time  to  time  give  to  the  Congress  information 
of  the  state  of  the  Union,  and  recommend  to  their  consideration  such  mea¬ 
sures  as  he  shall  judge  necessary  and  expedient ;  he  may  on  extraordinary 



occasions  convene  both  houses,  or  either  of  them,  and  in  case  of  disagree¬ 
ment  between  them,  with  respect  to  the  time  of  adjournment,  he  may 
adjourn  them  to  such  time  as  he  shall  think  proper ;  he  shall  receive 
ambassadors  and  other  public  ministers ;  he  shall  take  care  that  the  laws  be 
faithfully  executed,  and  shall  commission  all  the  officers  of  the  United 

Sec.  4.  The  President,  Vice-President,  and  all  civil  officers  of  the 
United  States,  shall  be  removed  from  office  on  impeachment  for,  and  con¬ 
viction  of,  treason,  bribery,  or  other  high  crimes  and  misdemeanors. 

Article  III. 

Section  I.  The  judicial  power  of  the  United  States  shall  be  vested 
in  one  Supreme  Court,  and  such  inferior  courts  as  the  Congress  may  from 
time  to  time  ordain  and  establish.  The  Judges,  both  of  the  Supreme  and 
inferior  courts,  shall  hold  their  offices  during  good  behavior,  and  shall,  at 
stated  times,  receive  for  their  services  a  compensation,  which  shall  not  be 
diminished  during  their  continuance  in  office. 

Sec.  2.  The  judicial  power  shall  extend  to  all  cases,  in  law  and 
equity,  arising  under  this  Constitution,  the  laws  of  the  United  States,  and 
treaties  made,  or  which  shall  be  made,  under  their  authority ;  to  all  cases 
affecting  ambassadors,  other  public  ministers,  and  consuls ;  to  all  cases  of 
admiralty  and  maritime  jurisdiction  ;  to  controversies  to  which  the  United 
States  shall  be  a  party ;  to  controversies  between  two  or  more  states ; 
between  a  state  and  citizens  of  another  state ;  between  citizens  of  differ¬ 
ent  states ;  between  citizens  of  the  same  state  claiming  lands  under  grants 
of  different  states,  and  between  a  state  or  the  citizens  thereof,  and  foreign 
states,  citizens,  or  subjects. 

In  all  cases  affecting  ambassadors,  other  public  ministers,  and  consuls, 
and  those  in  which  a  state  shall  be  a  party,  the  Supreme  Court  shall  have 
original  jurisdiction. 

In  all  the  other  cases  before  mentioned,  the  Supreme  Court  shall 
have  appellate  jurisdiction,  both  as  to  law  and  fact,  with  such  exceptions 
and  under  such  regulations  as  the  Congress  shall  make. 

The  trial  of  all  crimes,  except  in  cases  of  impeachment,  shall  be  by 
jury ;  and  such  trial  shall  be  held  in  the  state  where  the  said  crimes  shall 
have  been  committed  ;  but  when  not  committed  within  any  state,  the 
trial  shall  be  at  such  place  or  places  as  the  Congress  may  by  law  have 

Sec.  3.  Treason  against  the  United  States  shall  consist  only  in  levy¬ 
ing  war  against  them,  or  in  adhering  to  their  enemies,  giving  them  aid 
and  comfort.  No  person  shall  be  convicted  of  treason  unless  on  the  tes¬ 
timony,  of  two  witnesses  to  the  same  overt  act,  or  on  confession  in  open 

The  Congress  shall  have  power  to  declare  the  punishment  of  treason, 
but  no  attainder  of  treason  shall  work  corruption  of  blood,  or  forfeiture, 
except  during  the  life  of  the  person  attainted. 

Article  IV. 

Section  1.  Full  faith  and  credit  shall  be  given  in  each  state  to  the 
public  acts,  records,  and  judicial  proceedings  of  every  other  state.  And 



the  Congress  may,  by  general  laws,  prescribe  the  manner  in  which  such 
acts,  records,  and  proceedings  shall  be  proved,  and  the  effect  thereof. 

Sec.  2.  The  citizens  of  each  state  shall  be  entitled  to  all  privileges 
and  immunities  of  citizens  in  the  several  states. 

A  person  charged  in  any  state  with  treason,  felony,  or  other  crime, 
who  shall  flee  from  justice  and  be  found  in  another  state,  shall,  on  demand 
of  the  executive  authority  of  the  state  from  which  he  fled,  be  delivered 
up,  to  be  removed  to  the  state  having  jurisdiction  of  the  crime. 

No  person  held  to  service  or  labor  in  one  state,  under  the  laws  thereof 
escaping  into  another,  shall,  in  consequence  of  any  law  or  regulation 
therein,  be  discharged  from  such  service  or  labor,  but  shall  be  delivered 
up  on  the  claim  of  the  party  to  whom  such  service  or  labor  may  be  due. 

Sec.  3.  New  states  may  be  admitted  by  the  Congress  into  this  Union ; 
but  no  new  state  shall  be  formed  or  erected  within  the  jurisdiction  of  any 
other  state  ;  nor  any  state  be  formed  by  the  junction  of  two  or  more  states, 
or  parts  of  states,  without  the  consent  of  the  Legislatures  of  the  states 
concerned,  as  well  as  of  the  Congress. 

The  Congress  shall  have  power  to  dispose  of  and  make  all  needful 
rules  and  regulations  respecting  the  territory  or  other  property  belonging 
to  the  United  States  ;  and  nothing  in  this  Constitution  shall  be  so  construed 
as  to  prejudice  any  claims  of  the  United  States  or  of  any  particular  state. 

Sec.  4.  The  United  States  shall  guarantee  to  every  state  in  this 
Union  a  republican  form  of  government,  and  shall  protect  each  of  them 
against  invasion,  and  on  application  of  the  Legislature,  or  of  the  Execu¬ 
tive  (when  the  Legislature  can  not  be  convened),  against  domestic  vio¬ 

Article  V. 

The  Congress,  whenever  two-thirds  of  both  houses  shall  deem  it 
necessary,  shall  propose  amendments  to  this  Constitution,  or,  on  the  ap¬ 
plication  of  the  Legislatures  of  two-thirds  of  the  several  states,  shall  call 
a  convention  for  proposing  amendments,  which,  in  either  case,  shall  be 
valid  to  all  intents  and  purposes  as  part  of  this  Constitution,  when  rati¬ 
fied  by  the  Legislatures  of  three  fourths  of  the  several  states,  or  by  con¬ 
ventions  in  three-fourths  thereof,  as  the  one  or  the  other  mode  of  ratifi¬ 
cation  may  be  proposed  by  the  Congress.  Provided  that  no  amendment 
which  may  be  made  prior  to  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
eight  shall  in  any  manner  affect  the  first  and  fourth  clauses  in  the  ninth 
section  of  the  first  article ;  and  that  no  state,  without  its  consent,  shall 
be  deprived  of  its  equal  suffrage  in  the  Senate. 

Article  VI. 

All  debts  contracted  and  engagements  entered  into  before  the  adop¬ 
tion  of  this  Constitution  shall  be  as  valid  against  the  United  States  under 
this  Constitution  as  under  the  Confederation. 

This  Constitution,  and  the  laws  of  the  United  States  which  shall  be 
made  in  pursuance  thereof,  and  all  treaties  made,  or  which  shall  be  made, 
under  the  authority  of  the  United  States,  shall  be  the  supreme  law  of  the 
land ;  and  the  Judges  in  every  state  shall  be  bound  thereby,  anything  in 
the  Constitution  or  laws  of  any  state  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding. 

The  Senators  and  Representatives  before  mentioned,  and  the  mem- 




bers  of  the  several  state  Legislatures,  and  all  executive  and  judicial  offi¬ 
cers,  both  of  the  United  States  and  of  the  several  states,  shall  be  bound 
by  oath  or  affirmation  to  support  this  Constitution  ;  but  no  religious  test 
shall  ever  be  required  as  a  qualification  to  any  office  or  public  trust  under 
the  United  States. 

Article  VII. 

The  ratification  of  the  Conventions  of  nine  states  shall  be  sufficient 
for  the  establishment  of  this  Constitution  between  the  states  so  ratifying 
the  same. 

Done  in  convention  by  the  unanimous  consent  of  the  states  present,  the 
seventeenth  day  of  September,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  eighty-seven,  and  of  the  independence  of  the 
United  States  of  America  the  twelfth.  In  witness  whereof  we  have 
hereunto  subscribed  our  names. 

President  and  Deputy  from  Virginia. 

New  Hampshire. 
John  Langdon, 
Nicholas  Gilman. 

Nathaniel  Gorham, 
Rufus  King. 


Wm.  Sam’l  Johnson, 
Roger  Sherman. 


Geo.  Read, 

John  Dickinson, 

Jaco.  Broom, 

Gunning  Bedford,  Jr., 
Richard  Bassett. 


James  M’ Henry, 

Danl.  Carroll, 

Dan.  of  St.  Thos.  Jenifer. 

New  York . 

Alexander  Hamilton. 

New  Jersey. 

Wil.  Livingston, 

Wm.  Paterson, 

David  Brearley, 
Jona.  Dayton. 


John  Blair, 

James  Madison,  Jr. 

North  Carolina. 

Wm.  Blount, 

Hu.  Williamson, 

Rich'd  Dobbs  Spaight. 


B.  Franklin, 
Robt.  Morris, 
Thos.  Fitzsimons, 
James  Wilson, 
Thos.  Mifflin, 
Geo.  Clymer, 
Jared  Ingersoll, 
Gouv.  Morris. 

South  Carolina. 

J.  Rutledge, 

Charles  Pinckney, 

Chas.  Cotesworth  Pinckney, 
Pierce  Butler. 


William  Few, 

Abr.  Baldwin. 

WILLIAM  JACKSON,  Secretary. 



Articles  in  Addition  to  and  Amendatory  of  the  Constitution 

of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Proposed  by  Congress  and  ratified  by  the  Legislatures  of  the  several  statei , 
pursuant  to  the  fifth  article  of  the  original  Constitution . 

Article  I. 

Congress  shall  make  no  law  respecting  an  establishment  of  religion, 
or  prohibiting  the  free  exercise  thereof ;  or  abridging  the  freedom  of 
speech,  or  of  the  press;  or  the  right  of  the  people  peaceably  to  assemble, 
and  to  petition  the  Government  for  a  redress  of  grievances. 

Article  II. 

A  well  regulated  militia  being  necessary  to  the  security  of  a  free 
state,  the  right  of  the  people  to  keep  and  bear  arms  shall  not  be  infringed. 

Article  III. 

No  soldier  shall,  in  time  of  peace,  be  quartered  in  any  house  without 
the  consent  of  the  owner,  nor  in  time  of  war  but  in  a  manner  to  be  pre¬ 
scribed  by  law. 

Article  IV. 

The  right  of  the  people  to  be  secure  in  their  persons,  houses,  papers, 
and  effects  against  unreasonable  searches  and  seizures,  shall  not  be  vio¬ 
lated  ;  and  no  warrants  shall  issue  but  upon  probable  cause,  supported  by 
oath  or  affirmation,  and  particularly  describing  the  place  to  be  searched 
and  the  persons  or  things  to  be  seized. 

Article  V. 

No  person  shall  be  held  to  answer  for  a  capital  or  otherwise  infamous 
crime,  unless  on  a  presentment  or  indictment  of  a  Grand  Jury,  except  in 
cases  arising  in  the  land  or  naval  forces,  or  in  the  militia  when  in  actual 
service  in  time  of  war  or  public  danger ;  nor  shall  any  person  be  subject 
for  the  same  offense  to  be  twice  put  in  jeopardy  of  life  or  limb  ;  nor  shall 
be  compelled  in  any  criminal  case  to  be  a  witness  against  himself,  nor  be 
deprived  of  life,  liberty,  or  property,  without  due  process  of  law ;  nor 
shall  private  property  be  taken  for  public  use,  without  just  compensation. 

Article  VI. 

In  all  criminal  prosecutions,  the  accused  shall  enjoy  the  right  to  a 
speedy  and  public  trial,  by  an  impartial  jury  of  the  state  and  district 
wherein  the  crime  shall  have  been  committed,  which  district  shall  have 
been  previously  ascertained  by  law,  and  to  be  informed  of  the  nature  and 
cause  of  the  accusation  ;  to  be  confronted  with  the  witnesses  against  him; 
to  have  compulsory  process  for  obtaining  witnesses  in  his  favor;  and  to 
have  the  assistance  of  counsel  for  his  defense. 

Article  VII. 

In  suits  at  common  law,  where  the  value  in  controversy  shall  exceed 
twenty  dollars,  the  right  of  trial  by  jury  shall  be  preserved,  and  no  feet 



tried  by  a  jury  shall  be  otherwise  re-examined  in  any  court  of  the  United 
States  than  according  to  the  rules  of  the  common  law. 

Article  VIII. 

Excessive  bail  shall  not  be  required,  nor  excessive  fines  imposed* 
nor  cruel  and  unusual  punishments  inflicted. 

Article  IX. 

The  enumeration,  in  the  Constitution,  of  certain  rights,  shall  not  be 
construed  to  deny  or  disparage  others  retained  by  the  people. 

Article  X. 

The  powers  not  delegated  to  the  United  States  by  the  Constitution, 
nor  prohibited  by  it  to  the  states,  are  reserved  to  the  states  respectively, 
or  to  the  people. 

Article  XI. 

The  judicial  power  of  the  United  States  shall  not  be  construed  to 
extend  to  any  suit  in  law  or  equity  commenced  or  prosecuted  against  one 
of  the  United  States  by  citizens  of  another  state,  or  by  citizens  or  sub¬ 
jects  of  any  foreign  state. 

Article  XII. 

The  Electors  shall  meet  in  their  respective  states  and  vote  by  ballot 
for  President  and  Vice-President,  one  of  whom,  at  least,  shall  not  be  an 
inhabitant  of  the  same  state  with  themselves ;  they  shall  name  in  their 
ballots  the  person  to  be  voted  for  as  president,  and  in  distinct  ballots  the 
person  voted  for  as  Vice-President,  and  they  shall  make  distinct  lists  of 
all  persons  voted  for  as  President,  and  of  all  persons  voted  for  as  "V  ice- 
President,  and  of  the  number  of  votes  for  each,  which  list  they  shall  sign 
and  certify,  and  transmit  sealed  to  the  seat  of  the  government  of  the  United 
States,  directed  to  the  President  of  the  Senate.  The  President  of  the 
Senate  shall,  in  presence  of  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives, 
open  all  the  certificates,  and  the  votes  shall  then  be  counted.  The  person 
having  the  greatest  number  of  votes  for  President  shall  be  the  President, 
if  such  number  be  a  majority  of  the  whole  number  of  Electors  appointed  ; 
and  if  no  person  have  such  majority,  then  from  the  persons  having  the 
highest  number  not  exceeding  three  on  the  list  of  those  voted  for  as 
President,  the  House  of  Representatives  shall  choose  immediately,  by 
ballot,  the  President.  But  in  choosing  the  President,  the  votes  shall  be 
taken  by  States,  the  representation  from  each  state  having  one  vote;  a 
quorum  for  this  purpose  shall  consist  of  a  member  or  members  from  two- 
thirds  of  the  states,  and  a  majority  of  all  the  states  shall  be  necessary  to 
a  choice.  And  if  the  House  of  Representatives  shall  not  choose  a  Presi¬ 
dent  whenever  the  right  of  choice  shall  devolve  upon  them,  before  the 
fourth  day  of  March  next  following,  then  the  Vice-President  shall  act  as 
President,  as  in  the  case  of  the  death  or  other  constitutional  disability  of 
the  President.  The  person  having  the  greatest  number  of  votes  as  Vice- 
President,  shall  be  the  Vice-President,  if  such  number  be  the  majority 
of  the  whole  number  of  electors  appointed,  and  if  no  person  have  a  major- 



ity,  then  from  the  two  highest  numbers  on  the  list,  the  Senate  shall  choose 
the  Vice-President ;  a  quorum  for  the  purpose  shall  consist  of  two-thirds 
of  the  whole  number  of  Senators,  and  a  majority  of  the  whole  number 
shall  be  necessary  to  a  choice.  But  no  person  constitutionally  ineligible 
to  the  office  of  President  shall  be  eligible  to  that  of  Vice-President  of  the 
United  States. 

Article  XIII. 

Section  1.  Neither  slavery  nor  involuntary  servitude,  except  as  a 
punishment  for  crime,  whereof  the  party  shall  have  been  duly  convicted, 
shall  exist  within  the  United  States,  or  any  place  subject  to  their  juris¬ 

Sec.  2.  Congress  shall  have  power  to  enforce  this  article  by  appro¬ 
priate  legislation. 

Article  XIV. 

Section  1.  .  All  persons  born  or  naturalized  in  the  United  States  and 
subject  to  the  jurisdiction  thereof,  are  citizens  of  the  United  States,  and 
of  the  state  wherein  they  reside.  No  state  shall  make  or  enforce  any  law 
which  shall  abridge  the  privileges  or  immunities  of  citizens  of  the  United 
States;  nor  shall' any  state  deprive  any  person  of  life,  liberty,  or  property, 
without  due  process  of  law,  nor  deny  to  any  person  within  its  jurisdiction 
the  equal  protection  of  the  laws. 

Sec.  2.  Representatives  shall  be  appointed  among  the  several  states 
according  to  their  respective  numbers,  counting  the  whole  number  of  per¬ 
sons  in  each  state,  excluding  Indians  not  taxed  ;  but  when  the  right  to 
vote  at  any  election  for  the  choice  of  Electors  for  President  and  Vice- 
President  of  the  United  States,  Representatives  in  Congress,  the  execu¬ 
tive  and  judicial  officers  of  a  state,  or  the  members  of  the  Legislature 
thereof,  is  denied  to  any  of  the  male  inhabitants  of  such  state,  being 
twenty-one  years  of  age  and  citizens  of  the  United  States,  or  in  any  way 
abridged  except  for  participation  in  rebellion  or  other  crimes,  the  basis  of 
representation  therein  shall  be  reduced  in  the  proportion  which  the  num¬ 
ber  of  such  male  citizens  shall  bear  to  the  whole  number  of  male  citizens 
twenty-one  years  of  age  in  such  state. 

Sec.  3.  No  person  shall  be  a  Senator  or  Representative  in  Congress, 
or  Elector  of  President  and  Vice-President,  or  hold  any  office,  civil  or 
military,  under  the  United  States,  or  under  any  state,  who,  having  previ¬ 
ously  taken  an  oath  as  a  Member  of  Congress,  or  as  an  officer  of  the 
United  States,  or  as  a  member  of  any  state  Legislature,  or  as  an  execu¬ 
tive  or  judicial  officer  of  any  state  to  support  the  Constitution  of  t lie 
United  States,  shall  have  engaged  in  insurrection  or  rebellion  against  the 
same,  or  given  aid  or  comfort  to  the  enemies  thereof.  But  Congress  may, 
by  a  vote  of  two-thirds  of  each  house,  remove  such  disability. 

Sec.  4.  The  validity  of  the  public  debt  of  the  United  States  author¬ 
ized  by  law,  including  debts  incurred  for  payment  of  pensions  and  boun¬ 
ties  for  services  in  suppressing  insurrection  or  rebellion,  shall  not  be  ques¬ 
tioned.  But  neither  the  United  States  nor  any  state  shall  pay  any  debt 
or  obligation  incurred  in  the  aid  of  insurrection  or  rebellion  against  the 
United  States,  or  any  loss  or  emancipation  of  any  slave,  but  such  debts, 
obligations,  and  claims  shall  be  held  illegal  and  void. 



Sec.  5.  The  Congress  shall  have  power  to  enforce,  by  appropriate 
legislation,  the  provisions  of  this  act. 

Article  XV. 

Section  1.  The  right  of  citizens  of  the  United  States  to  vote  shall 
not  be  denied  or  abridged  by  the  United  States,  or  by  any  state,  on 
account  of  race,  color,  or  previous  condition  of  servitude. 

Sec.  2.  Congress  shall  have  power  to  enforce  this  article  by  appro¬ 
priate  legislation. 


November  7,  1876. 


©  — 
03  ©  — 


>>>  & 

£33  Ph 

-  . 

—  *  « 


n  £  ® 

s*  • 
C  58 

O  3 
s-  © 
©  © 
+5>  SH 

‘Z  c 



cc  3 
'  o 


•3  • 

s  ©  © 
<a  ®35 
©S  P 

33  P3 



©  a  S 

'S  ©  © 



•2 1 
43  U 

■3  O 
a  sh 


«  a: 

©  © 

‘  o 












Livingston . 







Logan . 







Macon . 





Macoupin . 




371  9 


Madison . 










Marion . 






Marshall . 











Mason . 







Massac . . 







McDonough . 




Lliallipalgu  . . 





McHenry . 











McLean . . . 









Menard . 







Mercer . 




Monroe . 





Montgomery . 







1 928 










Morgan . 




Moultrie . 




Tie*  ¥olh 


Ogle . 




DoWi  tt 






Peoria . 




271  5 

Pope . 





Perry . 







Piatt . 




Edwards . . 



Pike... . 








Effingham . 




























Pulaski . 

Putnam . 


Randolph . 




Richland . 





Rock  Island . 






Saline . 






Sangamon . 








Schuyler .  . 





Scott . 








Shelby . 






Stark . 




St.  Clair  . 









Stephenson . 







Tazewell . 





Union . 




Vermilion . 













Wabash . 







Warren . 







Washington . 







Wayne . 






White . 







Whiteside . 







Will . 











Williamson . 







Winnebago . 




LaSalle . 



.  .  .  . 


Woodford . 




Lawrence . 

Lee . 







Total . 






















Practical  Rules  for  Every  Day  Use.- 

How  to  find  the  gain  or  loss  per  cent,  when  the  cost  and  selling  price 
are  given. 

Rule. — Find  the  difference  between  the  cost  and  selling  price,  which 
will  be  the  gain  or  loss. 

Annex  two  ciphers  to  the  gain  or  loss,  and  divide  it  by  the  cost 
price  ;  the  result  will  be  the  gain  or  loss  per  cent. 

How  to  change  gold  into  currency. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  given  sum  of  gold  by  the  price  of  gold. 

How  to  change  currency  into  gold. 

Divide  the  amount  in  currency  by  the  price  of  gold. 

How  to  find  each  partner's  share  of  the  gain  or  loss  in  a  copartnership 

Rule. — Divide  the  whole  gain  or  loss  by  the  entire  stock,  the  quo¬ 
tient  will  be  the  gain  or  loss  per  cent. 

Multipty  each  partner’s  stock  by  this  per  cent.,  the  result  will  be 
each  one’s  share  of  the  gain  or  loss. 

How  to  find  gross  and  net  weight  and  price  of  hogs. 

A  short  and  simple  method  for  finding  the  net  weight ,  or  price  of  hogs , 
when  the  gross  weight  or  price  is  given ,  and  vice  versa. 

Note. — It  is  generally  assumed  that  the  gross  weight  of  Hogs  diminished  by  1-5  or  20  per  cent, 
of  itself  gives  the  net  weight,  and  the  net  weight  increased  by  X  or  25  per  cent,  of  itself  equals  the 
gross  weight. 

To  find  the  net  weight  or  gross  price. 

Multiply  the  given  number  by  .8  (tenths.) 

To  find  the  gross  weight  or  net  price. 

Divide  the  given  number  by  .8  (tenths.) 

How  to  find  the  capacity  of  a  granary ,  bin ,  or  wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply  (by  short  method)  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by 
6808,  and  point  off  one  decimal  place — the  result  will  be  the  correct 
answer  in  bushels  and  tenths  of  a  bushel. 

For  only  an  approximate  answer ,  multiply  the  cubic  feet  by  8,  and 
point  off  one  decimal  place. 

How  to  find  the  contents  of  a  corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by  54,  short  method,  or 




by  44  ordinary  method,  and  point  off  one  decimal  place — the  result  will 
be  the  answer  in  bushels. 

Note.— In  estimating  corn  in  the  ear,  the  quality  and  the  time  it  lias  been  cribbed  must  be  taken 
into  consideration,  since  corn  will  shrink  considerably  during  the  Winter  and  Spring.  This  rule  generally  holds 
good  for  corn  measured  at  the  time  it  is  cribbed,  provided  it  is  sound  and  clean. 

How  to  find  the  contents  of  a  cistern  or  tank. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  square  of  the  mean  diameter  by  the  depth  (all 
in  feet)  and  this  product  by  5681  (short  method),  and  point  off  ONE 
decimal  place — the  result  will  be  the  contents  in  barrels  of  314  gallons. 

How  to  find  the  contents  of  a  barrel  or  cask. 

Rule. — Under  the  square  of  the  mean  diameter,  write  the  length 
(all  in  inches)  in  reversed  order,  so  that  its  units  will  fall  under  the 
tens  ;  multiply  by  short  method,  and  this  product  again  by  430  ;  point 
off  one  decimal  place,  and  the  result  will  be  the  answer  in  wine  gallons. 

How  to  measure  boards. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  length  (in  feet)  by  the  width  (in  inches)  and 
divide  the  product  by  12 — the  result  will  be  the  contents  in  square  feet. 

How  to  measure  scantlings,  joists,  planks,  sills ,  etc. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  width,  the  thickness,  and  the  length  together 
(the  width  and  thickness  in  inches,  and  the  length  in  feet),  and  divide 
the  product  by  12 — the  result  will  be  square  feet. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  acres  in  a  body  of  land. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  length  by  the  width  (in  rods),  and  divide  the 
product  by  160  (carrying  the  division  to  2  decimal  places  if  there  is  a 
remainder)  ;  the  result  will  be  the  answer  in  acres  and  hundredths. 

When  the  opposite  sides  of  a  piece  of  land  are  of  unequal  length, 
add  them  together  and  take  one-half  for  the  mean  length  or  width. 

o  o 

How  to  find  the  number  of  square  yards  in  a  floor  or  wall. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  length  by  the  width  or  height  (in  feet),  and 
divide  the  product  by  9,  the  result  will  be  square  yards. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  bricks  required  in  a  building. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by  224. 

The  number  of  cubic  feet  is  found  by  multiplying  the  length,  height 
and  thickness  (in  feet)  together. 

Bricks  are  usually  made  8  inches  long,  4  inches  wide,  and  two  inches 
thick  :  hence,  it  requires  2T  bricks  to  make  a  cubic  foot  without  mortar, 
but  it  is  generally  assumed  that  the  mortar  fills  1-6  of  the  space. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  shingles  required  in  a  roof. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  square  feet  in  the  roof  by  8,  if  the 
shingles  are  exposed  44  inches,  or  by  7  1-5  if  exposed  5  inches. 

To  find  the  number  of  square  feet,  multiply  the  length  of  the  roof  by 
twice  the  length  of  the  rafters. 



To  find  the  length  of  the  rafters,  at  one-fourth  pitch,  multiply  the 
width  of  the  building  by  .56  (hundredths) ;  at  one-third  pitch,  by  .6 
(tenths)  ;  at  two-fifths  pitch,  by  .64  (hundredths)  ;  at  one-half 
pitch,  by  .71  (hundredths).  This  gives  the  length  of  the  rafters  from 
the  apex  to  the  end  of  the  wall,  and  whatever  they  are  to  project  must  be 
taken  into  consideration. 

Note.  By  ^  or  %  pitch  is  meant  that  the  apex  or  comb  of  the  roof  is  to  be  %  or  %  the  width  of  the 
building  higher  than  the  walls  or  base  of  the  rafters. 

Row  to  reckon  the  cost  of  hay. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  pounds  by  half  the  price  per  ton, 
and  remove  the  decimal  point  three  places  to  the  left. 

How  to  measure  grain. 

Rule. — Level  the  grain;  ascertain  the  space  it  occupies  in  cubic 
feet ;  multiply  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by  8,  and  point  off  one  place  to 
the  left. 

Note.— Exactness  requires  the  addition  to  every  three  hundred  bushels  of  one  extra  bushel. 

The  foregoing  rule  may  be  used  for  finding  the  number  of  gallons,  by 
multiplying  the  number  of  bushels  by  8. 

If  the  corn  in  the  box  is  in  the  ear,  divide  the  answer  by  2,  to  find 
the  number  of  bushels  of  shelled  corn,  because  it  requires  2  bushels  of  ear 
corn  to  make  1  of  shelled  corn. 

Rapid  rules  for  measuring  land  without  instruments. 

In  measuring  land,  the  first  thing  to  ascertain  is  the  contents  of  any 
given  plot  in  square  yards  ;  then,  given  the  number  of  yards,  find  out  the 
number  of  rods  and  acres. 

The  most  ancient  and  simplest  measure  of  distance  is  a  step.  Now, 
an  ordinary-sized  man  can  train  himself  to  cover  one  yard  at  a  stride,  on 
the  average,  with  sufficient  accuracy  for  ordinary  purposes. 

To  make  use  of  this  means  of  measuring  distances,  it  is  essential  to 
walk  in  a  straight  line  ;  to  do  this,  fix  the  eye  on  two  objects  in  a  line 
straight  ahead,  one  comparatively  near,  the  other  remote  ;  and,  in  walk¬ 
ing,  keep  these  objects  constantly  in  line. 

Farmers  and  others  by  adopting  the  following  simple  and  ingenious  con¬ 
trivance ,  may  always  carry  with  them  the  scale  to  construct  a  correct  yard 

Take  a  foot  rule,  and  commencing  at  the  base  of  the  little  finger  of 
the  left  hand,  mark  the  quarters  of  the  foot  on  the  outer  borders  of  the 
left  arm,  pricking  in  the  marks  with  indelible  ink. 

To  find  hoiv  many  rods  in  length  will  make  an  acre ,  the  ividth  being  given. 

Rule. — Divide  160  by  the  width,  and  the  quotient  will  be  the  answer. 




How  to  find  the  number  of  acres  in  any  plot  of  land ,  the  number  of  rods 
being  given. 

Rule. — Divide  the  number  of  rods  by  8,  multiply  the  quotient  by  5, 
and  remove  the  decimal  point  two  places  to  the  left. 

The  diameter  being  given,  to  find  the  circumference. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  diameter  by  3  1-7. 

How  to  find  the  diameter ,  when  the  circumference  is  given. 

Rule. — Divide  the  circumference  by  3  1-7. 

To  find  how  many  solid  feet  a  round  stick  of  timber  of  the  same  thick¬ 
ness  throughout  will  contain  when  squared. 

Rule. — Square  half  the  diameter  in  inches,  multiply  by  2,  multiply 
by  the  length  in  feet,  and  divide  the  product  by  144. 

Greneral  rule  for  measuring  timber ,  to  find  the  solid  contents  in  feet. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  depth  in  inches  by  the  breadth  in  inches,  and 
then  multiply  by  the  length  in  feet,  and  divide  by  144. 

To  find  the  number  of  feet  of  timber  in  trees  ivith  the  bark  on. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  square  of  one-fifth  of  the  circumference  in 
inches,  by  twice  the  length,  in  feet,  and  divide  by  144.  Deduct  1-10  to 
1-15  according  to  the  thickness  of  the  bark. 

Howard's  new  rule  for  computing  interest. 

Rule. — The  reciprocal  of  the  rate  is  the  time  for  which  the  interest 
on  .any  sum  of  money  will  be  shown  by  simply  removing  the  decimal 
point  two  places  to  the  left ;  for  ten  times  that  time,  remove  the  point 
one  place  to  the  left;  for  1-10  of  the  same  time,  remove  the  point  three 
places  to  the  left. 

Increase  or  diminish  the  results  to  suit  the  time  given. 

Note.— The  reciprocal  of  the  rate  is  found  by  inverting:  the  rate  ;  thus  3  per  cent,  per  month,  in* 
verted,  becomes  %  of  a  month,  or  10  days. 

When  the  rate  is  expressed  by  one  figure,  always  write  it  thus :  3-1, 
three  ones. 

Rule  for  converting  English  into  American  currency. 

Multiply  the  pounds,  with  the  shillings  and  pence  stated  in  decimals, 
by  400  plus  the  premium  in  fourths,  and  divide  the  product  by  90. 


A  township — 36  sections  each  a  mile  square. 

A  section — 640  acres. 

A  quarter  section,  half  a  mile  square — 160  acres. 

An  eighth  section,  half  a  mile  long,  north  and  south,  and  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  wide — 80  acres. 

A  sixteenth  section,  a  quarter  of  a  mile  square — 40  acres. 



The  sections  are  all  numbered  1  to  86,  commencing  at  the  north-east 

The  sections  are  divided  into  quarters,  which  are  named  bv  the 
cardinal  points.  The  quarters  are  divided  in  the  same  way.  The  de¬ 
scription  of  a  forty  acre  lot  would  read :  The  south  half  of  the  west  half  of 
the  south-west  quarter  of  section  1  in  township  24,  north  of  range  7  west, 
or  as  the  case  might  be ;  and  sometimes  will  fall  short  and  sometimes 
overrun  the  number  of  acres  it  is  supposed  to  contain. 

The  nautical  mile  is  795  4-5  feet  longer  than  the  common  mile. 


7  92-100  inches . 

25  links . 

4  rods . 

80  chains . 

make  1  link. 

•  “  1  rod. 

.  “  1  chain. 

.  “  1  mile. 

Note. — A  chain  is  100  links,  equal  to  4  rods  or  66  feet. 

Shoemakers  formerly  used  a  subdivision  of  the  inch  called  a  barlev- 
corn  ;  three  of  which  made  an  inch. 

Horses  are  measured  directly  over  the  fore  feet,  and  the  standard  of 
measure  is  four  inches — called  a  hand. 

In  Biblical  and  other  old  measurements,  the  term  span  is  sometimes 
used,  which  is  a  length  of  nine  inches. 

The  sacred  cubit  of  the  Jews  was  24.024  inches  in  length. 

The  common  cubit  of  the  Jews  was  21.704  inches  in  length. 

A  pace  is  equal  to  a  yard  or  36  inches. 

A  fathom  is  equal  to  6  feet. 

A  league  is  three  miles,  but  its  length  is  variable,  for  it  is  strictly 
speaking  a  nautical  term,  and  should  be  three  geographical  miles,  equal 
to  3.45  statute  miles,  but  when  used  on  land,  three  statute  miles  are  said 
to  be  a  league. 

In  cloth  measure  an  aune  is  equal  to  14  yards,  or  45  inches. 

An  Amsterdam  ell  is  equal  to  26.796  inches. 

A  Trieste  ell  is  equal  to  25.284  inches. 

A  Brabant  ell  is  equal  to  27.116  inches. 


Every  farmer  and  mechanic,  whether  he  does  much  or  little  business, 
should  keep  a  record  of  his  transactions  in  a  clear  and  systematic  man¬ 
ner.  For  the  benefit  of  those  who  have  no.t  had  the  opportunity  of  ac¬ 
quiring  a  primary  knowledge  of  the  principles  of  book-keeping,  we  here 
present  a  simple  form  of  keeping  accounts  which  is  easily  comprehended, 
and  well  adapted  to  record  the  business  transactions  of  farmers,  mechanics 
and  laborers. 



1875.  a.  H.  JACKSON.  Dr.  Cr. 



To  7  bushels  Wheat _ _ 

_  .at  $1.25 





By  shoeing  span  of  Horses . . 





To  14  bushels  Oats _  _ _ 

_  .at  8  .45 





To  5  lbs.  Butter _ _  _  _ 

. .  at  .25 





By  new  Harrow. . . . 





By  sharpening  2  Plows.  _ 




By  new  Double-Tree _ _ . 





To  Cow  and  Calf.  . . . 





To  half  ton  of  Hay _  _ _ _ 





By  Cash _ _ 






By  repairing  Corn-Planter . . . 





To  one  Sow  with  Pigs.  _ 





By  Cash,  to  balance  account _ _ 










D  . 



March  21 

By  3  days’  labor. _ _ _ _  _ 


>+j  ~ 




To  2  Shoats _ _  _ _ _  .  . 

_ at  3.00 





To  18  bushels  Corn _  ..  _ 

_ at  .45 





By  1  month’s  Labor _ _  _ 





To  Cash  _  _  .  _  .. 





By  8  days’  Mowing _  _  .  _ 

_ at  $1.50 





To  50  lbs.  Flour _ _ 


7  5 



To  27  lbs.  Meat  . .  _  _ _ 

. .at  $  .10 





Bv  9  days’  Harvesting  _  _ _ 

_ at  2.00 





By  6  days’  Labor _ ......  . . 

_ at  1.50 





To  Cash  . . . .  . . . 





To  Cash  to  balance  account _ _ 








A  Simple  Rule  foii  accurately  Computing  Interest  at  Any  Given  Per  Cent,  for  Any 

Length  of  Time. 

Multiply  the  principal  (amount  of  money  at  interest)  by  the  time  reduced  to  days;  then  divide  this  product 
by  the  quotient  obtained  by  dividing  360  (the  number  of  days  in  the  interest  year)  by  the  per  cent,  of  interest, 
andt/je  quotient  thus  obtained  will  be  the  required  interest. 



Require  the  interest  of  $462.50  for  one  month  and  eighteen  days  at  6  per  cent.  An  $462.50 

interest  month  is  30  days;  one  month  and  eighteen  days  equal  48  days.  $4b2.50  multi-  .48 

plied  by  .48  gives  $222  0000;  360  divided  by  6  (the  per  cent,  of  interest)  gives  60,  and  - 

$222.0000  divided  by  60  will  give  you  the  exact  interest,  which  is  $3.70.  If  the  rate  of  370000 

interest  in  the  above  example  were  12  per  cent.,  we  would  divide  the  $222.0000  by  30  6)360  185000 

(because  360  divided  by  12  gives  30);  if  4  per  cent.,  we  would  divide  by  90;  if  8  per - - 

cent.,  by  45:  and  in  like  manner  for  any  other  per  cent.  •  60  /  $222.0000($3  70 






12  units,  or  things,  1  Dozen. 
12  dozen,  1  Gross. 

20  things,  1  Score. 

196  pounds,  1  Barrel  of  Flour. 
200  pounds,  1  Barrel  of  Pork. 
56  pounds,  1  Firkin  of  Butter. 

24  sheets  of  paper.  1  Quire. 

20  quires  paper  1  Ream. 

4  ft.  wide,  4  ft.  high,  and  8  ft.  long,  1  Cord  Wood. 




Virginia. — The  oldest  of  the  States,  was  so  called  in  honor  of  Queen 
Elizabeth,  the  “  Virgin  Queen,”  in  whose  reign  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  made 
his  first  attempt  to  colonize  that  region. 

Florida. — Ponce  de  Leon  landed  on  the  coast  of  Florida  on  Easter 
Sunday,  and  called  the  country  in  commemoration  of  the  day,  which  was 
the  Pasqua  Florida  of  the  Spaniards,  or  “Feast  of  Flowers.” 

Louisiana  was  called  after  Louis  the  Fourteenth,  who  at  one  time 
owned  that  section  of  the  country. 

Alabama  was  so  named  by  the  Indians,  and  signifies  “  Here  we  Rest.” 

Mississippi  is  likewise  an  Indian  name,  meaning  “  Long  River.” 

Arkansas ,  from  Kansas,  the  Indian  word  for  “  smoky  water.”  Its 
prefix  was  really  arc ,  the  French  word  for  “  bow.” 

The  Carolinas  were  originally  one  tract,  and  were  called  “Carolana,” 
after  Charles  the  Ninth  of  France. 

Georgia  owes  its  name  to  George  the  Second  of  England,  who  first 
established  a  colony  there  in  1732. 

Tennessee  is  the  Indian  name  for  the  “  River  of  the  Bend,”  i.  e.,  the 
Mississippi  which  forms  its  western  boundary. 

Kentucky  is  the  Indian  name  for  “  at  the  head  of  the  river.” 

Ohio  means  “  beautiful ;  ”  Iowa,  “  drowsy  ones  ;  ”  Minnesota,  “  cloudy 
water,”  and  Wisconsin,  “  wild-rushing  channel." 

Illinois  is  derived  from  the  Indian  word  illini,  men,  and  the  French 
suffix  ois,  together  signifying  “  tribe  of  men.” 

Michigan  was  called  by  the  name  given  the  lake,  fish-weir,  which  was 
so  styled  from  its  fancied  resemblance  to  a  fish  trap. 

Missouri  is  from  the  Indian  word  “  muddy,”  which  more  properly 
applies  to  the  river  that  flows  through  it. 

Oregon  owes  its  Indian  name  also  to  its  principal  river. 

Cortes  named  California. 

Massachusetts  is  the  Indian  for  “  The  country  around  the  great  hills.” 

Connecticut,  from  the  Indian  Quon-ch-ta-Cut,  signifying  “  Long 

Maryland,  after  Henrietta  Maria,  Queen  of  Charles  the  First,  of 

New  York  was  named  by  the  Duke  of  York. 

Pennsylvania  means  “  Penn’s  woods,”  and  was  so  called  after  William 
Penn,  its  orignal  owner. 



Delaware  after  Lord  De  La  Ware. 

New  Jersey,  so  called  in  honor  of  Sir  George  Carteret,  who  was 
Governor  of  the  Island  of  Jersey,  in  the  British  Channel. 

Maine  was  called  after  the  province  of  Maine  in  France,  in  compli¬ 
ment  of  Queen  Henrietta  of  England,  who  owned  that  province. 

Vermont,  from  the  French  word  Vert  Mont,  signifying  Green 

New  Hampshire,  from  Hampshire  county  in  England.  It  was 
formerly  called  Laconia. 

The  little  State  of  Rhode  Island  owes  its  name  to  the  Island  of 
Rhodes  in  the  Mediterranean,  which  domain  it  is  said  to  greatly 

Texas  is  the  American  word  for  the  Mexican  name  by  which  all  that 
section  of  the  country  was  called  before  it  was  ceded  to  the  United  States. 


States  axd  Territories. 



Alabama .  . 

187,74  8 






























Arkansas . 

California . 

Connecticut . 

Delaware .  . 

Florida . 

Georgia . 

Illinois . 

Indiana . 

Iowa . 

Kansas . 

Kentucky . 

Louisiana . 

Maine . 

Mar  viand . 

Massachusetts . — . 

Michigan . 

Minnesota . 

Mississippi . 

Missouri . 

Nebraska . 

Nevada . 

New  Hampshire . 

New  Jersey . 

New  York . 

North  Carolina . 

Ohio .  . 

Oregon . 

Pennsylvania . 

Rhode'  Island . 

South  Carolina . 

Tennessee . 

Texas . 

Vermont . 

\  irginia . 

West  Virginia . 

Wisconsin . 

Total  States . 


Arizona . 





1  J  QOO 

Colorada . 

Dakota . 

District  of  Columbia . 

Idaho . 

Montana . 






New  Mexico . 

Utah . 

Washington  . 

Wyoming . 

Total  Territories . 


Total  United  States . 






New  York.  N.  Y _ 

Philadelphia,  Pa... 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y . 

St.  Louis,  Mo . 

Chicago,  Ill . 

Baltimore,  Md . 

Boston,  Mass . 

Cincinnati,  Ohio... 
New  Orleans,  La.  . 
San  Francisco,  Cal. 

Buffalo,  N.  Y . 

Washington,  D.  C.. 

Newark.  N.  J . 

Louisville,  Kv . 

Cleveland,  Ohio _ 

Pittsburg,  Pa . 

Jersey  City,  N.  J  .. 

Detroit,  Mich . 

Milwaukee,  Wis... 

Albany,  N.  Y . 

Providence,  R.  I... 

Rochester,  N.  Y _ 

Allegheny,  Pa . 

Richmond,  Va . 

New  Haven,  Conn. 

Charleston,  S.  C _ 

Indianapolis,  Ind.. 

Troy,  N.  Y . 

Syracuse,  N.  Y . 

Worcester,  Mass... 

Lowell,  Mass . 

Memphis,  Tenn _ 

Cambridge,  Mass.. 
Hartford,  Conn.... 

Scranton,  Pa . 

Reading,  Pa . 

Paterson,  N.  J . 

Kansas  City,  Mo... 

Mobile,  Ala . 

Toledo,  Ohio . 

Portland,  Me . 

Columbus,  Ohio _ 

Wilmington,  Del... 

Dayton,  Ohio . 

Lawrence,  Mass _ 

Utica,  N.  Y . . 

Charlestown,  Mass 

Savannah,  Ga . 

Lynn.  Mass . 

Fall  River,  Mass... 



























States  and 


Alabama . 

Arkansas . 

California . 

Connecticut . 

Delaware . 

Florida . 

Georgia . 

Illinois . 

Indiana . 

Iowa . 

Kansas . 

Kentucky . 

Louisiana . 

Maine . . . 

Maryland  . . . 

Massachusetts. . . 

Michigan* . 

Minnesota . 

Mississippi . 

Missouri . 

Nebraska . 

Nevada . 

New  Hampshire. 

New  Jersey . 

New  York . 

North  Carolina. . 

Ohio . 

Oregon  . 

Area  in 

































R.  R. 


2  . 


[  . 


7  . 


1  . 


5  . 


3  . 


1  . 


1  . 


7  . 


2  1,350,544 


?  528,349 



5  857,639 

5  . 



i  . 




i  1,334,031 


>  598,429 

3  . 




3  246,280 











1  . 




cen  in  1874. 

States  and 


Rhode  Island... 
South  Carolina. 

Tennessee . 

Texas . 

Vermont . 

Virginia . 

West  Virginia... 
Wisconsin . 

Total  States. 


Arizona . 

Colorado . 

Dakota . 

Dist.  of  Columbia. 

Idaho.  . 

Montana . 

New  Mexico . 

Utah . 

Washington . 

Wyoming . 

Total  Territories. 

Aggregate  of  U.  S. 

Area  in 


































































2,915,203  38,555,983 





R.  R. 















Included  in  the  Railroad  Mileage  of  Maryland. 



Population  and  Area. 



China . 

British  Empire . 

Russia . 

United  States  with  Alaska 

France . 

Austria  and  Hungary . 

Japan . 

Great  Britain  and  Ireland 

German  Empire . 

Italy . . 

Spain . 

Brazil . 

Turkey . 

Mexico . 

Sweden  and  Norway . 

Persia . 

Belgium . 

Bavaria . 

Portugal . 

Holland . 

New  Grenada . 

Chili . 

Switzerland . 

Peru . 

Bolivia . 

Argentine  Republic . 

Wurtemburg . 

Denmark . 

Venezuela . 

Baden . 

Greece . 

Guatemala . 

Ecuador . ' 

Paraguay . 

Hesse . ' 

Liberia . ' 

San  Salvador . 

Hayti . 

Nicaragua . 

Uruguay . 

Honduras . ' 

San  Domingo . 

Costa  Rica . 

Hawaii . 




















Date  of 




















187  i 







Area  in 



to  Square 





Pekin . 




London . 




St.  Petersburg . 




Washington  . 




Paris . 




Vienna . 

833, 900 



Yeddo . 




London . 




Berlin . 




Rome . 




Madrid . 




Rio  Janeiro . 





Constantinople . 

Mexico . 






Stockholm . 



Teheran . 




Brussels . . 




Munich . 




Lisbon . 




Hague . 




Bogota,  j . 




Santiago . 




Berne . 




Lima . 




Clniquisaca . 




Buenos  Ayres . 




Stuttgart . 




Copenhagen . 




Caraceas  . 




Carlsruhe . 




Athens . 




Guatemala . 




Quito . 




Asuncion.; . 




Darmstadt . 




Monrovia . 




Sal  Salvador . 




Port  au  Prince . 




Managua . 




Monte  Video . 




Comayagua . 




San  Domingo . 




San  Jose . 




Honolulu . 





By  Counties. 


Adams _ 

Alexander.  . 

Bond _ 

Boone _ 

Brown _ 

Bureau _ 

Calhoun _ 

Carroll _ 

Cass _ 

Champaign . 
Christian  ... 

Clark _ 

Clay _ 

Clinton _ 

Coles _ 

Cook . . 

Crawford _ 

Cumberland . 
De  Kalb.... 

De  Witt _ 

Douglas _ 

Du  Page _ 

Edgar _ 

Edwards _ 

Effingham _ 

Fayette _ 

Ford _ 

Franklin _ 

Fulton . 

Gallatin _ 

Greene _ 

Grundy  _ 

Hamilton _ 

Hancock _ 

Hardin _ 


Henry . 

Iroquois _ 

Jackson _ 

Jasper _ 

Jefferson _ 

Jersey _ 

Jo  Daviess... 

Johnson  _ 

Kane . . 

Kankakee _ 

Kendall _ 

Knox _ 

Lake _ . . . . _ . 

La  Salle _ 

Lawrence _ 

Lee  ... _ 

Livingston  .. 
Logan  _ 










2  4132: 





1  470: 




>  626 


981  = 

















3  067 






. . 





























I O94 1 
















































78 16 



























202  77 












































































































Macon _ 

Macoupin. . 

Madison _ 

Marion _ 

Marshall _ 

Mason _ 

Massac _ 

McHenry  . . 

McLean _ 

Menard _ 

Mercer _ 



























Monroe _ 


Morgan _ 

Moultrie _ 

Ogle  . . 

Peoria _ 

Perry _ 

Piatt  _ 

Pike _ 

Pope _ 

Pulaski _ 

Putnam _ 

Randolph _ 

Richland _ 

Rock  Island 

Saline _ 

Sangamon  .. 

Schuyler _ 

Scott . 

Shelby _ 

Stark . . 






221 12 





































St.Clair . . . 

Stephenson . _  _ 

165  18 




Tazewell _ 

Union _ _ 

Vermilion _ 

Wabash _ 

Warren.  ... 

Washington _ 

Wayne _ 

White  . . 

Whitesides _ 

Will _ 

Williamson _ 

Winnebago _ 

Woodford  . . . 

Total _ 











































1 1079 

1 1666 


1 1492 































1830.  1820 


































































Total . . 

Adams . 

Alexander . 

Bond . 

Boone . . 

Brown . 

Bureau . . 

Calhoun  . 

Carroll . 

Cass . 

Champaign . 

Christian . 

Clark  . 

Clay . 

Clinton . 

Coles . 

Cook . . 

Crawford . 


DeKalb . 

DeWitt . 

Douglas . 

DuPage . 

Edgar . 

Edwards . 

Effingham . 

Fayette . 

Ford . 

Franklin . 

Fulton . . 

Gallatin . 

Greene . 

Grundy... . 

Hamilton . 

Hancock . 

Hardin . 

Henderson . 

Henry  . . 

Iroquois _ 

Jackson  . 

Jasper  .  , 

Jefferson . . , . 

Jersey  . 

JoDaviess  ...... 

Johnson.  .  _  . 

Kane . . 

Kankakee . 

Kendall . 

Knox . 

Lake . 

LaSalle . . 

Lawrence . 

Lee . 

Livingston . 

Logan . 

Macon . 

Macoupin . 

Madison . 

Marion . . 

Marshall . . 

Mason . 

Massac . 

McDonough . 

McHenry . 

McLean . 

Menard . 

Mercer . . 

Monroe . 

Montgomery . 

Morgan . 

Moultrie . 

Ogle . 

Peoria . 

Perry . 

Piatt . 

Pike . 

Pope . 

Pulaski . 

Putnam . 

Randolph . 

Richland . 

Rock  Island . 

Saline . 

Sangamon . 

Schuyler . 

Scott . 

Shelby . 

Stark . 

St.  Clair . 

Stephenson . 

Tazewell . 

Union . 

Vermilion . 

Wabash . 

Warren . 

Washington . 

Wayne  . 

White . 

Whitesides . 

Will . 

Williamson . 

Winnebago . 

Woodford . 




Other  un¬ 






















































































1,367  965 






























































































11  540 






















13  283 





































































































































































































































































































































































5,53  c 














































1  057,49? 


































2  025 


























































1.149  878 






1,562  621 

















































177  592 
































































BY  E .  M .  HAINES. 


Lake  County  lies  at  the  extreme  northeast  corner  of  the  State  of  Illinois, 
and  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Wisconsin,  on  the  east  by  Lake  Michigan,  on 
the  south  by  Cook,  and  on  the  west  by  McHenry  County.  Its  length,  from 
the  southern  boundary  to  the  State  line  on  the  north,  is  23  J  miles.  Its  average 
breadth  is  about  19^  miles;  containing  an  area  of  about  460  square  miles,  or 
294,400  acres.  It  its  derives  name  from  being  situated  upon  Lake  Michigan,  as 
well  as  from  the  great  number  of  small  lakes  contained  within  it,  amounting  to 
about  forty  in  all.  This  county  was  originally  a  part  of  Me  Henry,  which  lat¬ 
ter  county  was  erected  from  Cook  and  La  Salle,  by  the  Legislature  at  its  session 
of  1835-6.  It  was  detached  from  McHenry  and  erected  as  the  county  of 
Lake,  by  an  Act  of  the  General  Assembly,  approved  March  1,  1839. 

Whilst  the  first  settlement  of  the  county  is  comparatively  of  recent  date, 
the  period  at  which  it  was  first  visited  by  the  white  race  is  more  remote,  and 
far  beyond  the  memory  of  any  one  living  at  this  time. 

There  has  been  a  kind  of  tradition  existing,  that  the  place  where  Waukegan 
(formerly  called  Little  Fort)  now  stands  was  once  the  site  of  a  small  fort,  and 
that  this  point  was,  at  an  early  day,  occupied  by  the  French  as  a  trading  post. 
But  the  accounts  which  are  given  concerning  it  have  been  vague  as  to  time, 
and  not  entirely  satisfactory.  In  Smith’s  Documentary  History  of  Wisconsin 
is  a  narrative  of  Wm.  S.  Hamilton,  as  given  to  Cyrus  Woodman,  of  that  State, 
some  twenty  years  ago,  in  which  Mr.  Hamilton  says  that  in  1825  he  took 
a  drove  of  cattle  from  Springfield,  Illinois,  by  way  of  Chicago,  to  Green  Bay, 
Wisconsin,  to  supply  the  United  States  army  stationed  there;  that  “from 
Chicago  to  Grosse  Point,  he  followed  up  the  lake,  though  not  immediately 
along  the  shore  Not  far  from  Grosse  Point,  on  a  level  and  not  elevated 
piece  of  ground,  were  the  remains  of  an  old  fort  called,  at  that  time,  Little 
Fort,  the  site,  perhaps,  of  the  town  now  called  by  the  same  name.'  Mr. 



Hamilton  probably  saw  the  remains  of  this  old  fort,  but  his  memory  doubtless 
failed  him  in  correctly  describing  its  location.  Those  who  visited  this  point  as 
late  as  the  Fall  of  1835  say  that  there  was  at  that  time  to  be  seen  here,  on  the 
high  point  just  north  of  the  present  site  of  State  street  bridge,  pickets,  or 
palisades,  in  a  decayed  condition,  the  remains  of  an  old  fort. 

A  history  of  the  United  States,  published  in  London  in  1795,  containing  a 
map  of  the  LTiited  States,  according  to  the  treaty  of  1783,  the  information  for 
which,  so  far  as  relates  to  the  Northwest,  doubtless  dating  back  at  least  one  hun¬ 
dred  years  from  this  time,  shows  at  that  time  the  existence  of  only  two  points  on 
the  western  shore  of  Lake  Michigan ;  these  are  Chicago  and  Little  Fort,  which 
latter  place  is  shown  at  the  mouth  of  a  stream  designated  as  “  Old  Fort  River.  " 
From  this,  it  seems  that  Little  Fort,  now  called  Waukegan,  was  a  point  known 
to  the  wFites  at  least  one  hundred  years  ago.  From  the  stream  designated  as 
u01d  Fort  River,”  we  are  led  to  infer  that  there  was  once,  at  this  point,  a  fort 
of  still  older  date  than  the  one  which  was  called  Little  Fort.  It  is  supposed 
that  this  place  was  visited  in  1679  by  La  Salle  and  Hennepin. 

The  land  of  which  Lake  County  is  comprised  is  a  portion  of  the  country 
acquired  by  the  United  States  Government  by  treaty  with  the  Pottawattomie 
and  other  tribes  of  Indians,  at  Prairie  Du  Chien,  in  August,  1829,  by  which 
the  Indian  title  became  extinguished  February  21,  1835.  By  stipulation, 
however,  the  Indians  remained  in  the  country  until  August,  1836,  when  they 
were  removed  to  lands  assigned  them,  west  of  the  Missouri  River,  in  what  is 
now  the  State  of  Kansas. 

Daniel  Wright  was  the  first  white  settler,  and  built  the  first  house,  or  per¬ 
manent  habitation,  in  what  is  now  Lake  County,  in  August,  1834.  It  was  on 
the  prairie,  a  short  distance  west  of  the  Aux  Plaines  River,  and  about  a  mile  south 
of  Indian  Creek.  In  the  Fall  of  that  year,  a  death  occurred  in  his  family, 
which  is  noted  as  the  first  death  occurring  in  the  county. 

No  permanent  settlement  of  the  county  was  commenced  to  any  extent  until 
1836  ;  occupancy  of  the  lands  being  forbidden  up  to  that  time,  by  the  United 
States  Government,  as  before  remarked,  on  account  of  the  Indian  title  not  bein^ 
extinguished.  Several  claims  of  land  were  made,  however,  during  the  Summer 
and  Fall  of  1834,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Aux  Plaines  River.  Among  those  who 
made  claims  in  1834,  who  became  settlers,  were  Daniel  Wright,  Hiram  Kennicott. 
Jonathan  Rice,  Asahel  Talcott,  Ransom  and  Richard  Steele,  William  Cooley. 
Charles  H.  Bartlett,  Thomas  McClure,  Willard  Jones,  Phineas  Sherman  and 
Amos  Bennett — the  latter  of  whom  was  a  colored  man,  and  the  first  of  the  African 
race  who  came  to  what  is  now  Lake  County;  he  is  said  to  have  once  remarked, 
with  much  self-satisfaction,  speaking  apparently  with  reference  to  the  Indians, 
that  he  was  the  first  white  man  that  ever  planted  corn  in  Lake  County.  He 
was  a  very  intelligent  man  and  much  respected. 

The  settlement  of  the  year  1835,  which  was  limited  to  a  few  families,  was 
mostly  along  the  west  side  of  the  Aux  Plaines  River,  extending  as  far  north 



as  the  site  of  the  Aux  Plaines  Bridge,  in  the  present  town  of  Warren.  In  the 
Spring  of  this  year,  Peleg  Sunderlin  built  a  house  on  the  prairie,  on  the  Green 
Bay  road,  about  a  mile  north  of  what  is  now  called  Spaulding’s  Corners,  where 
he  opened  a  public  house,  or  tavern,  for  the  accommodation  of  travelers— being 
the  first  house  of  that  kind  opened  in  the  county.  -  ° 

In  September  of  this  year,  Hiram  Kennicott  opened  a  store  of  goods  at 
this  place,  on  the  Aux  Plaines  River,  near  the  mouth  of  Indian  Creek,  where  he 
had  previously  settled ;  and  this  was  the  first  store  established  in  the  county. 
About  this  time  Mr.  Kennicott  completed  a  saw-mill  on  the  river,  at  the  same 

point,  which  he  had  commenced  the  Fall  before  ;  and  this  was  the  first  saw-mill 
erected  in  the  county. 

At  this  time,  the  territory  comprised  in  what  afterward  became  the  countv 
ol  Lake  was  a  part  of  Cook  County,  and  was  within  the  Chicago  Precinct,  or 
election  district.  At  the  September  term,  1835,  of  the  County  Commissioners’ 
Court  of  Cook  County,  a  new  precinct  was  formed,  comprising  most  of  the  ter¬ 
ritory  north  of  the  town  of  Chicago,  styled  Lake  Precinct.  The  place  of 
holding  elections  was  established  at  the  house  of  Dexter  Hapgood,  about  six 
miles  below  the  present  site  of  the  village  of  Wheeling.  At  a  special  election, 
in  this  precinct,  held  October  1  <  th,  Hiram  Kennicott  was  elected  a  Justice  of  the 
Peace  thirty-two  votes,  in  all,  being  cast.  He  was  the  first  Justice  of  the  Peace 
who  sei  ved  in  what  is  now  called  Lake  County.  Mr.  Kennicott  was  a  lawyer  bv 
profession,  having  studied  law  at  Aurora,  New  York,  with  Millard  Fillmore. 
He  was,  therefore,  the  first  lawyer  who  came  to  Lake  County. 

About  the  month  of  January,  1836,  a  daughter  of  Daniel  Wright  was  mar¬ 
ried  to  William  Wigham  ;  the  ceremony  was  performed  by  Hiram  Kennicott,  as 
Justice  of  the  Peace,  which  was  the  first  marriage  occurring  in  the  county. 

At  the  September  term  of  the  County  Commissioners'  Court  of  Cook 
County,  the  same  year,  Richard  Steele,  Thomas  McClure  and  Mark  Noble 
were  appointed  Viewers  to  lay  out  a  road  from  Chicago  to  the  State  line  across 
the  Des  Plaines  River.  The  road  was  laid  out  in  December  following,  and 
established  at  the  March  term,  1836,  being  the  first  public  road  established  by 
the  State  authority  within  the  limits  of  the  present  county  of  Lake.  The  record 
designates  the  road  as  commencing  at  Chicago,  at  Kinzie  street,  thence  to  Went¬ 
worth’s  Ridge  ;  thence  to  Planck’s  Point;  thence  to  Hickory  Grove;  thence 
across  the  Des  Plaines  River  to  Wissencraft’s  Point ;  thence  to  Spring  Creek 
timber  (supposed  to  be  Indian  Creek) ;  thence  to  Winecup’s  Point ;  thence 
across  the  Des  Plaines  River  to  the  Green  Bay  road  ;  the  United  States  Gov¬ 
ernment  having  previously  established  a  road  for  military  purposes  from 
Chicago  to  Green  Bay,  by  the  lake  shore  route,  and  which  was  known  as  the 
“  Green  Bay  Road.” 

Planck’s  Point,  alluded  to,  is  what  is  now  known  as  u  Dutchman’s  Point, 
in  the  township  of  Niles,  Cook  County.  A  man  by  the  name  of  Planck,  of 
German  nationality,  was  the  first  settler  at  this  point,  and  is  probably  the 



first  of  that  nationality  who  settled  north  of  Chicago.  He  kept  a  public  house, 
and  was  known  by  travelers  as  “the  Dutchman, ”  from  which  the  place  became 
generally  known  as  “Dutchman’s  Point.5' 

Winecup’s  Point  is  understood  to  refer  to  the  point  of  timber  on  the  road  at 
the  crossing  of  the  creek,  about  a  mile  north  of  Liberty ville,  and  should  have 
been  Wynkoop’s  Point,  being  at  the  place  where  Tobias  Wynkoop  settled  in 
1835 — a  person  of  rare  eccentricity,  whose  peculiarities  are  remembered  by  the 
early  settlers,  and  at  whose  expense  many  a  ludicrous  anecdote  is  related.  He 
was  an  extravagant  man  ;  but  his  was  an  extravagance  of  ideas.  In  theory,  he 
was  expansive,  and  never  did  anything  on  a  small  scale. 

Wentworth’s  Ridge  was  afterward  known  as  the  Sand  Ridge,  then  seven 
miles  from  Chicago.  Elijah  Wentworth  was  then  the  only  inhabitant  on  this 
ridge.  He  kept  a  public  house  eight  miles  from  Chicago,  where  now  is  the 
village  of  Jefferson.  He  was  better  known  as  “  Old  Geese."  If  any  one 
incurred  his  disapprobation,  he  retorted,  “You  are  a  perfect  geese;’’  from 
which,  in  time,  he  took  this  name  among  travelers  far  and  near. 

This  road  became  known  as  the  Milwaukee  road.  That  present  important 
thoroughfare  in  Chicago  called  Milwaukee  avenue  was  established  on  the  line 
of  this  road,  and  takes  its  name  therefrom. 

During  the  year  1835,  the  first  beginning  was  made  at  Waukegan,  by  a  com¬ 
pany  that  had  been  formed  at  Chicago  for  the  purpose  of  building  up  a  town  at  that 
point.  The  first  habitation  was  built  in  the  side  of  the  bluff,  a  short  distance  north 
of  the  ravine.  In  August  of  this  year,  Nelson  Landon  built  a  house  and  settled 
on  the  prairie  near  the  State  line,  being  the  first  house  built  in  what  is  now  the 
township  of  Benton.  Jeremiah  Stowell  came  at  the  same  time,  and  settled  near 
by.  During  this  year,  also,  Willard  Jones  settled  at  Jones  Point;  Leonard 
and  George  Gage,  and  George  A.  Drury,  at  Gage’s  Lake;  William  Fenwick, 
at  Diamond  Lake ;  Daniel  Marsh,  a  few  miles  to  the  north  of  that  ;  Lewis  G. 
Schenck,  Elisha  Clarke,  Solomon  Norton  and  Hiram  Clarke,  at  YIechanics 
Grove.  The  first  settlers  about  this  grove  were  mechanics  by  trade,  hence  they 
called  it  by  this  name.  Mathias  Mason  and  John  Gridley  and  sons  settled  on 
Indian  Creek;  John  A.  Mills,  Seth  Washburne,  R.  E.  and  J.  M.  Washburne, 
James  Chambers,  Clark  Knights,  Alonzo  Cook,  Henry  Wells,  William  Easton, 
John  A.  Mills,  Ransom  Steele,  Andrew  S.  Wells,  John  Herrick,  Moses  Putney, 
Charles  H.  Bartlett,  Elconah  Tingley,  James  and  William  Lloyd,  Robert, 
Christopher  and  William  Irwin,  William  Rumsey,  Samuel  Brookes,  Ezekiel 
Bovland  and  others  settled  at  various  points  along  the  Aux  Plaines  River. 
Thomas  Tiernan  settled  near  the  place  since  known  as  the  Toll  Gate,  on  the 
old  plank  road  near  Waukegan  ;  Otis  Hinckley  settled  on  the  Green  Bay  road, 
a  short  distance  from  where  since  stands  the  station  house  of  the  railroad  at 
Lake  Forest ;  John  Flood  settled  at  what  is  since  known  as  Spaulding's  Cor¬ 
ners  ;  Joseph  Dehart,  at  the  place  since  known  as  the  New  York  House.  The 
Ylinsky  brothers  settled  come  distance  north  of  that,  in  what  is  now  the  town 



of  Benton.  Moses  Putney,  before  mentioned,  who  settled  on  the  road  between 
Liberty ville  and  Half-Day,  was  the  first  representative  of  Crispin,  or,  in  other 
words,  the  first  shoemaker  who  practiced  the  cobbler’s  art  in  Lake  County. 

In  1836,  more  progress  Avas  made,  and  the  settlement  of  the  county  may  be 
said  to  have  fairly  commenced  during  this  year.  A  saw-mill  was  built  by  .Seth 
Washburne  at  Half-Day,  and  another  by  Jacob  Miller  on  Mill  Creek,  about  a 
mile  or  two  above  its  intersection  with  the  Aux  Plaines.  In  those  days,  <>reat 
value  was  attached  to  a  mill  site.  It  was  equal  to  a  California  gold  mine  of  a 
later  day.  This  was  the  principal  purpose  for  which  the  country  Avas  first  ex¬ 
plored.  But,  strange  as  it  may  appear,  out  of  the  tAvelve  water-mills  that  have 
been  erected  in  the  county  from  first  to  last,  nearly  all  have  disappeared.  The 
evaporation  and  other  causes  following  the  improvement  of  the  country  ^o 
reduced  the  supply  of  water  that  the  mills  could  not  be  operated  thereby,  hence 
one  by  one  they  have  become  abandoned. 

The  place  now  known  as  LibertyAdlle  first  acquired  a  name  in  the  world  in 
1835,  as  "Yardin’s  Grove.”  During  this  year,  a  man  by  the  name  of  Yardin 
— an  Englishman,  and  a  gentleman  of  culture — built  a  small  habitation  at  the 
south  side  of  the  grove — where  afterward  lived  Henry  B.  Steele — from  whom 
the  grove,  for  a  time,  took  its  name. 

In  the  Fall  of  1835,  a  man  by  the  name  of  Morse  settled  here,  upon  the 
east  side  of  the  grove,  and  set  up  a  shop  for  blacksmithing.  He  was  the  first 
blacksmith  who  worked  at  the  business  in  Lake  County,  having  Avorked  at  his 
trade  for  a  few  months  previously  at  Kennicott’s  mill. 

About  the  month  of  June,  1836,  a  stage  line  Avas  established  between  Chi¬ 
cago  and  Milwaukee  by  way  of  the  neAvly  laid  out  road  before  referred  to,  for 
carrying  passengers  and  the  United  States  mail.  The  enterprise  Avas  com¬ 
menced  by  a  Mr.  Johnson,  then  proprietor  of  a  hotel  in  Chicago,  called  the 
New  York  House.  The  vehicle  used  was  a  common  lumber  wagon,  but  to  give 

n  7  cr 

it  character  for  the  purposes  used,  it  was  draAvn  by  four  horses.  William 
Lovejoy  was  the  first  driver  upon  the  route.  The  mail,  previous  to  that  time, 
had  been  carried  betAveen  Chicago  and  Green  Bay,  for  the  accommodation  of 
the  military  posts,  once  a  month,  by  a  man  on  foot,  by  the  way  of  the  Indian 
trail  near  the  lake  shore. 

On  the  4th  of  July,  1836,  the  settlers  at  and  about  Yardin’s  Drove  assem¬ 
bled  for  the  celebration  of  the  day.  This  Avas  the  first  formal  celebration  of 
the  kind  in  the  county.  The  number  present  Avas  about  fifteen  persons.  A 
liberty  pole  Avas  erected,  and  the  name  of  Independence  Grove  ghren  to  the 
place — an  appellation  suggested  by  the  occasion. 

At  this  time,  the  lands  in  this  part  of  the  country  Avere  unsurveyed  and  the 
title  remained  in  the  United  States  Government.  For  all  practical  purposes, 
the  settlers  were  beyond  the  reach  of  statute  laws  or  civil  authority. 

The  law  rested  in  every  man’s  conscience.  In  short,  the  people  were  "a 
law  unto  themselves.”  If  a  person  desired  to  select  a  tract  of  land,  lie  made  a 



44  claim,’  as  the  term  for  his  right  was  expressed.  The  most  substantial  ev¬ 
idence  of  his  claim  was  the  erection  of  a  habitation,  no  matter  how  small,  or  the 
fencing  or  ‘‘breaking  up'  of  land.  If  he  could  not  conveniently  do  either  of 
these,  for  want  of  time  or  assistance,  he  would  mark  or  cut  down  trees  in  vari¬ 
ous  places  on  the  land  he  wished  to  hold.  This  temporary  evidence  of  inten¬ 
tion  was  usually  respected  for  a  season,  and  until  such  time  as  the  party  would 
reasonably  be  expected  to  return  and  continue  the  evidence  of  his  claim.  A 
large  proportion  of  the  county  was  originally  claimed  by  this  slight  character  of 
evidence,  under  which  many  claims  were  sold  to  more  bona  fide  settlers  for  a 
large  consideration — especially  so  where  it  was  understood  to  possess  the  ad¬ 
vantages  of  a  mill  site. 

The  first  resort  to  a  court  of  justice  to  settle  a  dispute  concerning  the  occu¬ 
pancy  of  a  “claim  "  was  on  the  part  of  a  Mr.  Blaisdell  against  Ezekiel  Boy- 
land.  The  land  in  question  was  that  since  owned  and  occupied  by  Proctor 
Putnam,  in  the  town  of  Warren.  This  was  about  the  month  of  -January,  1836. 
The  process  was  issued  by  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  in  Chicago.  The  defendant 
appeared :  but  the  proceeding  was  not  sustained.  This  is  believed  to  be  the 
first  judicial  process  of  any  kind  ever  served  in  Lake  County. 

The  population  of  the  county  was  at  length  increasing  so  rapidly  that  the 
settlers  saw  the  necessity  of  some  mutual  regulations  among  themselves  for  de- 
fining  and  enforcing  their  rights  concerning  their  possessions.  Accordingly,  a 
general  meeting  of  the  settlers  was  convened  at  Independence  Grove,  on  the  2d 
of  December,  1836,  for  conference  and  deliberation.  Samuel  Brooks  was 
chosen  Chairman,  and  George  Kimball,  Secretary.  A  committee  of  three, 
consisting  of  Xelson  Landon.  Samuel  Brooks  and  Willard  Jones,  were  ap¬ 
pointed  to  report  resolutions  and  regulations.  This  committee  reported  a  series 
of  resolutions  and  regulations,  which  were  adopted,  constituting  an  association 
for  the  protection  of  claimants  of  land,  prescribing  their  rights  and  duties,  and 
the  remedy  in  case  of  trespass  or  invasion.  It  was  called  “  The  Abingdon 
Association  of  Settlers,”  and  became  known  in  common  speech  as  “  The  Com¬ 
pact.  "  Meetings  of  the  Association  were  held  annually  for  the  transaction  of 
business  and  election  of  officers.  The  history  of  this  association  illustrates  the 
power  and  influence  of  local  self-government.  The  settlers  looked  upon  any 
interference  on  the  part  of  the  civil  authorities  as  an  encroachment  not  to  be 
tolerated,  unless  sanctioned  at  their  popular  assemblies,  as  indicated  from  the 
following  regulations  adopted  at  a  meeting  held  February  12,  1837  : 

44  That  every  member  of  this  Association  does  hereby  bind  himself  to  con¬ 
tribute  his  due  proportionate  share  of  the  expenses  incurred  in  defending  or 
prosecuting  all  suits  at  law  or  equity  in  which  any  member  may  be  engaged  in 
consequence  of  obeying  or  carrying  into  effect  the  decisions  or  orders  of  the 
commissioners,  according  to  the  4th  regulation  of  the  2d  December,  1836." 

The  Legislature  finally  passed  an  act  for  the  protection  of  settlers  in  their 
possessions,  or  claims,  in  the  absence  of  proper  title,  and  which  was  only  re- 



cently  repealed.  This,  in  a  measure,  superseded  the  necessity  for  the  compact, 
and  it  gradually  became  dissolved. 

There  are  many  instances  where  the  regulations  of  the  compact  were  in¬ 
voked,  and  its  decrees  enforced — where  families  were  forcibly  removed  as  tres¬ 
passers  or  intruders,  and  their  habitations  destroyed. 

On  the  22d  of  August,  1836,  a  post  office  was  established  at  Indian  Creek, 
called  Half-Day,  and  Seth  Washburn  appointed  Postmaster,  being  the  first 
post  office  established  in  the  county.  The  name  was  taken  from  a  Pottawattomie 
Chief,  whose  village  was  on  the  river  near  the  mouth  of  Indian  Creek,  and  to 
which  Mr.  Kennicott,  whose  place  was  near  by,  gave  the  name  of  Me-tah-wah, 
in  honor  of  a  later  chief,  greatly  respected  by  Mr.  Kennicott. 

In  the  Fall  of  this  year,  a  school  for  the  instruction  of  children  was  opened 
at  Half-Day,  by  Laura  B.  Sprague.  This  was  the  first  school  taught  in  what 
is  now  Lake  County. 

Among  those  who  came  in  1836,  in  addition  to  names  already  mentioned, 
were  J.  R.  Nichols  and  sons,  Jeremiah  Porter  and  sons,  who  settled  in  what  is 
now  the  town  of  Benton  :  Gleason  T.  Haines,  in  the  vicinity  of  Mill  Creek  : 
the  Caldwells,  Arthur  Patterson,  Benjamin  Marks,  Isaac  Hickox  and  sons, 
Godfrey  and  Hiram  Dwelley,  Lawrence  Carroll,  and  John  Mullery,  on  the  east 
of  the  Aux  Plaines ;  the  Hubbards,  at  Indian  Creek ;  Burleigh  Hunt,  at  Little 
Fort;  Elmsley  Sunderlin  and  Abraham  Marsh,  near  the  old  New  York  House; 
Churchell  Edwards,  Noer  Potter  and  sons,  and  David  Hendee,  in  what  is  now 
the  town  of  Avon;  George.  Ela  and  Abram  Vanderwerker,  at  Deer  Grove; 
Alexander  Fortune,  at  Lake  Zurich,  then  called  Cedar  Lake;  Justus  Bangs, 
at  Bangs  Lake  ;  James  Bartlett  and  Levi  Hutchinson,  at  Independence  Grove  ; 
Mr.  Arnold,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Grove ;  Rufus  Soules  on  the  river  near 
the  south  line  of  the  county  ;  D.  B.  and  Thomas  Q.  Gage,  and  Thomas 
Warner,  at  and  about  the  present  site  of  Antioch,  and  John  Cloes,  who  settled 
in  what  is  now  called  Lake  Bluff'. 

On  the  4th  of  November,  1836,  a  post  office  was  established  about  four 
miles  above  Independence  Grove,  called  Abingdon,  and  Samuel  Brookes,  who 
resided  at  that  point,  appointed  Postmaster.  On  the  16th  of  April,  1837,  a 
post  office  was  established  at  Independence  Grove,  named  Libertyville,  and 
Henry  B.  Steele  was  appointed  Postmaster.  The  people  desired  that  the 
post  office  should  take  the  name  they  had  given  to  the  grove;  but  learning  that 
there  was  already  a  post  office  in  the  State  of  that  name,  so  that  name  could 
not  be  adopted  for  that  office,  and  being  desirous  of  preserving  a  name  in  some 
manner  suggestive  of  their  previous  Fourth  of  July  occasion,  at  the  suggestion 
of  A.  B.  Wynkoop,  who  had  recently  settled  there,  and  was  taking  an  active 
part  in  public  affairs,  the  name  of  Libertyville  was  adopted.  In  the  Fall  of 
1836,  a  school-house  was  built  at  Libertyville.  It  was  a  log  building,  the  logs 
being  hewn  on  both  sides — inside  and  out — commonly  called  a  block-house.  It 
was  the  first  school-house  erected  in  the  county.  It  was  built  by  subscription 



or  contributions  by  the  inhabitants,  a  large  proportion  of  whom,  it  is  noted  to 
their  credit,  were  young  bachelors. 

In  those  days,  the  dwelling-houses  or  first  habitations  were  built  of  logs, 
ihere  being  a  scarcity  of  lumber,  the  floors  were  usually  of  material  split  from 
logs,  commonly  called  “  puncheons,''  leaving  the  surface  rough  and  uneven. 
^  henever  a  house  of  commodious  size  was  finished,  with  floor  of  sawed  material, 
the  proprietor,  by  custom,  usually  dedicated  it  with  a  dance,  called  a  house¬ 
warming.  The  first  occasion  of  this  kind  in  the  county  was  at  the  house  of 
Hiram  Kennicott,  about  the  25th  of  December,  1836.  The  people,  old  and 
young,  for  a  distance  of  twenty  miles  around,  were  invited — extending  also  to 
Chicago.  The  company  present  was  very  large  in  proportion  to  the  accommoda¬ 
tions,  and  the  occasion  was  a  merry  one. 

The  first  contested  lawsuit  in  what  is  now  Lake  County,  and  indeed,  prob¬ 
ably  the  first  judicial  proceeding  occurring  therein,  was  in  the  Fall  of 
1837,  before  Hiram  Kennicott,  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  at  his  place  near  Indian 
Creek.  It  was  a  proceeding  in  the  name  of  the  People  against  Michael  Dulanty. 
for  an  alleged  assault  and  battery,  at  the  instance  of  Arthur  Patterson,  on 
whom  the  offense  was  charged  to  have  been  committed.  Dulanty  pleaded  justi¬ 
fication — that  his  integrity  had  been  impugned  by  the  complainant.  Patterson, 
who  had  recently  been  elected  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  urged  as  an  aggravation 
of  the  offense  the  high  dignity  of  his  official  position.  The  parties  lived  near 
the  lake  shore,  in  the  vicinity  of  what  is  now  Highland  Park.  The  scene  of 
the  alleged  conflict  was  at  the  Green  Bay  House,  -a  log  tavern  which  stood  on 
the  Green  Bav  road,  between  Highland  Park  and  Highwood.  The  Justice 
concurring  in  the  position  of  the  injured  party,  that  it  was  a  high  offense  to 
assault  a  person  representing  the  dignity  of  a  magistrate  of  the  law,  read 
to  the  defendant  an  impressive  lecture  as  to  his  duty  in  future  toward  the 
magistrates  of  his  adopted  country,  imposing  a  fine  of  So. 00. 

In  August.  1837,  Dr.  J.  H.  Foster  settled  at  Libertyville.  He  was  the  first 

physician  who  settled  in  the  county. 

A  large  proportion  of  the  early  settlers  were  young  men — unmarried. 
Many  married  men  came  and  made  improvements  before  bringing  their 
families.  This  gave  rise  to  that  institution  so  well  remembered  by  the 
early  settler  called  “bachelor’s  hall,  '  or,  as  commonly  expressed,  “keep¬ 
ing  bach.  This  institution  acquired  more  than  ordinary  respectability  in 
Lake  County  ;  for  which  credit  is  due  to  the  example  of  Joseph  DeHart, 
whose  name  is  before,  mentioned  as  an  early  settler  in  the  north  part  of  the 
county,  who  is  said  to  have  received  frequent  calls  from  delegations  of  ladies 
in  the  neighborhood,  to  compliment  him  for  his  excellent  example  in  domestic 

In  June,  1837,  the  Bev.  Samuel  Hurlbut  settled  near  Independence  Grove. 
He  was  of  the  Methodist  denomination,  and  the  first  minister  of  the  Gospel 
who  preached  and  settled  in  Lake  County. 



In  the  Spring  of  1837,  the  county  of  McHenry  was  organized  pursuant  to 
an  act  of  the  General  Assembly,  approved  March  1,  1837,  comprising,  with 
other  territory,  that  which  is  now  Lake  County. 

The  first  election  for  county  officers  of  McHenry  County  was  held  June 
5th,  at  the  house  of  Hiram  Kennicott.  Henry  B.  Steele  was  elected  Sheriff': 
Michael  C.  Maguire,  Coroner  ;  Seth  Washburne,  Recorder;  and  Mathias  Mason, 
Charles  H.  Bartlett  and  Solomon  Norton,  County  Commissioners.  The  whole 
number  of  votes  cast  for  the  entire  county  being  138. 

At  a  regular  election  in  August  following,  Arthur  Patterson  was  elected 
Probate  Justice  of  the  Peace;  Lewis  G.  Schenck,  County  Treasurer  and 
Assessor ;  and  a  Mr.  Dennison,  Clerk  of  the  County  Commissioners’  Court. 
The  last  named  soon  resigned,  when  Joseph  Wood  was  elected  to  fill  the 

That  part  of  the  county  east  of  I  ox  River  became  divided  into  four  pre¬ 
cincts  or  election  districts,  called  Abingdon,  Indian  Creek,  Oak  and  Lake. 
The  first  two  were  on  the  west,  and  the  last  two  on  the  east  of  the  Aux  Plaines 

In  June,  1838,  Mr.  Schenck,  as  ex  officio  Assessor,  proceeded  to  assess  the 
taxable  property  of  the  county.  This  was  the  first  assessment  of  property 
in  the  county — being  solely  of  personal  property,  as  all  the  lands  yet  belonged 
to  the  United  States  Government. 

In  the  Fall  of  1838,  the  county  of  McHenry  being  considered  quite  thickly 
settled,  it  was  deemed  advisable  for  convenience  of  the  inhabitants,  in  regard  to 
public  affairs,  that  measures  should  be  taken  for  a  division  into  two  counties. 
Accordingly,  a  petition  to  the  Legislature  was  circulated,  praying  for  such 
division,  in  response  to  which  the  General  Assembly,  at  its  session  of  1838—9, 
passed  an  act  dividing  the  county  of  McHenry  and  creating  therefrom  the 
county  of  Lake,  establishing  its  boundaries  as  follows:  “All  that  portion  of 
McHenry  County  east  of  a  range  or  sectional  line,  not  less  than  three  miles, 
nor  more  than  four  miles  east  of  the  present  county  seat  (McHenry  Village)  of 
McHenry  County,  shall  constitute  a  new  county,  to  be  called  the  county  of 

About  this  time,  an  attempt  was  also  made  to  create  a  new  county,  to  be 
called  the  county  of  Michigan,  out  of  a  portion  of  Cook  and  a  part  of  that 
portion  of  McHenry  lying  on  the  east  of  Fox  River,  so  as  to  bring  the  county 
seat  at  Wheeling,  which,  if  accomplished,  would  defeat  the  plan  of  creating  the 
county  of  Lake  and  render  more  certain  the  continuance  of  the  county  seat  of 
McHenry  County  at  McHenry  Village.  But  the  scheme  was  unsuccessful. 
Joseph  Filkins,  of  Wheeling,  a  prominent  citizen  of  that  day,  was  one  of  the 
principal  movers  in  this  project. 

By  the  act  creating  the  county  of  Lake,  Edward  E.  Hunter  and  William 
Brown,  of  Cook  County,  and  Col.  E.  C.  Berry,  of  Fayette  County,  were 
ap>pojnted  Commissioners  to  locate  the  seat  of  justice.  The  two  first  named 



were  appointed  at  tlie  suggestion  of  the  friends  of  the  measure,  and  Col.  Berry 
was  selected  from  his  thorough  acquaintance  with  the  geography  of  the  county, 
having  a  short  time  previous  been  engaged  in  surveying  the  government  lands 
therein,  under  the  direction  of  the  Surveyor  General. 

The  Commissioners,  or  a  majority  of  them,  were  required  to  meet  at  the 
house  of  Henry  B.  Steele,  at  Independence  Grove  (now  Libertyville),  on  the 
first  Monday  in  May,  1839,  or  as  soon  thereafter  as  might  be  convenient,  and 
after  being  duly  sworn  by  some  Justice  of  the  Peace,  faithfully  to  perform  the 
duties  required  of  them  as  such  Commissioners,  to  proceed  to  locate  the  seat  of 
justice  for  the  new  county,  having  due  regard  to  the  geographical  situation,  the 
settlements  and  convenience  of  the  population  at  that  period,  as  well  as  there¬ 
after.  As  all  the  lands  in  the  county,  at  that  time,  belonged  to  the  govern¬ 
ment,  it  was  required  that  a  relinquishment  should  be  obtained  from  the  claim¬ 
ants  of  the  lands  on  which  the  countv  seat  should  be  located  to  a  tract  not 


less  than  twenty  acres,  for  the  use  and  benefit  of  the  county,  upon  which 
to  erect  the  county  buildings;  and  it  was  made  the  duty  of  the  County  Com¬ 
missioners  to  obtain  a  title  from  the  General  Government  of  said  lot  of  land 
as  soon  as  the  same  could  be  accomplished,  and  they  were  required  to  appro¬ 
priate  from  the  funds  of  the  county  so  much  as  would  be  necessary  for  that 

The  legal  voters  within  the  territory  of  the  new  county  were  required  to 
meet  at  the  several  places  of  holding  the  last  general  election,  under  the  organi¬ 
zation  of  McHenry  County,  on  the  first  Monday  in  August,  1839.  for  the  pur¬ 
pose  of  choosing  county  officers.  The  returns  of  said  election  were  to  be  made 
by  the  Judges  and  Clerks  thereof,  to  the  County  Commissioners'  Court  of  Mc¬ 
Henry  County,  according  to  the  law  in  other  cases,  and  the  Clerk  of  said  Court 
was  required  to  give  certificates  of  election  to  the  officers  elect  of  the  new 

The  new  county  of  Lake  was.  by  this  act,  attached  to  the  Seventh  Judicial 

About  the  1st  of  June,  1839,  two  of  the  Commissioners,  Hunter  and 
Brown,  appointed  to  locate  the  county  seat  met  at  Libertyville,  and  after  a 
brief  deliberation  on  the  subject,  selected  that  place  as  the  location,  and  upon 
conference  with  the  inhabitants,  gave  to  the  new  county  seat  the  name  of  Bur¬ 
lington — being  the  fourth  name  applied  to  the  place  during  that  number  of 
years.  Libertyville  was  probably  at  that  time  nearer  the  center  of  population 
in  the  county  than  any  other  point.  This  fact  rather  induced  a  temporary 
acquiescence  in  the  action  of  the  Commissioners  in  locating  the  county  seat  at 
that  place.  There  was  a  settled  intention,  however,  on  the  part  of  certain 
influential  parties  in  the  vicinity  of  the  lake  shore — the  most  prominent  of 
whom  were  Elmsley  Sunderlin  and  Nelson  Landon — to  try,  as  soon  as  increase 
of  population  and  other  circumstances  would  warrant  it,  and  effect  a  removal  of 
the  countv  seat  to  Little  Fort.  This  scheme  entered  secretlv  into  the  first  elec- 



tion  of  county  officers,  which  occurred  on  the  first  Monday  in  August,  1839. 
The  lesult  of  this  election  was  as  follows  :  Henry  11.  Steele  was  elected  Sheriff: 
Chas.  H.  Bartlett,  Nelson  Landon  and  Jared  Gage,  County  Commissioners  : 
Mathias  Mason,  County  Treasurer;  A.  B.  Wynkoop.  Recorder;  Lewis  <i. 
Schenck,  School  Commissioner;  .John  A.  Mills,  County  Surveyor;  Arthur 
Patterson,  Probate  Justice  of  the  Peace ;  Starr  Titus,  Coroner;  and  Lansing 

B.  Nichols,  Clerk  of  the  County  Commissioners’  Court.  These  were  the  first 
county  officers. 

The  friends  of  Little  Fort  secured  a  portion  of  the  county  officers.  These 
were  Nelson  Landon,  Arthur  Patterson  and  Lansing  B.  Nichols. 

Two  Justices  of  the  Peace  and  two  Constables  were  also  elected  at  the 
same  time,  in  each  precinct.  The  total  number  of  votes  cast  in  the  county 
was  375. 

A  special  term  of  the  County  Commissioners'  Court  was  immediately  called 
and  convened  at  the  county  seat.  At  this  term  the  county  was  divided  into 
eight  precincts,  or  election  districts — Lake,  Oak,  Middlesex,  Burlington,  Mill 
Creek,  Bristol,  Fort  Hill  and  Zurich.  Afterward,  Lake  was  divided,  forming 
a  new  precinct  called  Little  Fort ;  and  Oak  was  divided,  forming  a  new  pre¬ 
cinct  called  Le  Clair,  in  honor  of  Pierre  Le  Clair,  a  French  half-breed  of  influ¬ 
ence  among  the  Indians,  who  lived  for  a  time  at  the  Indian  village  near  the 


mouth  of  Indian  Creek. 

The  subject  of  erecting  county  buildings  was  soon  agitated,  but  it  was 
urged  by  Mr.  Landon,  and  finally  concurred  in  by  the  other  Commissioners, 
that  the  finances  of  the  county  would  not  justify  such  an  undertaking  for 
some  time  to  come.  Whereupon  an  arrangement  was  entered  into  by  the 
County  Commissioners,  with  Burleigh  Hunt,  of  Little  Fort,  for  the  erection 
of  a  suitable  building  at  Independence  Grove,  to  be  rented  to  the  county  for 
a  term  of  years,  for  county  purposes.  The  building  was  completed  during  the 
Fall  of  1839. 

The  first  term  of  the  Circuit  Court  in  Lake  County  was  held  in  the  afore¬ 
said  building  in  April,  1840.  Judge  John  Pierson  presided;  Alonzo  Hunt¬ 
ington  was  present  as  State’s  Attorney ;  A.  B.  Wynkoop,  Clerk,  and  Henry  B. 
Steele,  Sheriff.  The  lawyers  present  were  Horace  Butler,  Nathan  Allen,  W.  W. 
Kellogg,  Charles  McClure,  Grant  Goodrich,  Justin  Butterfield,  J.  L.  Loop, 
and  James  M.  Strode.  The  following  were  the  Grand  and  Petit  Jurors  at  this 
term:  Grand  Jurors — Philip  Blanchard,  Richard  D.  Hickox,  Richard  Archer. 
Rufus  Soules,  David  Wait,  Jonathan  Rice,  Leonard  Loomis,  John  Robinson. 
Abraham  \andewacker,  W.  B.  Wattles,  David  Rich,  Oliver  Booth,  Laomi 
Pearson,  Samuel  Burlingham,  Elmsley  Sunderlin,  George  Thompson,  Hiram 
Clark,  Alexander  Russel,  Zabina  Ford,  John  Olmsby,  Lathrop  Farnham,  Geo. 
A.  Drury,  Moses  Sutton.  Petit  Jurors — Elbert  Howard,  Andrew  Luce. 
Leonard  Spaulding,  Godfrey  Dwelley,  Morris  Robinson,  Daniel  Hubbard,  Levi 
Whitney,  William  Briggs,  Charles  S.  Cary,  Joshua  Leach.  Hiram  Butrick, 



George  Gage,  John  Murray,  Job  W.  Tripp,  Milton  Shields,  Lewis  Beecher. 
William  Ladd,  Ransom  Steele,  Caleb  Davidson,  Malachi  T.  White,  Hezekiah 
Bryant,  Nathaniel  King,  Solomon  Norton,  A.  S.  Wells. 

The  first  civil  case  disposed  of,  being  number  one  on  the  docket,  was  that  of 
Samuel  Hurlbut  vs.  William  Easton.  The  first  criminal  case  was  The  People  vs. 
John  J.  Gatewood,  indicted  for  stealing  five  dollars  from  Absalom  Funk,  a 
drover.  About  this  time  there  was  a  State  Senator  of  note  in  this  State,  whose 
name  was  Gatewood.  The  prisoner,  Avhen  arrested,  manifested  great  surprise, 
and  demanded  an  apology  from  the  officer  for  imposing  on  so  high  a  dignitary, 
announcing  that  his  name  was  Gatewood — Senator  Gatewood.  The  power  of 
this  name,  he  fancied,  would  bring  the  officer  to  terms ;  but  it  failed  to  do  so. 
When  put  on  trial,  he  gave  the  name  of  Shepherd  as  his  real  name.  He  was 
convicted  and  sentenced  to  one  year  in  the  penitentiary. 

At  the  June  term  of  the  County  Commissioners’  Court,  Capt.  Morris 
Robinson  was  appointed  by  the  Court  to  take  the  census  of  the  county, 
by  authority  of  the  State,  enumerating  the  inhabitants  resident  on  the  1st 
of  September  of  that  year.  The  census  was  also  taken  in  the  same  year 
by  Dr.  Richard  Murphy,  by  authority  of  the  LTnited  States,  commencing 
on  the  1st  of  June,  showing  a  population  as  enumerated  by  State  authority 
of  2,905;  by  United  States  authority,  of  2,634 — an  increase  in  three  months 
of  271. 

The  mission  of  Capt.  Robinson  seems,  however,  to  have  been  mostly  that  of 
ascertaining  the  minds  of  the  people  of  the  county  on  the  subject  of  removing 
the  county  seat  from  Liberty ville  to  Little  Fort,  and  exhorting  them  to  favor 
the  project.  At  his  instance,  petitions  to  the  General  Assembly,  praying  for 
such  removal,  were  put  in  circulation  in  every  portion  of  the  county  where  the 
question  was  likely  to  meet  with  the  least  favor,  which  petitions  were  numer¬ 
ously  signed. 

At  the  August  election  for  county  officers  for  this  year,  L.  B.  Nichols  was 
elected  to  the  office  of  Sheriff ;  Thomas  H.  Payne,  County  Commissioner ; 
Henry  B.  Steele,  Clerk  of  the  County  Commissioners'  Court,  and  Joseph 
Wood,  Coroner. 

In  November  following,  came  the  great  Presidential  contest  between  Har¬ 
rison  and  Van  Buren.  The  number  of  votes  polled  in  the  county,  at  this  elec¬ 
tion,  was  548,  giving  a  majority  of  fourteen  votes  for  Harrison. 

The  Legislature  having  convened  on  the  first  Monday  of  December,  Capt. 
Robinson  A\as  selected  by  the  friends  of  Little  Fort  to  attend  its  session,  for  the 
purpose  of  presenting  the  petitions  for  the  removal  of  the  county  seat,  and  using 
his  exertions  in  behalf  of  the  prayer  of  the  petitioners,  AAThich  resulted  in  the  pas¬ 
sage  of  an  act  submitting  the  question  of  removal  to  the  people  of  the  county  on 
the  5th  of  April,  1841;  at  Avhich  election  there  were  744  votes  cast,  showing  a 
majority  of  188  in  favor  of  Little  Fort.  The  county  seat  was,  therefore, 
on  the  13th  day  of  April,  formally  re-located  and  permanently  established 



at  Little  Fort,  on  the  southeast  quarter  of  Section  21.  All  the  county  office^ 
were  removed  accordingly. 

By  an  act  of  Congress,  the  county  would  be  entitled  to  160  acres  of  land 
by  pre-emption,  at  the  place  where  the  county  seat  should  be  located ;  that  is 
to  say,  the  land  upon  which  the  county  seat  of  any  county  should  become  .lo¬ 
cated,  it  being  government  land,  the  county  should  have  the  right  by  pre¬ 
emption  to  enter  160  acres  of  the  same,  tit  the  proper  Land  Office,  by  paying 
|1.25  per  acre.  Accordingly,  such  persons  as  had  any  claims  upon  the  south¬ 
east  quarter  of  Section  21  very  generously  released  them  in  favor  of  the  county. 
About  the  20th  of  April,  1841,  the  land  in  question  was  purchased  at  the  Land 
Office  at  Chicago  by  the  County  Commissioners,  Charles  H.  Bartlett,  Nelson 
Landon  and  Thomas  H.  Payne,  for  the  county  of  Lake,  it  being  the  first  trans¬ 
fer  of  land  in  fee  simple  in  the  county.  It  was  then,  by  order  of  the  Countv 
Commissioners,  subdivided  into  lots  and  blocks  by  the  County  Surveyor,  John 
A.  Mills,  with  the  assistance  of  his  deputy,  George  Gage ;  after  which,  a  sale 
of  the  lots  was  ordered,  sufficient  to  meet  the  expenses  incurred  in  perfecting 
the  title  to  and  surveying  the  land,  which  sale  took  place  on  the  26th  day  of 
May,  1841.  The  terms  of  the  sale  were:  One-fourth  of  the  amount  of  the  pur¬ 
chase  money  in  advance,  and  the  balance  in  three  equal  installments,  in  six. 
twelve  and  eighteen  months. 

At  the  time  of  the  removal  of  the  county  seat,  the  county  had  no  monev 
in  the  treasury  wherewith  to  purchase  the  land  upon  which  the  county  had  be¬ 
come  entitled  to  a  pre-emption.  Elmsley  Sunderlin,  prompted  by  the  interest 
he  felt  in  the  removal  of  the  county  seat,  was  heard  to  remark  on  several  oc¬ 
casions,  that  he  had  just  two  hundred  dollars  in  gold  that  the  county  could  have 
the  use  of,  with  which  to  make  the  purchase,  if  desired.  This  coming  to  the 
knowledge  of  the  County  Commissioners,  they  applied  to  him  and  obtained  the 
money  with  which  the  purchase  was  made. 

The  removal  of  the  county  seat,  as  it  materially  affected  local  interests, 
created  much  feeling  among  the  people  of  the  county,  especially  in  the  sections 
more  immediately  interested.  This  feeling  grew  to  bitterness  among  citizens, 
and  entered  into  the  general  politics  of  the  county.  The  two  great  political 
parties  of  that  day  were  the  Whigs  and  Democrats.  But  in  Lake  County  the 
issues  between  these  parties  were  for  a  time  entirely  ignored,  and  the  county 
seat  question  became  the  all-important  one  at  all  elections.  The  two  factions 
were  styled  “ the  Grove  party,’’  and  “the  Little  Fort  party.”  The  former 
was  confined  mostly  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  southwestern  portion  of  the 
county.  The  policy  of  the  Grove  party  was  to  elect  such  county  officers  as 
were  in  favor  of  delaying  the  erection  of  county  buildings  at  Little  Fort,  and 
would  lend  their  influence  for  removal  of  the  county  seat  back  to  Independence 

Among  other  things,  it  was  claimed,  in  the  interest  of  Liberty ville,  that 
some  defect  in  the  law  or  informality  in  the  proceedings  had  been  discovered 



whereby  the  county  seat  had  not  in  fact  been  legally  removed.  Whereupon 
the  Recorder  of  Deeds,  Mr.  A.  B.  Wynkoop,  holding  to  the  same  opinion, 
caused  his  office  to  be  removed  back.  This  question  was  put  at  rest,  however, 
by  the  passage  of  an  act  at  the  next  session  of  the  Legislature  declaring  the 
county  seat  permanently  located  at  Little  Fort,  on  the  site  selected  by  the 
County  Commissioners. 

The  first  term  of  the  County  Commissioners’  Court,  held  at  Little  Fort,  for 
general  purposes,  was  a  special  session  in  May,  1841.  Commissioners  Landon 
and  Payne  favored  the  location  of  the  county  seat  at  Little  Fort. 

At  the  election  in  August,  following,  Mr.  Landon,  whose  term  of  office 
then  expired,  was  re-elected.  He  thereupon  called  a  special  term  of  the  Com¬ 
missioners’  Court,  at  which  Henry  B.  Steele  was  removed  from  the  office  of 
Clerk  of  the  Court,  on  the  ground  of  not  giving  personal  attention  to  the 
duties  of  the  office,  and  Arthur  Patterson  was  appointed  in  his  stead.  It  was 
subsequently  decided,  in  a  suit  brought  on  the  question,  that  Mr.  Landon  had 
no  authority  to  call  a  special  term  of  the  Commissioners'  Court,  in  manner  as 
he  did ;  that  therefore  the  term  was  illegally  held,  and  Mr.  Steele  was  restored 
to  his  office. 

The  first  term  of  the  Circuit  Court,  held  at  Little  Fort,  convened  on  the 
20th  of  October,  1841.  There  were  present  Hon.  Theo.  W.  Smith.  Judge  pre¬ 
siding  ;  Henry  Brown,  Esq.,  State's  Attorney;  L.  B.  Nichols,  Sheriff:  and 
I.  R.  Gavin,  Clerk.  Among  the  lawyers  present  were  Horace  Butler,  Isaac 
Hopkinson,  Giles  Spring,  Grant  Goodrich,  P.  Ballingall,  J.  M.  Strode,  B.  S- 
Morris,  James  Turney,  C.  B.  Hosmer  and  E.  A.  Rucker. 

About  the  time  of  adjournment  of  the  court  occurred  the  first  instance  of 
burglary  committed  in  the  county.  The  subject  of  this  offense  was  the  store  of 
IT.  Buell  &  Son,  situated  on  the  Milwaukee  road,  about  a  mile  south  of  the 
Aux  Plaines  bridge,  in  the  present  town  of  Warren.  Nearly  the  entire  stock 
of  goods  was  taken  therefrom.  The  property  was  found  secreted  in  the  barn 
of  William  Kellam,  living  some  two  or  three  miles  down  the  road.  Kellam 
and  one  Edward  Allen  were  convicted  of  the  offense  and  sent  to  the  peni- 

At  the  December  term  of  the  Commissioners'  Court,  a  contract  was  entered 
into  with  Burleigh  Hunt  for  the  building  of  a  county  jail,  which  was  completed 
the  ensuing  Summer. 

In  1842-3  occurred  what  is  known  as  the  “Cold  Winter  — the  longest 
and  coldest  remembered  by  the  oldest  inhabitants.  During  the  Winter  the 
county  was  visited  by  that  great  religious  excitement  known  as  Millerism. 

At  the  September  term,  1843,  of  the  County  Commissioners'  Court,  the 
Commissioners  entered  into  contract  with  Benj.  P.  Cahoon,  of  Southport. 
Wisconsin  (nowr  Kenosha),  for  building  a  court  house  The  consideration  was 
the  unsold  lots  and  blocks  in  the  original  town  plat  of  Little  Fort,  belonging  to 
the  county  ;  said  Cahoon  agreeing  to  pay  the  amount  of  outstanding  county 



orders  on  account  of  county  land,  and  the  balance  due  for  county  jail— the  total 
amount  not  to  exceed  $950. 

The  court  house  was  completed  in  the  Fall  of  1844,  in  time  for  the  Fall 
term  of  the  Circuit  Court. 

The  election  for  county  officers,  in  August,  1844,  was  the  last  of  the  con¬ 
test  between  the  two  county  seat  factions. 

In  1844,  a  steam  saw-mill  was  built  at  Lake  Zurich.  It  was  the  first  steam 
-engine  in  the  county  applied  to  any  kind  of  machinery. 

On  the  4th  of  March,  1845,  the  first  number  of  a  newspaper,  entitled  the 
Little  Fort  Porcupine  and  Democratic  Banner ,  was  issued  at  Little  Fort, 
by  N.  W.  Fuller  as  publisher,  and  A.  B.  Wynkoop  as  editor  and  proprietor. 
This  was  the  first  newspaper  published  in  the  county.  It  continued  about  two 
years,  when  its  publication  was  suspended. 

The  Lake  County  Herald ,  by  U.  P.  k  S.  M.  Dowst,  was  the  second  news¬ 
paper  in  the  county.  Its  publication  was  commenced  in  the  Summer  of  1845. 
and  was  continued  for  one  year  only.  It  was  Whig  in  its  politics. 

The  Porcupine  was  succeeded  in  the  Spring  of  1847  by  a  paper  entitled 
the  Lake  County  Visitor ,  N.  W.  Fuller,  publisher,  H.  W.  Blodgett,  editor.  It 
was  neutral  in  politics,  and  continued  only  about  six  months. 

The  Visitor  was  succeeded  by  the  Lake  County  Chronicle ,  the  publication  ot 
which  was  commenced  about  the  1st  of  October,  1847,  by  W.  H.  H.  Tobey 
k  Co.,  publishers,  A.  B.  Tobey,  editor. 

•  During  September,  1847,  a  murder  was  committed  in  the  Goodale  neigh- 
hood,  then  called  Fort  Hill,  which  caused  great  excitement  throughout  the 
county.  In  the  morning,  after  a  ball  at  Goodale’s  Tavern,  on  the  McHenry 
road,  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Grant,  the  lifeless  body  of  one  Silas  Marble 
was  found  in  the  barn-yard,  a  short  distance  from  the  house,  in  a  mangled  con¬ 
dition.  Several  large  clubs  near  by  showed  that  the  death  had  been  caused  by 
violence.  Coroner  Dorsett  was  notified  and  a  jury  summoned,  who  returned  a 
verdict  that  the  death  had  been  caused  by  violence,  and  that  there  was  reason 
to  suspect  that  Joel  B.  Sherman,  Jacob  Sherman  and  Spencer  Miller,  living- 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Fort  Hill,  were  guilty  of  the  murder.  They  were, 
accordingly,  on  the  following  morning  arrested  and  confined  in  jail.  They 
were  subsequently  brought,  on  a  writ  of  habeas  corpus ,  before  Judge  Dickey, 
but  were  remanded,  that  the  matter  might  have  a  further  investigation  at  the 
next  Court,  a  special  term  of  which  was  ordered  to  be  held  in  the  fore  part  of 
December  following,  at  which  they  were  indicted  for  murder  and  put  on  trial. 
They  were  ably  defended  by  J.  J.  Brown,  of  Chicago,  E.  W.  Hoyt  and  II.  W. 
Blodgett,  of  Waukegan,  and  John  T.  Clarke,  of  Antioch.  The  prosecution 
was  conducted  by  Wm.  A.  Boardman,  State’s  Attorney.  After  a  protracted 
trial,  the  accused  were  acquitted.  It  appeared  from  the  evidence  that  the  de¬ 
ceased  was  a  young  man  whose  occupation  had  been  that  of  a  peddler,  traveling 
on  foot  with  tin  trunks,  and  that  in  the  afternoon  of  the  harvest  party  he  was 



in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Shermans,  traveling  in  the  direction  of  Goodale  s. 
He  was  accosted  by  one  of  them  and  invited  to  tarry  awhile,  when  he  could 
ride  up  with  them,  as  they  intended  going  to  the  party  themselves.  He  accord¬ 
ingly  did  so. 

He  was  known  to  have  arrived  at  Goodale’s  in  company  with  Miller  and 
Jacob  Sherman,  whilst  they,  in  company  with  Joel  B.  Sherman,  were  known 
to  have  returned  without  him.  Marble  was  not  seen  in  the  house  after  about 
10  o’clock  in  the  evening.  There  was  also  a  portion  of  the  evening  that 
neither  of  the  accused  could  give  any  satisfactory  account  of  their  whereabouts. 
There  were  also  some  singular  movements  shown  upon  the  part  of  the  Shermans 
during  the  evening,  as  well  as  some  statements  afterward,  on  the  part  of  Miller, 
which  had  a  tendency  to  fasten  suspicion  pretty  firmly  upon  them.  But  there 
was  not  sufficient,  it  seems,  to  convict  them. 

This  was  the  first  prosecution  for  murder  which  occurred  in  Lake  County. 
The  object  of  the  murder  is  supposed  to  have  been  robbery,  as  the  deceased  was 
known  to  have  had  with  him  a  small  sum  of  money,  which  was  missing  when  his 
body  was  found. 

The  subject  of  more  efficient  measures  for  the  support  of  the  poor  of  the 
county  in  time  became  a  matter  of  quite  general  discussion  among  the  people. 
The  propriety  of  purchasing  a  farm  in  some  central  portion  of  the  county,  for  the 
retreat  and  support  of  the  poor,  was  brought  before  the  County  Commissioners 
for  consideration.  The  members  of  the  Board  at  this  time  were  :  Michael  C. 
McGuire,  Alva  Trowbridge  and  Charles  Hall.  At  a  special  term  of  the  County 
Commissioners  Court  in  October,  1847,  a  contract  was  entered  into  by  the  Com¬ 
missioners  in  behalf  of  the  county,  with  Alva  Trowbridge,  one  of  their  number, 
for  the  purchase  of  his  farm  at  Libertvville,  containing  about  190  acres,  to  be 
held  for  the  retreat  and  support  of  the  poor,  for  the  sum  of  $2,025,  including 
some  articles  of  personal  property,  payable  by  installments,  with  interest  on 
deferred  payments. 

This  plan  of  support  of  the  poor  was  found  to  be  more  expensive  than 
had  been  anticipated.  The  purchase  of  the  poor  farm  by  the  Commissioners 
from  a  party  who  was  one  of  their  own  number  became  the  subject  of  much 
criticism  throughout  the  county,  followed  by  a  general  demand  from  the  people 
for  a  sale  of  the  farm.  An  Act  of  the  Legislature  was  therefore  obtained  at 
its  session  in  1851,  submitting  the  question  of  each  township  supporting  its 
own  poor,  and  authorizing  the  county  to  dispose  of  the  'poor  farm ,  which 
resulted  in  favor  of  township  support.  Whereupon,  an  order  was  made  by  the 
Board  of  Supervisors  to  dispose  of  the  farm,  with  the  exception  of  about  40 
acres  upon  which  the  buildings  were  situated,  which  remains  the  property  of 
the  county,  and  is  the  present  county  poor  farm. 

To  say  that  the  conduct  of  the  County  Commisioners,  in  regard  to  the  pur¬ 
chase  of  the  poor  farm,  became  a  subject  of  much  criticism,  is  perhaps  stating 
the  case  in  milder  terms  than  the  facts  will  justify.  The  conduct  of  Mr.  Trow- 





bridge  was  severely  condemned,  and  the  motives  of  Mr.  McGuire  were  openlv 
assailed  as  inspired  by  corruption. 

In  the  Spring  of  1849,  commenced  the  gold  mining  excitement  in  Cali¬ 
fornia.  Hundreds  went  from  Lake  County  to  try  their  fortunes  in  that  far-off 
region ;  among  the  first  of  whom  were  George  Allen  Hibbard,  Isaiah  Marsh, 
George  Ferguson,  D.  H.  Sherman,  William  and  James  Steele,  and  Jacob 
Miller.  Mr.  Hibbard  was  a  young  man  ;  he  left  in  the  fall  of  1848,  being 
the  first  adventurer  in  that  direction  from  Lake  County.  He  joined  Col.  Fre¬ 
mont’s  expedition  at  St.  Louis,  and  perished  in  a  snow  storm  in  the  Rocky 

In  the  Spring  of  1848,  the  citizens  of  Waukegan  commenced  to  agitate  the 
subject  of  constructing  a  plank  road  from  that  place  westward  to  McHenry. 
In  December  following,  a  company  was  organized  and  became  incorporated, 
styled  the  “Lake  and  McHenry  Plank  Road  Association,”  with  authority  to 
construct  a  turnpike  or  plank  causeway  from  Waukegan  to  the  east  line  of  Mc¬ 
Henry  County,  on  the  route  of  the  Belvidere  road.  The  first  Directors  were 
John  Gage,  John  A.  Tyrrell,  and  Elmsley  Sunderlin. 

This  company  proceeded  and  constructed  about  15  miles  of  plank  road  on 
what  is  now  the  traveled  road  from  Waukegan  to  McHenry.  There  were  three 
toll-gates  on  the  road:  one  near  the  present  city  limits  of  Waukegan,  one  at 
Gage’s  Corners,  and  one  at  Hainesville.  The  experiment  proved  a  failure,  and 
the  road  in  a  few  years  was  abandoned.  The  tolls  received  were  not  sufficient  to 
keep  it  in  repair. 

About  the  1st  of  August,  1849,  the  publication  of  a  newspaper  was  com¬ 
menced  at  Waukegan,  styled  the  Waukegan  Free  Democrat.  John  Henderson 
was  publisher,  and  N.  W.  Fuller,  editor.  It  continued  about  six  months. 

At  the  general  election  in  November,  1849,  the  question  of  adopting  town¬ 
ship  organization  was  submitted  to  a  vote  of  the  people.  The  vote  was  as  fol¬ 
lows  :  For  township  organization,  1692  ;  against  it,  3. 

The  election  being  in  favor  of  township  organization,  Col.  J.  Moulton, 
Michael  Dulanty  and  E.  M.  Haines  were  appointed  Commissioners  to  divide 
the  county  into  towns.  A  division  was  made  in  accordance  with  the  Congres¬ 
sional  Townships  of  the  county,  except  fractional  Township  46,  Range  9,  which 
was  attached  to  the  township  on  the  east. 

On  the  first  Tuesday  in  April  following  (1850),  the  first  town  meeting  was 
held  in  each  township  in  the  county,  at  which  the  first  town  officers  were 
elected  and  the  towns  fully  organized. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors  was  in  special  session,  at  the 
Court  House,  in  Waukegan,  April  22,  1850.  The  following  were  the  members 
of  the  Board  for  the  several  towns:  Harrison  P.  Nelson,  from  the  town  of 
Antioch;  John  Gage,  Avon;  Harrison  L.  Putnam,  Benton;  Philetus  Beverly, 
Cuba;  Caleb  Cadwell,  Deerfield ;  Stephen  Bennett,  Ela;  Hurlbut  Swan,  Fre¬ 
mont;  Chester  Hamilton,  Goodale  ;  William  Crane,  Liberty ville ;  John  Reid, 




Newport;  Michael  C.  McGuire,  Shields ;  James  Moore,  Vernon ;  Peter  Mills, 
Wauconda  ;  H.  Whitney,  Warren;  Jas.  B.  Gorton,  Waukegan. 

In  October,  1850,  Nathan  C.  Geer  commenced  the  publication  of  theWau- 
kegan  Gazette,  at  Waukegan,  which  has  been  continued  to  the  present  time, 
without  interruption. 

In  1851,  a  movement  was  commenced  by  several  leading  citizens  of  the 
county  for  the  formation  of  a  society  for  the  promotion  and  encouragement  of 
the  interests  of  agriculture.  For  this  purpose  a  public  meeting  was  called  and 
held  at  the  Court  House  in  Waukegan,  October  15,  1851.  John  Gage  was 
chosen  Chairman,  and  Nathan  C.  Geer,  Secretary.  Whereupon  it  was  resolved 
to  organize  a  county  agricultural  society.  A  constitution  was  adopted,  and  the 
following  persons  enrolled  as  members  :  John  Gage,  Nathan  C.  Geer,  R.  H. 
French,  John  Easton,  Hurlbut  Swan,  B.  C.  Drury,  Thos.  H.  Payne,  Wm. 
Easton,  N.  Vose,  Geo.  A.  Drury,  David  Gilmore,  H.  P.  Nelson,  I.  L.  Clarke, 
D.  C.  Steele,  M.  Hoffman,  I.  R.  Webb,  S.  P.  Stratton,  L.  G.  Schenck,  Leon¬ 
ard  Gage,  Jonathan  Drury,  Moses  Esty,  N.  B.  Crocker,  0.  H.  Risley,  P.  G. 
Moulton,  E.  D.  Ferry,  J.  C.  Bloom,  Joseph  Wells,  I.  H.  Smith,  Daniel  Mar¬ 
tin,  E.  W.  Bull,  John  Robertson,  Oran  Ott,  George  Ela,  Augustus  Granger, 
Andrew  Cook,  Dr,  J.  H.  Foster,  Philoman  Cadwell,  J.  H.  Payne,  Elisha  Grid- 
ley,  Levi  Stafford,  Edwin  Cadwell,  Samuel  L.  Wood,  Alfred  Wood,  Sheldon. 
Wood,  J.  S.  Wheeler,  T.  D.  Whitmore,  Philip  Blanchard,  Dr.  L.  D.  Gage, 
Charles  Webb,  Charles  Haynes,  James  Whitmore,  A.  S.  Kellogg,  James  Camp¬ 
bell,  A.  0.  Swan,  Asa  Pratt,  N.  P.  Dowst,  S.  M.  Dowst,  James  Moore,  J.  H. 
Swan,  Lyman  Field,  Wm.  C.  Howrard,  E.  M.  Haynes,  Loyal  Cadwell,  R.  Ik 
White,  H.  M.  Hutchinson,  C.  C.  Parks,  Philander  Stewart,  Melvin  C.  Hamil¬ 
ton,  Chester  Hamilton — in  all  69  members. 

On  the  same  day,  the  members  of  the  society  proceeded  and  elected  the 
following  officers  for  the  ensuing  year  :  John  Gage,  President ;  H.  P.  Nelson, 
John  Easton,  Vice  Presidents ;  Nathan  C.  Geer,  Secretary ;  S.  M.  Dowst, 
Treasurer;  Hurlbut  Swan,  Nelson  Landon,  Thos.  H.  Payne,  Elisha  Gridley, 
Philoman  Cadwell,  Executive  Committee. 

The  first  county  fair  held  under  the  direction  of  the  society  was  held  in 
Waukegan,  on  Wednesday,  September  22,  1852.  The  Treasurer’s  report 
shows  the  receipts  and  disbursements  of  the  society  for  the  first  year  to  be  as 
follows  :  Amount  received  for  membership,  #77.50 ;  received  for  admission  fees 
at  the  fair,  #75  ;  total  receipts,  #152.50.  Expenses  attending  the  fair,  #66.59  ; 
amount  paid  for  premiums,  #28 ;  other  expenses,  #63.50 ;  total  expenses, 
#158.09.  The  report  of  the  Treasurer,  in  1876,  showed  the  receipts  of  the 
society  for  the  year  preceding  to  be  #910  ;  amount  paid  for  premiums,  #586.31. 
The  officers  for  the  present  year — 1877 — are  as  follows  :  Edwin  Wilson,  Presi¬ 
dent ;  Stebbins  Ford,  O.  P.  Putnam,  Vice  Presidents  ;  S.  I.  Bradbury,  Secre¬ 
tary  ;  E.  W.  Parkhurst,  Treasurer  ;  E.  P.  Phillips,  Wm.  Ragan,  Albert  Kapple., 
George  Gridley,  C.  B.  Easton,  Executive  Committee. 



In  1851,  an  act  was  passed  to  incorporate  a  company  for  constructing  a 
railroad  from  Chicago  to  the  State  line  in  the  direction  of  Milwaukee  by  wav 
of  Waukegan.  ’  y  y 

A  company  was  organized  under  this  act  in  1852,  and  commenced  the  work 
of  building  the  road,  the  following  summer,  known  as  the  Chicago  &  Milwau¬ 
kee  Railroad.  It  was  completed  to  Milwaukee  in  1854,  and  is  now  one  of  the 
lines  of  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern  Railway,  passing  through  the  towns  of 
Highland  Park,  Highwood,  Lake  Forest  and  Waukegan.  Several  other  lines 
•  of  railroad  have  since  been  projected  through  the  county,  but  none  have  suc¬ 
ceeded  except  a  branch  of  the  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  Railroad,  passing  through 
the  town  of  Deerfield,  and  up  the  Aux  Plaines  River  to  the  State  line;  except 
also  a  branch  of  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern,  called  the  Wisconsin  Branch, 
which  passes  through  the  town  of  Cuba  diagonally,  in  the  southwestern 
coinei  of  the  county.  This  latter  line  of  road,  at  the  commencement  of  its 
construction,  was  called  the  Illinois  &  Wisconsin  Railroad.  The  name  was 
afterward  changed  to  the  Chicago,  St,  Paul  &  Fond  du  Lac  Railroad.  The 
company  became  re-organized  under  the  management  of  Wm.  B.  Ogden,  one 
of  the  principal  stockholders,  and  the  name  was  changed  to  the  Chicago  & 
Northwestern  Railroad.  For  some  time  thereafter  it  was  the  main  line  of  that 
now  extensive  combination  of  railroad  lines  known  as  the  Chicago  &  North¬ 
western  Railway. 

The  construction  of  the  line  of  railroad  known  as  the  Milwaukee  <fc  St. 
Paul  Railroad,  before  mentioned,  was  commenced  in  1872,  and  completed  so 
that  trains  commenced  running  in  January,  1873.  The  stations  on  the  line  of 
this  road  in  Lake  County  are  as  follows  :  Deerfield  and  Lancaster,  in  the  town¬ 
ship  of  Deerfield ;  Libertyville,  in  the  township  of  that  name ;  Warrenton  and 
Gurnee,  in  the  township  of  Warren;  Wadsworth  and  Russell,  in  the  township 
of  Newport. 

At  all  stations  where  agents  are  in  charge,  there  are  telegraph  and  express 
offices,  usually  operated  by  the  station  agents,  and  a  large  amount  of  general 
business  is  done. 

The  passenger  business  and  freight  traffic  on  this  line  of  road,  between 
Chicago  and  Milwaukee,  has  grown  to  quite  large  proportions,  as  will  appear 
from  the  following  statistics,  taken  from  the  report  of  the  business  done  at  the 
stations  in  Lake  County  named  below,  for  the  space  of  one  year : 


Receipts  for  the  year  ending  August  31,  1877  : 

For  Freight . $1,450  96 

For  Tickets .  1,673  85 

For  Express .  425  ]Q 

Total . . . $3,549  91 

Forwarded  Freight,  2,155,280  lbs. 
Charges  on  Express  forwarded,  $1,028.50. 




Receipts  for  the  year  ending  August  31,  1877  : 

For  Freight  received . .  67 

For  Freight  forwarded . 

For  Tickets .  1,010  10 

Total . .  43 

The  total  weight  of  freight  for  1877  was  2,991,822  pounds. 

The  total  of  business  for  1876  was  $2,929.28 ;  showing  an  increase  for  the  year  1877  of 


When  it  is  remembered  that  these  are  new  places — points  which  had  no 

particular  existence  before  the  railroad  was  built — it  must  be  acknowledged  that 
the  showing  is  excellent,  and  may  be  taken  as  a  fair  augury  of  what  these  sta¬ 
tions  and  others  along  the  line  will  be  in  the  course  of  time.  They  are  situated 
in  the  midst  of  as  excellent  a  farming  country  as  there  is  in  the  Northwest,  and 

are  surrounded  by  intelligent  and  enterprising  communities. 

In  regard  to  the  business  of  the  Chicago  k  Northwestern  Railway  in  Lake 
County,  the  following  statement,  compiled  from  the  best  information  that  can 
be  obtained,  shows  the  passenger  business  from  following  stations  for  fiscal 
year  ending  May  31,  1877. 

No.  Passengers 

Highland  Park . 21,518 

Lake  Forest . 21,184 

Rockland .  940 

Waukegan . 28,906 

State  Line .  688 


$  7,016  27 
7,828  55 
437  31 
17,989  60 
507  28 

No.  Passengers.  Amount. 

Ravinia  .  690  13  <  05 

Highwood  .  2,870  680  40 

Glen  Flora .  60  28  55 

Benton .  215  92  00 

The  newspapers  of  Lake  County,  up  to  the  present  time,  in  addition  to 
those  already  mentioned,  all  of  which  were  published  in  aukegan,  are  a>  fol¬ 
lows :  The  Freeman's  Advocate ,  by  John  Gentzel,  which  commenced  in  Feb¬ 
ruary,  1854,  and  continued  about  a  year,  when  it  was  sold  to  S.  I.  Bradbury 
and  E.  S.  Ingalls,  who  had  about  the  same  time  also  purchased  the  Lake  County 
Chronicle.  They  combined  these  two  papers  together  under  the  title  of  the 
Chronicle  and  Advocate ,  which  name  was  afterward  changed  to  the  Indepen¬ 
dent  Democrat.  The  publication  of  this  paper  was  suspended  about  the  begin¬ 
ning  of  the  year  1857. 

In  1856,  the  publication  of  a  paper  was  commenced,  called  the  Northwest- 
ern  Orient ,  by  J.  C.  Smith  and  Ira  Porter,  as  editors,  and  J.  N.  Brundage,  as 
publisher.  This  was  succeeded  by  a  paper  called  the  Excelsior ,  by  the  same 
parties.  This  paper,  after  a  time,  was  discontinued,  and  in  January,  1859,  the 
publication  of  a  paper  was  commenced  by  Fuller  k:  Bailey,  entitled  the  Lake 
County  Citizen.  Mr.  Fuller  was  the  same  person  who  was  editor  of  the  Po/cu- 
pine ,  established,  as  has  been  stated,  in  1845.  The  publication  of  this  paper 
was  continued  for  about  a  year,  when  it  was  suspended,  and  a  paper  was  staited 
by  S.  I.  Bradbury,  called  the  Lake  County  Democrat ,  which  was  continued 
until  about  the  1st  of  June,  1861,  when  it  was  suspended.  Its  publication  was 
resumed  by  Mr.  Bradbury,  in  1866,  under  the  title  of  the  Lake  County  Patriot , 
the  publication  of  which  is  still  continued. 





This  town  is  composed  of  Township  46,  north  Range  10  east,  and  that  part 
of  Township  46,  north  Range  9,  lying  on  the  west,  belonging  to  Lake  County 

being  four  miles  in  width,  making  the  whole  length  of  the  town  10  miles  bv  6 
in  width.  ’  J 

The  first  permanent  claims  of  Government  lands  made  in  this  town  were 
made  in  the  month  of  December,  1836,  by  D.  B.  Gage,  Thomas  Q.  Gage  and 
Thomas  Warner.  The  first  house  built  within  the  limits  of  the  town  was  built 
in  April,  1837,  by  D.  B.  and  Thomas  Q.  Gage,  on  the  north  side  of  the  creek 
in  the  present  village  of  Antioch.  The  second  was  built  by  Thomas  Warner 
near  Loon  Lake,  in  the  month  of  June  of  the  same  year.  These  persons  had 
located  themselves  temporarily  at  Walker’s  bridge,  on  th<*  Des  Plaines  River  in 
Cook  County.  In  December,  1836,  they  followed  up  th%  river  on  an  Indian 
trail,  to  Mill  Creek,  from  whence  they  proceeded  westward  tt  Loon  Lake  where 
they  made  a  claim  and  put  up  a  log  cabin,  from  whence,  after  a  few  days,  they 
proceeded  on  their  return,  by  way  of  the  Maquonago  trail,  which  was  a  trail 
diverging  from  the  great  Milwaukee  trail  at  a  point  near  the  mouth  0f  Indian 
Creek,  where  formerly  had  been  an  Indian  village,  and  running  from  *hence 
northwesterly  to  an  Indian  village  in  Wisconsin,  called  Maquonago. 

Being  late  in  December,  the  weather  had  become  severely  cold  and  boister¬ 
ous.  They  found  the  trail  much  obstructed  by  fallen  trees,  and,  being  unac¬ 
quainted  with  the  route,  their  progress  was  slow,  in  consequence  of  which  they 
came  near  freezing  to  death,  but  finally  succeeded  in  reaching  the  house  of 
Willard  Jones,  at  Jones’  Point,  about  thirteen  miles  from  Loon  Lake. 

The  early  settlers  of  this  town  were  D.  B.  Gage,  Thomas  Warner,  Thomas 
Q.  Gage,  Henry  Rector,  William  Fagher,  Robert  Stalker,  E.  F.  Ingalls,  Loami 
Piersons,  E.  S.  Ingalls,  H.  P.  Nelson,  H.  Nichols,  Charles  0.  McClellen,  F. 
F.  Munson,  Parnell  Munson,  Leland  Cook  and  Hiram  Butrick. 

The  first  town  meeting  held  in  this  town  under  township  organization  was 
held  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850,  at  the  tavern  of  D.  B.  Gage,  in  the 
village  of  Antioch.  Dr.  L.  D.  Gage  was  chosen  Moderator,  and  Eli  S.  Derby, 
Clerk.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the  town  officers  elected  at  this  meeting:  Har¬ 
rison  P.  Nelson,  Supervisor;  Eli  Gage,  Town  Clerk;  Thomas  Webb,  Assessor  ; 
John  H.  Elliott,  Collector  ;  Chas.  AVebb  and  Robert  K.  Colls,  Justices  of  the 
Peace  ;  Ira  Webb,  A.  B.  Paddock  and  E.  C.  Stephens,  Commissioners  of  High¬ 
ways  ;  Robert  Pollock,  Overseer  of  Poor;  John  H.  Elliott  and  Albert  Webb, 
Constables.  The  number  of  votes  cast  at  this  town  meeting  was  145. 

The  assessed  value  of  property  in  this  town  for  1850,  including  both  real 
and  personal,  was  $88,904.  The  amount  of  tax  on  the  same  for  all  purposes 
was  $1,744.51. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  the  year  1877  is  $399,484. 



village  of  Antioch,  in  this  township,  acquired  considerable  local  noto- 

Re5pthe  beginning,  from  the  numerous  attempts  made  to  adopt  a  name.  In 
^/northern  part  of  the  township  is  a  small  stream  flowing  from  the  lakes  on 
the  east,  westward  into  Fox  River.  Darius  and  Thomas  Gage,  as  before  men¬ 
tioned,  built  their  houses  near  this  creek,  at  the  crossing  of  the  Maquonago 
trail,  and  named  it  Sequoit  Creek.  They  were  attracted  here  on  account  of  the 
mill  site  the  stream  apparently  afforded  at  this  point.  A  saw-mill  was  soon 
after  built  here  by  Hiram  Butrick  (1839).  This,  with  other  inducements,  drew 
into  the  vicinity  mechanics  of  various  kinds,  the  first  being  Eleazer  F.  Ingalls, 
blacksmith.  The  first  store  of  goods  was  opened  by  F.  F.  Munson.  The  place 
finally  taking  rank  as  a  village,  an  attempt  was  made  to  agree  upon  a  name. 
It  was  situated  in  what  wars  then  called  Bristol  Precinct.  It  was  therefore  pro¬ 
posed  to  call  the  village  by  that  name,  but  without  effect.  Among  the  first 
settlers — prominent  among  whom  was  Wm.  F.  Shepard — a  large  proportion 
belonged  to  the  sect  of  Religionists  called  Christians,  or  Disciples,  otherwise 
known  as  Campbellites,  who  were  generally  very  zealous  in  church  matters. 
Whereupon  the  wags  of  the  neighborhood  who  were  not  of  this  church,  rather 
in  a  spirit  of  ridicule,  suggested  various  Scripture  names  for  the  place.  Among 
them  Jericho  and  Joppa.  Finally,  during  a  general  assembly  of  the  church  at 
that  place,  it  was  agreed  to  take  the  suggestion  of  their  mischievous  neighbors 
and  adopt  a  Scripture  name,  and  that  it  should  be  Antioch — the  place  where 
the  Disciples  were  first  called  Christians.  A  general  acquiescence  followed,  and 
the  place  became  known  by  that  name. 

In  1846,  a  Post  Office  was  established  here,  called  Antioch,  and  Doctor 
Leroy  D.  Gage  appointed  Postmaster. 

When  the  present  town  was  laid  off  for  township  organization,  in  January, 
1850,  the  inhabitants  were  called  upon  by  the  Commissioners  to  express  their 
wishes  as  to  the  name.  At  a  meeting  for  that  purpose,  Antioch  and  Windsor 
were  proposed.  The  former  received  a  majority  of  the  votes  cast,  and  the 
town  was  so  named. 

The  villages  in  this  township  are  Antioch  and  Millburn. 

The  village  of  Antioch  is  not  incorporated,  and  therefore  has  no  fixed 
boundaries.  The  population  of  wdiat  is  properly  considered  the  village  is  about 

Millburn  is  situated  in  the  southeast  part  of  the  township,  near  the  north 
branch  of  Mill  Creek,  on  the  line  between  Antioch  and  Newport,  a  portion  of 
the  village  lying  in  Newport.  The  country  about  here  was  known  in  early 
days  as  the  Mill  Creek  Settlement.  The  place  where  Millburn  now  is  was 
known  as  Strang’s  neighborhood.  A  Post  Office  was  established  here  in 
February,  1848,  and  Robert  Strang  appointed  Postmaster.  It  wTas  called 
Millburn,  as  the  Scotch  word,  it  is  said,  for  Mill  Creek,  Mr.  Strang  and 
most  of  his  neighbors — by  whom  the  name  was  suggested — being  of  that 



The  first  school  taught  in  Antioch  was  by  Welcome  Jilson,  in  1843.  It 
was  in  a  room  over  the  store  of  F.  F.  Munson,  at  Antioch  Village. 

Antioch,  like  most  other  towns  of  the  county,  has  had  its  marked  charac¬ 
ters  who  are  remembered  for  the  part  they  have  borne  or  places  they  filled  in 
its  early  history.  Daniel  Head,  who  settled  in  Antioch  and  opened  a  store  of 
goods  there  about  the  year  1843,  was  of  this  class.  He  continued  to  increase 
his  stock  from  year  to  year,  and  soon  built  up  a  large  and  profitable  business. 
He  made  the  place  the  center  of  trade  for  the  country  around  for  a  distance  of 
ten  to  fifteen  miles.  Everybody  knew  Dan  Head,  as  he  was  generally  called. 
Everybody  traded  at  his  store.  Indeed,  there  was  no  reason  why  they  should 
not,  for  he  gave  credit  to  every  one  who  applied,  almost  without  distinction  or 
lefeience  to  their  pecuniary  standing.  He  sold  his  goods  at  a  large  profit,  and 
generally  obtained  his  pay  in  the  end.  The  result  was  he  made  money,  and 
became  rich.  He  was  a  man  of  generous  impulses,  and  never  oppressed  his 
debtors.  He  afterward  removed  to  Kenosha  to  engage  in  wider  fields  of  opera¬ 
tion,  where  he  still  resides  as  one  of  the  wealthy  and  substantial  men  of  the 

John  T.  Clark  was  another  marked  character  of  this  town  in  early  days,  but 
whose  name  has,  at  this  time,  been  nearly  forgotton.  He  was  a  lawyer  bv  pro¬ 
fession,  and  settled  in  Antioch  Village  about  the  year  1844.  He  first  came 
into  notice  as  a  lawyer,  in  that  vicinity,  in  the  trial  of  a  suit  before  a  Justice 
of  the  Peace,  just  over  the  State  line,  in  Wisconsin,  a  short  time  previous  to 
settling  in  Antioch.  At  the  time  of  this  occurrence,  as  the  story  goes,  he  was 
working  in  the  harvest  field  as  a  common  hand,  coarsely  clad,  and  a  stranger 
in  the  neighborhood.  On  hearing  that  a  contested  law-suit  was  about  to  take 
place  in  the  vicinity,  he  w’as  heard  to  remark  that  lie  was  a  lawyer  himself, 
stating  that  he  studied  law  in  the  office  of  Judge  Flandreau,  who  was  an  emi¬ 
nent  lawyer  of  Utica,  N.  Y.  The  result  was  that  he  became  employed  by  the 
defendant  to  attend  to  the  case  on  his  behalf.  He  managed  the  suit  with  so 
much  vigor  and  earnestness,  and  assumed  such  great  knowledge  of  the  law, 
there  being  no  one  present  able  to  dispute  his  assertions,  that  he  gained  a  de¬ 
cision  of  the  case  in  favor  of  his  client.  Thereupon  his  fame  spread  over  the 
country  to  a  great  distance  around  as  “a  very  smart  lawyer  ”  just  from  the  East, 
who  had  studied  law  with  Judge  Flandreau.  He  was  invited  by  Daniel  Head 
and  others  to  come  and  settle  in  Antioch  and  devote  himself  to  his  profession, 
which  he  did,  it  being  the  only  village  or  center  of  trade  in  that  part  of  the 

On  one  occasion,  Clark  was  employed  to  go  down  and  attend  a  law-suit  be¬ 
fore  Levi  Marble,  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  at  Fort  Hill,  where  his  fame  had 
preceded  him.  His  library  consisted  of  the  Statutes  of  Illinois,  Cowen’s 
Treatise,  and  a  copy  of  Oilman’s  Digest  of  the  Reports  of  Indiana  and  Illinois. 
These  he  carried  with  him  tied  up  in  a  piece  of  common  white  cotton  cloth, 
making  a  package  of  convenient  size  to  carry  in  his  hand,  by  taking  hold  of 



the  knot  where  the  ends  were  tied.  In  those  days,  the  country  being  sparsely 
settled,  the  roads  were  not  very  plainly  marked,  whereby  Clark,  when  near 
Squaw  Creek,  lost  his  way.  The  hour  for  the  trial  of  his  cause  was  approach¬ 
ing  and  he  was  in  much  trouble.  He  hastened  to  a  house  in  sight,  being  that 
of  Elisha  Andrews,  to  enquire  the  way.  He  knocked  at  the  door  hastily, 
which  was  answered  by  the  voice  of  Mrs.  Andrews,  “  come  in.”  He  opened 
the  door  hurriedly  and  in  a  breathless  manner  proceeded,  “  Madam,  can  you 
tell  me  the  way  to  ’Squire  Marble’s?”  Mrs.  Andrews,  who  was  an  honest- 
hearted  and  rather  unsophisticated  woman,  noticing  the  peculiar  package  which 
he  carried  in  his  hand,  mistook  him  for  a  peddler,  and  without  answering  his  en¬ 
quiry,  responded,  “lam  so  glad  to  see  a  peddler  coming ;  I  have  been  out  of 
thread  for  this  two  weeks.”  Without  apparently  noticing  her  remark,  Clark 
in  an  impatient  tone  repeated  his  enquiry.  But  Mrs.  Andrews,  who  had  suf¬ 
fered  inconvenience  so  long  for  want  of  thread,  and  not  wishing  to  lose  an  op¬ 
portunity  of  supplying  herself,  without  heeding  Clark’s  enquiry,  rejoined, 
“  Have  you  got  any  spool  thread,  number  sixty  ?  ”  Clark  saw,  much  to  his 
chagrin,  that  the  woman’s  impression  as  to  his  calling  was  fixed,  and  that  he 
had  no  way  out  of  it  but  to  frankly  inform  her  of  her  mistake ;  says  he, 
44  Madam,  I  am  not  a  peddler ;  I  am  a  lawyer  from  Antioch ;  I  am  going  to 
Esquire  Marble’s  to  attend  to  a  law-suit ;  I  am  behind  time  and  want  to  get 
there  as  soon  as  possible ;  can  you  tell  me  the  way?”  Mrs.  Andrews,  after  ex¬ 
pressing  her  regret  that  he  was  not  a  peddler,  stepped  to  the  door  and  pointed 
out  the  way. 

With  all  his  self-assurance  in  conducting  a  law-suit,  Clark  was  a  man  of  a 
sensitive  nature.  He  wTas  sedate  and  candid  in  his  demeanor  and  could  never 
enjoy  nor  indulge  in  a  joke,  especially  at  his  own  expense.  This  occurrence 
mistaking  him  for  a  peddler — becoming  generally  known,  gave  him  much  annoy¬ 
ance,  the  more  so  for  occurring,  as  it  did,  in  a  neighborhood  where  his  fame 
had  reached  as  a  44  smart  lawyer.” 

The  first  religious  meeting  in  the  town  w*as  in  the  summer  of  1839,  in  the 
newly  finished  barn  of  Darius  B.  Gage,  in  the  village  of  Antioch,  being  then 
the  only  building  in  that  part  of  the  country  of  capacity  sufficient  for  a  public 
meeting.  It  wTas  conducted  by  two  Elders  of  the  Christian  Church,  named 
Young  and  Davenport,  from  Kentucky.  At  this  meeting,  a  church  organiza¬ 
tion  wras  formed,  consisting  of  about  fifty  members. 

A  Baptist  Church  was  organized  in  the  village  about  the  year  1862,  with 
about  twenty-five  members,  Rev.  Mr.  Stimpson,  Pastor.  A  house  of  worship 
was  built  during  this  year. 

A  house  of  worship  was  built  by  the  Christian  Church  organization,  in  1863. 
This  church  has  now  about  one  hundred  members.  Elder  T.  Johnson  is  the 
present  preacher. 

In  Antioch  Township,  aside  the  village,  are  now  the  following  churches  and 
church  organizations: 



The  First  Congregational  Church,  of  Millburn,  organized  in  September. 
1841,  by  Rev.  Flavel  Bascom,  acting  at  the  time  as  agent  of  the  American 
Home  Missionary  Society. 

The  following  persons  constituted  the  original  members  :  William  Abbott, 
Mark  Pitman,  Jr.,  Merrill  Pearson,  Robert  Pollock,  George  Trotter,  Samuel  M. 
Dowst,  Alexander  Kennedy,  Eliza  F.  B.  Abbott,  Harriet  Pitman,  Lydia  Pear¬ 
son,  Elizabeth  Pollock,  Jane  Trotter,  Mary  Thayer,  Abigail  Berry.  Samuel  M. 
Dowst  was  chosen  Deacon  and  Clerk.  Rev.  E.  G.  Howe  supplied  the  congre¬ 
gation  as  Pastor,  a  part  of  the  time,  for  two  years  from  that  date.  He  was  suc¬ 
ceeded  by  Rev.  Lucius  Parker,  who  supplied  the  congregation  until  July,  1844. 
At  that  time,  Rev.  William  B.  Dodge  commenced  to  supply,  and,  at  the  close 
of  a  year,  received  a  call  to  become  their  pastor,  which  he  accepted  on  condi¬ 
tion  that  a  house  of  worship  should  be  built  before  he  was  installed,  which  was 
accordingly  done.  On  the  first  of  June,  1847,  the  house  was  dedicated,  and 
Mr.  Dodge  was  installed  as  Pastor.  He  continued  in  that  relation  until  De¬ 
cember,  1862,  when,  at  his  own  request,  he  was  relieved.  Rev.  Calvin  Selden 
Supplied  from  January,  1863,  until  May,  1864,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Rev. 
H.  Bross  as  Pastor.  He  has  recently  been  succeeded  by  Rev.  Mr.  Bingham, 
w’ho  is  the  present  Pastor. 

Under  the  ministry  of  their  Pastor,  Rev.  Wm.  B.  Dodge,  the  membership 
of  the  church  was  increased  from  sixteen  to  seventy-two,  and  now  numbers 
about  one  hundred  members. 

.  The  first  church  building  or  house  of  worship  was  built  in  what  is  now  the 
village  of  Millburn,  in  the  Township  of  Antioch,  but  near  the  line  of  Newport; 
the  members  residing  in  the  four  towns  of  Antioch,  Newport,  Warren  and 
Avon.  The  present  house  of  worship  was  built  in  1866,  and  opened  for  public 
worship  on  the  first  Sabbath  in  1877.  Rev.  W.  B.  Dodge,  generally  known  as 
“Father  Dodge,”  was  one  of  the  landmarks  in  the  history  of  the  Protestant 
Church  in  Lake  County.  He  was  also  active  in  the  Anti-Slavery  movement, 
and  noted  for  his  zeal  in  the  Anti-Slavery  cause.  He  died  a  few  years  since, 
at  his  home  in  Millburn,  respected  by  all  who  knew  him. 


This  town,  as  a  Congressional  Township,  is  known  as  Township  45,  north 
Range  10,  east  of  the  3d  P.  M.  The  first  claim  of  Government  land  made  in 
this  town  was  by  a  man  by  the  name  of  Taylor,  in  the  Summer  of  1835,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  lake,  since  known  as  Taylor’s  Lake.  He  built  a  log  cabin 
during  that  year,  in  the  edge  of  the  woods,  south  of  the  site  of  the  present 
school  house  at  Avon  Centre,  and  commenced  the  work  of  a  more  commodious 
log  dwelling.  He  left  in  the  Fall  of  that  year,  and  never  returned,  but  con¬ 
tinued  to  hold  his  claim  until  1837,  when  he  sold  it  to  Leonard  Gage. 



The  early  settlers  of  this  township  were  Noer  Potter  and  sons,  Churchill 
Edwards,  Delazan  E.  Haines,  Harley  H.  Hendee,  David  Hendee,  David  Rich, 
Levi  Marble,  George  Thompson,  Thomas  Renehan,  Leonard  Gage,  Thomas 
Welsh,  A.  F.  Miltimore,  Lawrence  Forvor,  Freeman  Bridge,  Nathaniel  King 
and  William  Gray. 

Gray’s  Lake  takes  its  name  from  William  Gray,  who  settled  at  an  early  day 
on  the  south  side  of  the  lake.  That  chain  of  lakes,  sometimes  called  First, 
Second,  Third  and  Fourth  Lakes,  were  originally  known  as  Gage’s  Lakes, 
from  Leonard  and  George  Gage,  who  were  the  first  settlers  in  the  vicinity, 
near  the  present  east  line  of  the  town. 

The  first  school  house  in  this  town  was  a  log  building,  of  hewn  logs,  and 
built  by  contribution  of  the  inhabitants,  in  the  southwest  corner  of  the  town, 
about  the  year  1841,  on  the  present  McHenry  road,  at  the  crossing  of  the  north 
and  south  road  on  the  quarter  section  line,  which  became  known  as  the  Marble 
School  House,  from  Levi  Marble,  who  lived  near  by  immediately  on  the  west. 
The  first  school  in  town  was  taught  in  this  building.  It  is  believed  that  a  Mrs. 
Hankins  was  the  first  teacher. 

The  old  building  has  been  superseded  by  the  present  frame  structure,  stand¬ 
ing  on  the  same  site. 

The  first  Post  Office  in  this  town  was  the  Fort  Hill  Post  Office.  It  was  origi¬ 
nally  established  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Fremont.  About  1840,  it  was 
removed  to  the  house  of  Levi  Marble,  in  the  southwest  corner  of  the  town,  who 
was  appointed  Postmaster. 

In  February,  1846,  a  Post  Office  was  established  at  Hainesville,  under  that 
name,  and  Elijah  M.  Haines  appointed  Postmaster.  In  the  Spring  following, 
Mr.  Haines,  the  original  proprietor  of  the  land,  laid  out  and  recorded  the  town 
plat  of  Hainesville. 

About  the  year  1850,  a  saw-mill  was  built  on  Squaw  Creek,  in  the 
western  part  of  the  town,  by  Nahum  White,  which  was  in  successful  opera¬ 
tion  for  many  years. 

In  deciding  upon  a  name  for  this  township  there  was  a  spirited  contest.  A 
petition  numerously  signed  by  inhabitants  of  the  township  was  presented  to 
the  Commissioners  having  the  matter  in  charge,  asking  that  the  name  of  the 
town  should  be  Hainesville.  To  this  a  remonstrance  was  filed  by  Freeman 
Bridge,  Leonard  Gage,  George  Thompson  and  Samuel  L.  Emery,  who  pro¬ 
posed  the  name  of  Eureka,  whereupon  the  matter  was  referred  to  the  inhabitants 
of  the  township  for  a  further  expression  of  their  wishes,  when,  at  a  meeting 
held  Jan.  21,  1850,  at  the  school  house  near  Leonard  Gage’s,  mrw  Avon  Centre. 
Avon  was  proposed  and  agreed  to  as  the  name  of  the  town.  It  was  according¬ 
ly  so  named  by  the  Commissioners. 

At  the  session  of  the  Legislature  of  1846-7,  an  act  was  passed  incorporat¬ 
ing  the  village  of  Hainesville.  In  the  Spring  following,  it  became  organized  by 
virtue  of  said  act,  as  a  town  corporate,  being  the  first  village  incorporated  in 



Lake  County.  The  act  of  incorporation  provided,  among  other  things,  that  no 
road  should  be  established  within  the  limits  of  the  town  corporate,  without  the 
concurrence  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  thereof.  There  were  rival  points  both 
on  the  east  and  west  on  the  same  line  of  road.  The  endeavor  of  those  places 
was  to  effect  a  vacation  of  the  road  passing  through  Hainesville,  and  locate  it 
further  south,  and  thereby  destroy  the  place.  The  real  object  of  the  incorpora¬ 
tion  of  this  place  was  to  obtain  the  power  to  prevent  the  design  of  its  enemies 
from  being  carried  into  effect,  which  succeeded,  and  the  place  continued  undis¬ 
turbed.  Indeed,  the  rivals  in  question  in  time  disappeared. 

Hainesville  is  at  the  present  time  a  flourishing  village  of  about  two  hun¬ 
dred  inhabitants.  It  has  two  stores  and  various  kinds  of  mechanics  found  in  a 
country  village.  The  inhabitants  have  manifested  their  public  spirit  by  the 
erection,  recently,  of  a  commodious  building,  having  a  publich  all  fitted  up  for 
public  assemblies  and  entertainments. 

In  the  northwestern  part  of  this  township  is  a  small  village  called  Mona- 
ville.  It  was  originally  called  Barnes’  Corners,  taking  the  name  of  an  early 
settler  at  that  point.  There  is  a  Post  Office  here,  called  Fox  Lake,  and  it  is  a 
point  of  considerable  trade. 

Among  the  incidents  in  the  early  history  of  this  township,  which  may 
properly  be  noted  here,  is  one  which  occurred  in  the  Winter  of  1843,  known  as 
the  cold  winter,  during  what  is  known  as  the  great  Millerite  excitement.  It 
had  been  proclaimed  by  Mr.  Miller  that  according  to  the  prophecies  of  the 
Scriptures,  as  he  had  computed  the  time,  the  world  was  to  come  to  an  end  on  a 
given  day  in  March,  1843.  The  only  building  in  the  country  for  some  distance 
around  suitable  for  holding  public  meetings  was  the  school  house  known  as 
Marble  s  School  House,  hereinbefore  mentioned.  During  this  excitement,  relig¬ 
ious  meetings  were  held  in  this  school  house  almost  nightly.  During  the  time 
of  these  meetings  a  hen’s  egg  was  taken  from  a  nest,  with  others,  on  the  prem¬ 
ises  of  Chauncey  King,  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  place  of  the  meetings, 
upon  which  was  this  inscription  in  raised  letters  of  the  same  composition  as  the 
shell:  “ Time  ends  1843.”  This  strange  phenomenon  was  the  cause  of  much 
excitement  and  alarm  in  the  neighborhood,  and  became  the  subject  of  quite  a 
discussion  at  one  of  the  evening  meetings,  at  which  it  had  been  produced  by 
Mr.  King.  Many  seemed  ready  to  receive  it  as  one  of  the  “signs  of  the 
times,”  and  conceded  it  was  a  forerunner  of  the  end  of  time  and  the  destruction 
of  the  world.  No  one  present  could  account  for  the  manner  in  which  these 
letters  had  been  caused  to  appear  upon  it.  At  length  it  was  suggested  by  a 
person  present,  who  seemed  to  possess  rather  more  sagacity  than  the  balance  of 
the  audience,  that  in  his  opinion  the  inscription  was  a  matter  of  art  and  noth¬ 
ing  more;  that  he  believed  he  could  himself  prepare  an  egg  upon  which  the 
letters  would  appear  in  the  same  manner  ;  and  on  his  return  home  would  make 
the  trial,  and  if  he  succeeded,  he  would  produce  it  at  the  meeting  on  the  follow¬ 
ing  evening. 



He  accordingly  made  the  experiment  as  agreed.  The  words  “  Repent  and 
be  Baptized”  were  marked  with  oil  upon  the  shell.  The  egg  was  then  put 
into  strong  vinegar,  when,  after  remaining  a  time,  the  surface  of  the  shell  was 
found  to  be  decomposing,  but  the  acid  had  no  effect  upon  that  portion  where 
the  oil  had  been  applied,  consequently  it  left  the  form  of  the  letters  perfect — 
raised  out  from  the  shell  in  such  a  manner  as  to  give  the  appearance  of  being 
so  formed  in  nature.  This,  on  being  presented  to  the  meeting,  needed  no 
explanation  or  comment.  The  humbug  was  exploded,  to  the  chagrin  of  very 
many  who  had  believed  in  it. 

The  exhibition  of  this  egg  produced  such  an  effect  upon  the  mind  of  an  old 
man  in  the  neighborhood  that  he  hastened  home  to  prepare  for  the  event  which 
he  declared  he  was  satisfied  was  near  at  hand.  He  had  been  for  some  time  in 
difficulty  with  several  of  his  neighbors,  all  of  whom  he  summoned  to  his  house 
and  confessed  his  wrong  to  them,  adding  that  his  life  had  been  one  of  trans¬ 
gression — which  no  one  could  dispute — adding  that  he  desired  to  make  suitable 
amends  as  far  as  he  could  during  the  short  period  that  he  would  be  allowed  to 
remain  on  earth.  He  asked  them  to  state  terms  of  adjustment,  to  which  he 
would  accede.  Settlements  were  effected  except  in  one  instance,  which  was 
postponed  to  a  day  fixed  for  the  presence  and  concurrence  of  an  absent  party. 
But  before  that  day  arrived,  eggs  with  like  prophetic  inscriptions  became  com¬ 
mon  in  the  neighborhood,  whereby  it  was  disclosed  that  the  letters  were 
produced  by  artificial  means,  as  before  stated.  At  the  appointed  time,  however, 
the  aggrieved  party  appeared  according  to  understanding.  As  soon  as  they 
entered  the  house,  the  old  man  sprang  toward  them,  and  with  much  earnestness, 
shaking  his  fist  in  that  direction,  said:  “That  egg  business  is  all  a  consummate 
humbug,  and  I’ll  have  nothing  to  do  with  you  or  your  settlement ;  get  out  of 
my  house  or  I’ll  sue  you  for  trespass.” 

Levi  Marble  was  the  first  Justice  of  the  Peace  who  served  in  what  is  now 
the  town  of  Avon.  He  was  first  elected  in  1839,  and  continued  in  office  by 
re-election  without  interruption  for  about  thirty  years. 

George  Thompson,  who  was  his  near  neighbor,  where  he  still  resides,  was 
the  advocate  for  suitors  in  Justice  Marble’s  court  from  the  time  of  his  first 
election  while  he  continued  in  office,  and  still  continues  as  the  local  practi¬ 
tioner  at  the  bar  in  that  vicinity. 

The  first  town  meeting  in  this  town  was  convened  at  the  hotel  in  the  village 
of  Hainesville,  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850.  Nahum  White  was  chosen 
Moderator,  and  Leonard  Gage,  Clerk,  at  which  the  following  persons  were 
elected  town  officers :  John  Gage,  Supervisor  ;  Orville  Slusser,  Town  Clerk  ; 
James  Kapple,  Overseer  of  Poor ;  Caleb  Arnold,  Loonard  Gage  and  Robert 
Carroll,  Commissioners  of  Highways;  Levi  Marble  and  W.  B.  Dodge,  Justices 
of  the  Peace;  John  Salisbury,  Collector;  John  Salisbury  and  Robert  D.  Gordon, 
Constables ;  Freeman  Bridge,  Assessor.  The  number  of  votes  cast  at  this  town 
meeting  was  128. 



The  assessed  value  of  property  n  this  town  for  1850,  including  both  real  and 
personal,  was  $80,266.00.  The  amount  of  tax  on  the  same  was  $1,037.23. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  real  and  personal  property  of  the  town  for  the 
year  1877  is  $304,934. 

The  first  minister  of  the  Gospel  who  settled  in  this  township  was  Rev. 
James  Kapple,  a  Congregationalist,  who  came  in  the  Summer  of  1842,  and 
settled  on  what  was  afterward  the  McHenry  road,  on  the  east  of  George  Thomp¬ 
son’s.  There  was  no  congregation  or  society  of  that  denomination  in  the  town, 
hut  he  preached  in  the  school  houses  in  different  parts  of  the  town,  whenever 
and  wherever  an  audience  would  come  together.  He  usually  preached  at  the 
Marble  School  House  and  at  Hainesville.  He  was  liberal  as  to  his  religious 
views,  and  everybody  wTent  to  hear  him  preach  out  of  personal  respect. 

A  church  of  the  Disciples  of  Christ,  otherwise  called  Campbellites,  was 
organized  in  this  town,  at  Marble  School  House,  January  12, 1850;  J.  L.  Cor- 
rell  and  A.  R.  Knox  were  elected  Elders,  J.  L.  Correll  being  designated  as 
preacher.  There  were  fifteen  persons  who  united  with  the  church  at  their  or¬ 
ganization,  as  follows:  J.  L.  Correll  and  Mary  J.,  his  wife;  A.  R.  Knox  and 
Augusta  J.,  his  wife;  Chester  Hamilton  and  wife,  Dayton  Gilbert  and  wife, 
Wm.  Dalzell  and  wife,  Nahum  White  and  wife,  Abner  Marble  and  wife,  James 
Wickham  and  wife,  Samuel  Waldo  and  Otis  Marble.  In  December,  1853, 
the  church  numbered  forty-one  members,  many  of  whom  have  since  died.  In 
the  next  three  years  there  were  forty-three  added  to  the  church,  and  the  num¬ 
ber  added  continued  to  increase  from  year  to  year  thereafter. 

In  1866,  a  church  edifice  or  house  of  worship  was  built  at  the  four  corners 
of  the  roads  north  of  Squaw  Creek,  near  Nahum  White’s.  It  is  thirty-two  by 
fifty  feet,  with  gallery,  and  will  seat  about  four  hundred  persons ;  it  cost  about 
$3,000.  The  present  preacher  is  Elder  Joseph  Owen.  The  church  at  this 
time  is  said  to  be  in  a  prosperous  condition.  They  have  meetings  once  in  two 
weeks,  and  good  congregations.  Elder  Owen  is  doing  much  by  example,  as 
well  as  by  preaching. 

In  1850,  the  Methodists  met  at  the  school  house  at  Gray's  Lake,  under  the 
direction  of  Rev.  Francis  Reed,  and  formed  a  class  of  fourteen  members.  They 
have  continued  to  increase  in  numbers,  and  have  held  service  from  year  to  year 
at  the  various  school  houses  in  the  town  until  1876,  when  a  fine  house  of 
worship  was  built  on  the  Antioch  road,  near  Lozell  Monger's. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  the  first  members  of  the  class  formed  as 
aforesaid :  Rebecca  Vandemark,  Nancy  Whitney,  D.  C.  Lewis,  Abigail  Lewis, 
Laura  A.  Lewis,  S.  E.  Vandemark,  Henry  Vandemark,  Mary  Vandemark, 
Lorenzo  Adams,  Chloe  Adams,  Lydia  Lindsey,  Minerva  Dimmick,  O.  II.  Craw¬ 
ford,  Lucinda  Crawford. 




This,  as  a  Congressional  township,  is  Fractional  Township  46,  north  Range 
12  east,  and  is  the  northeast  township  in  the  county. 

The  early  settlers  of  this  township  were  Nelson  Landon,  Jeremiah  Stowell, 
Hanson  Minsky,  Henry  I.  Paddock,  Philo  Paddock,  Jeremiah  Porter,  John  R. 
Nichols,  Chester  Butterfield,  Samuel  P.  Ransom,  Rev.  Salmon  Stebbins,  Ed¬ 
ward  Putnam,  Sr.,  and  Oren  Jerome.  Nelson  Landon  was  the  first  settler 
and  built  the  first  house  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Benton.  He  came  in  the 
Fall  of  1835,  and  built  a  habitation  on  the  ridge  about  a  mile  south  of  the 
State  line,  on  land  which  he  still  owns.  Mrs.  Landon  was  the  first  white 
woman  that  came  into  the  town  as  an  inhabitant. 

As  an  instance  showing  the  price  of  provisions  at  that  day,  Mr.  Landon 
states  that  during  the  Winter  of  1835-6,  he  paid  the  following  prices :  For 
flour,  §35  per  barrel;  for  pork,  §25  per  barrel :  for  butter,  50  cents  per  pound ; 
for  potatoes,  §3.50  per  bushel ;  and  for  other  articles  of  provisions,  in  pro¬ 

The  name  of  Benton  wai  given  to  this  town  in  honor  of  Thomas  H.  Ben¬ 
ton,  at  that  day  one  of  the  leading  statesmen  of  the  Union.  No  formal  expres¬ 
sion  of  the  inhabitants,  as  to  the  name  of  the  town,  was  called  for  by  the  Com¬ 
missioners  having  the  matter  of  laying  off  and  naming  the  towns  in  charge. 
Col.  Moulton,  one  of  the  Commissioners  who  resided  in  the  town,  suggested 
the  name  of  Benton,  and  stated  that  it  would  be  satisfactory  to  the  inhabitants, 
and  it  was  adopted  by  the  Commissioners  as  the  name  of  the  town. 

The  town  of  Benton  is  a  district  of  country  not  very  prolific  in  historical 

events.  It  is  strictly  a  rural  town.  It  has  no  village  in  it,  nor  collection  of 

houses  that  may  be  called  such  ;  nor  has  it  a  store,  tavern,  grocery  or  public 

building  of  any  kind  within  its  limits,  save  its  churches  and  school  houses. 

Some  thirty  years  ago,  there  was  a  tavern  in  the  western  part  of  the  town,  kept 

by  Ezra  Newell,  at  the  forks  of  the  Milwaukee  road,  about  two  miles  north  of 
the  town  line.  Probably  but  few  persons  now  living  remember  this  fact. 

In  the  progress  of  its  history,  this  town  has  had  its  noted  and  prominent 
characters,  some  of  whom  demand  here  a  passing  notice.  Nelson  Landon,  who 
has  been  mentioned  as  the  first  settler  in  the  town,  who  became  one  of  the  wealth¬ 
iest  men  in  the  county,  was  for  several  years  prominent  as  a  County  Commis¬ 
sioner,  and  as  a  leading  spirit  in  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  to  Little  Fort. 
To  him  the  credit  of  success  in  this  movement  is  largely  due. 

Capt.  Morris  Robinson,  who  has  been  mentioned  as  prominent  in  the  removal 
of  the  county  seat,  wTas  in  early  days  an  inhabitant  of  this  town.  He  was  a 
marked  man,  and  a  person  of  much  native  capacity.  In  point  of  intellect,  he 
was  a  sort  of  “  rough  diamond,’’  but  without  much  moral  culture.  He  was  a 
sailor  by  profession.  In  1835,  he  was  Captain  of  a  schooner  called  the  “  Hiram,5' 



which  that  year  brought  lumber  and  other  freight  to  Kenosha,  Wis.,  then  called 
Pike  Creek.  About  the  same  time,  or  perhaps  the  next  year,  he  landed  lumber 
at  a  place  called  Boughton’s  Landing,  near  the  State  line,  some  six  or  eight 
miles  south  of  Pike  Creek.  He  was  put  forward  by  Elmsley  Sunderlin  and 
other  leaders  in  the  county  seat  question  to  work  up  public  sentiment  in  favor 
of  Little  Fort,  and  to  devise  plans  of  operation  to  effect  the  removal  to  that 
place.  He  proved  equal  to  the  emergency,  and  sustained  his  reputation  as  a 
man  of  sagacity  and  ability.  He  claimed,  however,  in  after  years,  that  his 
labors  were  never  rewarded,  and  died  disheartened— cursing  those  whom  he 
alleged  had  been  faithless  to  their  engagements. 

Henry  I.  Paddock,  who  is  mentioned  as  one  of  the  early  settlers  in  this 
town,  was  noted  for  his  eccentricities.  He  never  filled  any  public  position,  but 
was  generally  out  on  public  occasions,  and  attracted  attention  for  his  oddity  and 
native  wit.  He  was  a  man  without  education ;  of  a  genial  and  humorous 
nature  ;  a  kind-hearted  neighbor,  and  a  true  friend.  He  was  noted  as  a  horse- 
trader,  in  which  he  excelled  from  his  excellent  judgment  in  horses.  His  wife, 
whose  name  was  Rachel,  was  a  woman  of  strong  mind  and  considerable  ambi¬ 
tion.  In  some  respects,  she  was  perhaps  his  superior.  In  most  matters  of 
business,  he  submitted  to  her  opinions.  Whenever  she  interposed,  so  much 
so  that  it  became  a  matter  of  general  remark  in  the  neighborhood;  this,  in¬ 
stead  of  being  a  source  of  humiliation,  he  seemed  rather  to  enjoy  ;  at  least 
he  accepted  the  situation.  In  his  intercourse  with  others,  his  manner  was 
jovial  and  humorous,  and  whatever  the  occasion,  in  referring  to  himself,  or  in 
advancing  an  opinion,  he  would  style  himself  “  Rachel,”  or  give  it  as  the 
opinion  of  Rachel. 

The  first  town  meeting  in  this  town  was  held  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April, 
1850,  at  the  school  house  near  B.  T.  Cook  s.  ,  Chester  Butterfield  was  chosen 
Moderator,  and  A.  Q.  D.  Beach,  Clerk.  The  first  town  officers  elected  were  as 
follows:  For  Supervisor,  H.  L.  Putnam;  Town  Clerk,  A.  Q.  D.  Leach; 
Assessor,  Calvin  Truesdell ;  Collector,  C.  Burlington  ;  Commissioners  of  High- 
ways,  J.  M.  Moore,  J.  W.  Bacon,  C.  Butler  ;  Overseer  of  the  Poor,  Chester 
Butterfield ;  Justices  of  the  Peace,  E.  H.  Ellis  and  L.  W.  Bull ;  Constables, 

A.  Gr.  Buell  and  P.  H.  Paddock.  The  number  of  votes  cast  at  this  town  meet¬ 
ing  was  86. 

The  total  assessed  valuation  of  property  in  this  town,  for  the  year  1850, 
including  both  real  and  personal,  was  $81,711.  The  amount  of  tax  computed 
on  the  same  was  $1,234.10.  The  total  assessed  valuation  of  property  in  the 
town  for  the  year  1877  was  $251,800. 

The  first  school  taught  in  this  town  was  at  the  house  of  Rev.  Salmon  Steb- 
bins,  on  the  Milwaukee  road,  a  short  distance  north  of  Newell’s  tavern,  before 
mentioned,  in  the  year  1840,  by  Miss  Emily  Stebbins.  The  expense  was  borne 
by  the  patrons  of  the  school,  as  was  the  case  with  all  other  schools  in  the  county 
in  early  days. 



The  first  post  office  in  this  town  was  called  Otsego.  It  was  originally  estab¬ 
lished  at  what  is  known  as  the  Yew  York  House,  then  a  public  house  kept  by 
Jeremiah  Porter,  in  what  is  now  the  township  of  Waukegan.  Mr.  Porter  was 
from  Otsego  County  in  the  State  of  Yew  York,  and  when  this  post  office  was 
established,  he,  having  the  privilege  of  giving  its  name,  gave  it  the  name  of 
Otsego  in  remembrance  of  the  county  from  which  he  had  emigrated.  The  office 
was  afterward  removed  into  the  town  of  Benton.  This  was  the  only  post  office 
in  the  county  east  of  the  Aux  Plaines  River,  until  that  established  at  Little  Fort 
in  1841.  It  was  on  the  stage  road  from  Chicago  to  Milwaukee  as  then  traveled. 
In  May,  1851,  a  post  office  was  established  on  the  Sand  Ridge  road,  in  the  east 
part  of  the  town,  called  Wellington,  and  Peter  Lown  appointed  Postmaster. 
This  road  had  then  become  the  stage  route  from  Chicago  to  Milwaukee.  After 
the  county  seat  was  located  at  Little  Fort,  the  route  of  this  stage  line,  which  had 
formerly  run  by  way  of  the  Yew  York  House  and  thence  by  way  of  South  Port 
(now  Kenosha),  was  changed  to  run  by  Little  Fort,  to  supply  the  mail  at  that 

The  Otsego  and  Wellington  post  offices  were  discontinued  several  years  since. 
A  post  office  has  lately  been  established  on  the  railroad  at  the  State  line  station 
called  Spring  Bluff,  being  now  the  only  post  office  in  town. 

The  first  school  house  built  in  the  town  was  a  log  building,  on  or  near  the 
site  of  what  was  afterward  known  as  Howe's  School  House.  It  was  built,  as 
were  all  the  school  houses  in  the  county  in  early  davs,  by  contribution  of  the 
inhabitants.  It  was  erected  about  the  year  1841. 

Rev.  Salmon  Stebbins  was  the  first  minister  of  the  Gospel  who  settled  and 
preached  in  this  town.  He  was  of  the  Methodist  denomination,  and  came  in 
1837.  He  was  a  marked  man,  and  a  preacher  of  great  power.  He  was  one 
of  the  pioneer  ministers  in  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  in  Yorthern  Illi¬ 
nois,  traveling  and  extending  his  labors  over  a  large  district  of  country.  In 
those  days  church  edifices  were  rare ;  the  religious  meetings  were  generally 
held  in  school  houses,  indeed,  every  school  house  was  occupied  as  a  house  of 
worship.  School  houses,  even,  for  many  years  were  few  and  far  between,  all 
being  built  by  private  subscription.  It  was  the  custom  of  Elder  Stebbins,  in 
traveling  over  the  country  from  point  to  point,  whenever  he  came  to  a  school 
house  to  stop  in  the  neighborhood  and  invite  the  inhabitants  to  assemble  and 
listen  to  a  discourse.  Preaching  being  rare,  and  the  Elder  being  a  man  of 
impressive  manner,  he  scarcely  ever  failed  to  obtain  an  audience.  The  Elder 
is  still  living,  at  an  advanced  age,  in  the  enjoyment  of  health,  at  a  place  called 
Pikeville,  in  the  southern  part  of  Kenosha  County,  Mis.,  near  the  State  line. 

The  first  religious  organization  in  this  town  was  the  formation  of  a  class  by 
members  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  at  the  house  of  Rev.  Samuel 
Stebbins,  in  the  year  1838,  under  his  direction. 

In  1842,  the  membership  had  increased  to  about  one  hundred,  out  of  which, 
about  the  beginning  of  the  year  1843,  three  classes  were  formed.  This  divi- 


■' v- 

i  -V  '  ■'■■  ■■'■■.■  .:^' 













sion  of  the  class  was  agreed  to  and  arranged  at  a  meeting  at  the  school  house 
heretofore  mentioned,  being  the  usual  place  of  holding  their  meetings.  The 
classes  thus  formed  were  located  for  public  worship  as  follows:  One  at  North 
Prairie,  one  at  the  school  house  on  the  Sand  Ridge,  called  Dickertown,  while 
the  third  remained  at  their  usual  place  of  holding  meetings. 

During  the  Millerite  excitement  in  the  Winter  of  1842-3,  the  school  house 
before  mentioned  was  constantly  occupied  for  religious  meetings.  It  was  the 
center  of  this  great  excitement  in  Lake  County.  The  audience  increased  to 
that  extent  that  it  was  found  necessary  to  enlarge  the  building  for  the  accom¬ 
modation  of  the  increased  number  of  attendants. 

A  Baptist  Church  was  afterward  organized,  and  held  meetings  in  this  build¬ 
ing.  In  1849,  the  congregation  built  a  house  of  worship  in  the  vicinity,  being 
the  first  church  edifice  built  in  the  town. 

In  1868,  the  Methodists  built  a  house  of  worship  on  the  Sand  Ridge  at 
Dickertown,  and  another  at  North  Prairie  in  1870. 


This  town  lies  in  the  southwest  corner  of  the  county,  and  is  bounded  on 
the  north  by  Wauconda,  on  the  east  by  Ela,  on  the  south  by  Cook  County,  and 
on  the  west  by  McHenry  County.  It  is  one  of  those  fractional  townships  upon 
the  west  line  of  the  county,  being  one  only  four  miles  in  width,  and  six  miles 
in  length.  It  is  watered  by  Fox  River  and  Flint  Creek,  and  several  small 
rivulets,  besides  one  or  two  small  ponds.  Flint  Creek  takes  its  name  from 
Amos  Flint,  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  this  township,  who  settled  upon  the 
banks  of  this  stream. 

As  a  Congressional  Township,  it  is  numbered  Township  43,  North  Range  4 
East.  The  early  settlers  of  this  town  were  Olcott  A.  White,  Joshua  A.  Harn- 
don,  John  Aylesworth,  Y.  H.  Freeman,  Amos  Flint,  L.  H.  Bute,  Robert 
Conmee,  Robert  Bennet,  Jared  Comstock  and  Freeman  Martin.  Amos  Flint 
was  the  first  settler,  and  built  the  first  house  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Cuba, 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1834,  as  is  said.  It  was  on  Section  10,  on  Flint 
Creek,  which  takes  its  name  from  him,  as  before  stated,  near  where  the 
stream  empties  into  Fox  River.  The  route  of  travel  for  the  army  and 
those  connected  with  the  military  and  Indian  service,  from  Chicago  to  Fort 
Winnebago  in  Wisconsin,  in  early  days,  about  1831,  passed  through  or  near  the 
southwest  portion  of  this  town,  crossing  Fox  River  above  what  is  now  Algon¬ 
quin,  and  near  what  was  afterward  Denney’s  Ferry. 

Mrs.  J.  H.  Kinzie,  in  her  book  entitled  Wau-bun,  or  the  Early  Day  in  the 
Northwest,  gives  an  interesting  account  of  a  trip  over  this  route,  from  Chicago 
to  Fort  Winnebago,  with  her  husband  and  members  of  their  family  and  guides, 
in  the  Summer  of  1831.  Mr.  Kinzie  was  at  this  time  the  Government  Agent 



of  the  Winnebago  Indians,  and  was  going  to  Fort  Winnebago  in  discharge  of 
his  duties.  In  describing  the  journey,  after  crossing  the  Aux  Plaines,  she  says  : 

44  One  afternoon’s  ride  was  over  a  prairie  stretching  away  to  the  northeast. 
No  living  creature  was  to  be  seen  upon  its  broad  expanse,  but  flying  and 
circling  over  our  heads  were  innumerable  flocks  of  curlews. 

44  The  accelerated  pace  of  our  horses  as  we  approached  a  beautiful  wooded 
knoll  warned  us  that  this  was  to  be  our  place  of  repose  for  the  night.  These 
animals  seem  to  know  by  instinct  a  favorable  encamping  ground,  and  this  was 
one  of  the  most  lovely  imaginable. 

44  The  ground  around  was  carpeted  with  flowers ;  we  could  not  bear  to  have 
them  crushed  by  the  felling  of  a  tree  and  the  pitching  of  our  tents  among  them. 
The  birds  sent  forth  their  sweetest  notes  in  the  warm,  lingering  sunshine  ;  and 
the  opening  buds  of  the  young  hickory  and  sassafras  filled  the  air  with  perfume. 

44  Nothing  could  be  more  perfect  than  our  enjoyment  of  this  sylvan  and  beau¬ 
tiful  retreat  (afterward  known  as  Dunkley’s  Grove),  after  our  ride  in  the  glow¬ 
ing  sun.  The  children  were  in  ecstacies.  They  delighted  to  find  ways  of  mak¬ 
ing  themselves  useful — to  pile  up  the  saddles,  to  break  boughs  for  the  fire,  to 
fill  the  little  kettles  with  water  for  Petaille  and  Lecuyer,  the  Frenchmen,  who 
were  preparing  our  supper.” 

In  reference  to  pursuing  their  journey  the  next  morning,  Mrs.  Kinzie  con¬ 
tinues  : 

44  It  was  the  work  of  a  very  short  half  hour  to  strike  and  pack  the  tent,  stow 
away  the  mats  and  kettles,  saddle  the  horses  and  mount  for  our  journey. 

44  Lieut.  Foster  had  left  us  early  in  the  morning,  feeling  it  necessary  to 
rejoin  his  command;  and,  now  having  seen  us  ready  to  set  off,  with  a  serene 
sky  above  us,  and  all  things  4  right  and  tight  ’  for  the  journey,  our  friend,  the 
Sag-an-nash  (4  Englishman,’  Billy  Caldwell,  a  Pottawattomie  Chief),  took  leave 
of  us,  and  retraced  his  steps  toward  Chicago. 

“  We  pursued  our  way  through  a  lovely  country  of  alternate  glade  and  for¬ 
est,  until  we  reached  the  Fox  River.  The  current  ran  clear  and  rippling  along, 
and  as  we  descended  the  steep  bank  to  the  water,  the  question,  so  natural  to  a 
traveler  in  an  unknown  region,  presented  itself :  4  Is  it  fordable  ?  ’ 

44  Petaille,  to  whom  the  ground  was  familiar,  had  not  yet  made  his  appear¬ 
ance.  Lecuyer  was  quite  ignorant  upon  the  subject.  The  troops  had  evidently 
preceded  us  by  this  trail  sure  ;  but  they  were  on  horseback.  The  difficulty  was, 
could  we  get  the  carriage  through  ?  It  must  be  remembered  that  the  doubt  was 
not  about  the  depth  of  the  water,  but  about  the  hardness  of  the  bottom  of  the 

44  It  was  agreed  that  two  or  three  of  the  equestrians  should  make  the  first 
trial.  My  mother,  Lecuyer  and  myself  advanced  cautiously  across  to  the  opposite 
bank,  each  choosing  a  different  point  for  leaving  the  water,  in  order  to  find  the 
firmest  spot.  The  bottom  was  hard  and  firm  until  we  came  near  the  shore,  then 
it  yielded  a  little.  With  one  step,  however,  we  were  each  on  dry  ground. 



“  ‘  Esfc-il  bien  ?  ’  called  my  husband,  who  was  driving. 

44  4  Oui,  Monsieur.’ 

u  4  Yes,  John,  come  just  here  ;  it  is  perfectly  good  !  ’ 

4  4  4  No,  no — go  a  little  further  down.  See  the  white  gravel  just  there— it 
will  be  firmer  still  there !  ’ 

44  Such  were  the  contradictory  directions  given.  He  chose  the  latter,  and 
when  it  wanted  but  one  step  more  to  the  bank  down  sunk  both  horses,  until 
little  more  than  their  backs  were  visible. 

44  The  white  gravel  proved  to  be  a  bed  of  treacherous  yellow  clay,  which, 
gleaming  through  the  water,  had  caused  so  unfortunate  a  deception.” 

44  Here  was  a  predicament !  A  few  hours  before,  we  had  thought  ourselves 
uncomfortable  enough,  because  some  of  our  horses  were  missing.  Now,  a 
greater  evil  had  befallen  us.  The  wagon  was  in  the  river,  the  harness  cut  to 
pieces,  and  what  was  worse,  carried  off  in  the  most  independent  manner  by  Tom 
and  his  companion ;  the  pole  was  twisted  to  pieces,  and  there  was  not  so  much 
as  a  stick  on  that  side  of  the  river  with  which  to  replace  it. 

“  At  this  moment,  a  whoop  from  the  opposite  bank,  echoed  by  two  or  three 
hearty  ones  from  our  party,  announced  the  reappearance  of  Petaille  Grignon. 
He  dismounted,  and  took  charge  of  the  horses,  who  were  resting  themselves 
after  their  fatigues  under  a  shady  tree,  and  by  this  time  Lecuyer  had  crossed 
the  river  and  now  joined  him  in  bringing  back  the  delinquents. 

44  The  first  thing  wTas  to  cut  a  new  pole  for  the  wagon  ;  and  for  this,  master 
and  men  must  recross  the  river  and  choose  an  iron  tire  out  of  the  forest.” 

Mrs.  Kinzie,  after  relating  the  manner  of  repairing  the  wagon  and  harness, 
adds  : 

44  So  great  had  been  the  delay  occasioned  by  all  those  untoward  circum¬ 
stances,  that  our  afternoon’s  ride  was  but  a  short  one,  bringing  us  no  further  than 
the  shores  of  a  beautiful  sheet  of  water,  now  known  as  Crystal  Lake.  Its  clear 
surface  was  covered  with  loons  and  ponies  d'eau,  a  species  of  rail,  with  which 
at  certain  seasons,  this  region  abounds.” 

The  points  mentioned,  and  circumstances  detailed  in  this  narrative,  tend  to 
show  that  the  route  between  Chicago  and  Fort  Winnebago,  at  that  day,  must 
have  passed  over,  or  at  least  near  the  southwestern  part  of  wriat  is  now  the 
town  of  Cuba.  This  conclusion  is  reached  from  the  fact  that  the  point  of  cross¬ 
ing  Fox  River  would,  as  a  natural  consequence,  be  in  or  somewhere  near  the 
line  between  Dunkley’s  Grove  and  Crystal  Lake.  The  circumstance  mentioned 
of  the  west  bank  of  the  river  being  clear  of  timber,  while  the  east  bank  was 
wooded — the  party  having  to  return  to  the  east  side  to  obtain  a  suitable  stick 
for  a  wagon  pole — shows  that  the  place  of  crossing  the  river  must  have  been  at 
a  point  above  the  present  site  of  the  village  of  Algonquin.  Indicating  the 
route  traveled  to  be  as  before  mentioned,  the  point  of  crossing  the  river  may  be 
further  identified  from  the  .steep  bank  on  the  east  side  mentioned  in  the  nar¬ 



The  original  name  given  to  this  town  by  the  Commissioners  having  in 
charge  the  matter  of  dividing  the  county  into  towns  was  Troy ;  but  on  report 
to  the  State  Auditor,  it  being  found  that  there  was  another  town  in  the  State  of 
that  name — the  law  not  allowing  two  towns  in  the  State  of  the  same  name — 
the  Board  of  Supervisors  of  the  county  were  requested  to  give  the  town  some 
other  name.  At  their  meeting,  in  1851,  the  Board  gave  to  the  town  the  name 
of  Cuba. 

This  was  about  the  time  of  an  insurrection  in  the  Island  of  Cuba  which  at¬ 
tracted  much  attention  in  the  United  States,  partly  from  the  fact  that  many 
prominent  persons  engaged  in  it  proved  to  be  citizens  of  this  country,  which 
contributed  to  inspire  quite  general  sympathy  here  in  favor  of  the  insurgents. 
The  name  of  Cuba  was  upon  everybody’s  lips.  This  suggested  the  name  of  this 

About  the  year  1844,  a  log  building  was  erected  near  Thos.  IV.  V  hite  s 
place,  on  Section  26,  to  be  occupied  both  for  a  public  school  and  for  religious 
worship.  The  first  school  taught  in  this  building  was  at  the  time  of  its  com¬ 
pletion,  by  Edward  Wheedon.  This  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  school  taught 
in  the  town. 

About  the  year  1844,  a  Post  Office  was  established  in  this  town,  on  Section 
10,  called  Flint  Creek,  which  was  discontinued  some  time  since.  There  is  now 
no  Post  Office  in  the  town. 

In  early  days  there  was  a  saw-mill  in  this  town,  on  Flint  Creek,  near  where 
it  empties  into  Fox  River,  known  as  Freeman's  mill.  It  was  abandoned  many 
years  ago.  A  branch  of  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern  Railway  passes  through 
the  southwestern  portion  of  this  town,  formerly  known  as  the  Chicago  & 
Fond  du  Lac  Railroad.  It  was  completed  through  the  town  about  the  year  1854, 
and  a  station  established  at  the  point  where  this  railroad  crosses  the  line  between 
Cook  and  Lake  Counties — partly  in  the  town  of  Cuba  in  Lake  County,  and 
Barrington,  Cook  County,  called  Barrington  Station.  Soon  after,  a  town  plat 
was  cut  out  at  this  station,  in  the  town  of  Cuba,  by  Willard  Stevens.  Another 
plat  was  laid  out  adjoining  this,  on  the  south  side  of  the  county  line  in  Cook 
County,  so  that  the  village  of  Barrington  lies  in  both  counties.  The  village  of 
Barrington  became  organized  as  a  corporation  in  1864.  The  first  Trustees 
were  Homer  Wilmarth,  N.  R.  Burlingham,  Wm.  Howorth,  John  Sennott  and 
G.  Hermandinger. 

The  present  Trustees  are  Daniel  Holmes,  G.  Hermandinger,  Fred.  Foy, 
Horace  H.  Church,  Oscar  Lawrence  and  James  Jamison. 

The  Post  Office  at  this  place  is  over  the  line  in  Cook  County.  The  name 
of  the  Post  Office  is  Barrington  Station. 

The  first  town  meeting  in  this  town  was  held  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April, 
1850,  at  the  house  of  Noble  R.  Hayes.  John  J.  Bullock  was  chosen  Moderator 
and  Noble  R.  Hayes,  Clerk.  The  first  set  of  town  officers  was  as  follows: 
Supervisor,  Philetus  Beverly;  Town  Clerk.  Noble  R.  Hayes;  Assessor,  Jacob 



McGilvra ;  Collector,  Rob.  Conmee ;  Overseer  of  the  Poor,  Francis  Kelsey  5 
Commissioners  of  Highways,  James  Jones,  Lewis  H.  Bute,  Harvey  Lambert; 
Constables,  Chester  Bennett  and  Wallace  Bennett,  Justices  of  the  Peace,  Innis 
Hollister  and  Robert  Bennett. 

The  total  valuation  of  property  in  this  town  for  1850,  including  both  real 
and  personal  was  $44,750.00.  The  amount  of  tax  computed  thereon  was 

The  total  valuation  of  property  for  the  year  1877,  is  $290,309. 

Among  the  early  settlers  of  this  town  surviving,  and  still  a  resident,  is  Lewis 
H.  Bute.  He  is  an  attorney  at  law  and  resides  in  the  village  of  Barrington. 
He  was  elected  Supervisor  of  the  town  in  1852,  and  has  been  re-elected  from 
time  to  time  on  many  occasions  since.  He  has  been  Chairman  of  the  Board  of 
Supervisors  and  holds  the  office  of  Supervisor  of  the  town  at  the  present  time. 

About  the  year  1844,  a  class  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  was  organ¬ 
ized  at  the  house  of  O.  A.  White,  then  being  on  Section  23,  under  the  direction 
of  Rev.  Nathan  Jewett.  During  the  same  Fall,  as  has  been  before  stated,  the 
members  of  the  class  moved  in  the  matter  of  building  a  house  for  public  worship, 
and  arranged  for  combining  a  house  for  school  purposes  as  well  as  religious 

In  the  Fall  of  1858,  a  church  was  built  at  the  village  of  Barrington. 

In  the  Summer  of  1873,  this  building  was  sold  to  a  Catholic  organization. 


Deerfield  is  a  fractional  Congressional  Township,  and  lies  in  the  southeast 
corner  of  the  county,  and  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Shields,  on  the  east  by 
Lake  Michigan,  on  the  south  by  Cook  County,  and  on  the  west  by  Vernon. 

As  a  Congressional  Township  this  is  known  as  Township  43,  north  Range 
12  east. 

The  name  of  Deerfield  was  given  to  this  town  by  the  Commissioners  having 
the  matter  in  charge,  in  accordance  with  the  wishes  of  the  inhabitants  as 
expressed  at  a  public  meeting  called  for  that  purpose  at  the  house  of  Michael 
Mehan,  when  a  formal  election  was  held  to  decide  upon  a  name.  Philemon 
Caldwell  and  Michael  Yore  were  chosen  Judges,  and  Edwin  Caldwell,  Clerk. 
There  were  seventeen  votes  for  Deerfield,  and  thirteen  for  Erin.  The  former 
name  was  therefore  declared  to  be  the  choice  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town. 
The  result  being  laid  before  the  Commissioners,  the  name  of  Deerfield  was 
adopted  as  the  name  of  the  town. 

The  early  settlers  of  this  town  were  Jacob  Caldwell  and  his  sons,  Madison 
O.,  Philemon,  Caleb,  Hiram  and  Edwin  ;  Horace  Lamb,  John  Mathews, 
Jesse  Wilmot,  Lyman  Wilmot,  Benj.  Marks,  Robert  Dygert,  John  Cochran, 
Michael  Mehan,  Magnus  Tait,  Anthony  Sullivan,  John  King  and  Francis 



Jacob  Caldwell  and  sons  came  west  from  Norfolk,  N.  Y.,  in  1835,  and  settled 
in  this  town  at  what  is  now  Deerfield  Corners,  in  the  Spring  of  1836.  It  has 
been  claimed  that  this  family  wTere  the  first  settlers  in  what  is  now  the  town  of 
Deerfield.  But  by  some  this  is  disputed,  claiming  that  Horace  Lamb  was  the 
first  settler,  and  built  the  first  house  in  the  town,  on  the  land  now  occupied  by 
Phillip  Vedder  and  his  son  Almon,  and  that  the  house  was  built  before  1835. 
When  we  take  into  account  the  fact  that  the  Indians  remained  in  possession  of 
the  lands  lying  in  Lake  County  by  stipulation  with  the  Government  until  1836, 
and  that  occupation  by  settlers  was  not  permitted  before  that  time,  except  by 
consent  of  the  Indians,  we  cannot  expect  to  find  settlers  attempting  to  occupy 
the  lands  much  before  that  year.  It  is  well  understood  that  Capt.  Daniel 
Wright  was  the  only  settler  in  what  is  now  Lake  County  in  1834,  except, 
perhaps,  Amos  Flint,  who  is  claimed  to  have  settled  on  Fox  River  the  latter 
part  of  this  year.  There  are  those  now  living  who  remember  of  hearing  Capt. 
Wright  say  that  he  was  allowed  to  remain  in  the  country  as  a  special  favor  of 
the  Indians  from  the  regard  they  had  for  him ;  that  no  other  person  was  alike 
favored.  In  1835,  the  time  in  which  the  Indians  were  to  leave  the  country 
being  near  at  hand,  which  they  seemed  more  to  realize,  they  became  more 
indifferent  as  to  the  encroachment  of  the  whites,  whereby  during  this  year 
some  progress  was  made  by  settlers,  as  has  been  already  related  in  the  com¬ 
mencement  of  this  history.  It  is  possible  that  settlers  may  have  entered  the 
town  of  Deerfield  in  1835,  but  it  is  certainly  not  probable  that  any  came  before 
that  time. 

The  first  school  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Deerfield  is  said  to  have  been 
taught  by  Rosilla  Caldwell,  at  the  residence  of  Philemon  Caldwell,  in  1848. 
The  names  of  the  scholars  attending  are  now  forgotten,  except  that  of  Mrs. 
Walter  H.  Millen,  who  is  still  a  resident  of  the  town. 

The  first  school  house  in  town  was  built  on  land  now  occupied  by  Walter 
H.  Millen,  on  the  road  near  the  county  line  on  Section  33.  It  was  after¬ 
ward  removed  from  time  to  time  from  one  place  to  another,  and  occupied  for 
various  purposes.  It  is  still  in  existence,  attached  to  the  house  of  Mr.  Duffy,  at 
Deerfield  Corners,  and  forms  a  part  of  his  premises. 

Mrs.  Walter  H.  Millen,  before  referred  to,  was  a  daughter  of  John  K. 
Clark,  who  lived  just  over  the  line,  in  Cook  County,  from  the  time  of  the  first 
settlement  of  the  country.  He  was  better  known  as  Indian  Clark.  His  life 
was  an  eventful  one  in  the  pioneer  history  of  the  Northwest ;  a  brief  reference 
to  which  would  seem  to  be  proper  in  this  connection — at  least,  it  may  not  be 
considered  out  of  place.  Mr.  Clark  was  a  man  of  a  quiet  nature,  and  never 
intruded  himself  upon  the  attention  of  others.  This  accounts,  in  some  degree, 
for  the  fact  that  his  name  has  been  so  little  mentioned  in  the  early  history  of 
the  country.  He  was  born  near  Fort  Wayne,  Indiana,  in  June,  1792.  His 
mother  was  from  Virginia,  on  the  head  waters  of  the  Kanawha  River.  She 
was  taken  prisoner,  when  she  was  eight  years  old,  by  the  Shawnee  Indians, 



together  with  two  other  sisters,  who  were  two  or  three  years  older.  His  grand¬ 
father  was  at  the  time  out  hunting  horses,  when  the  Indians  came  to  the  house 
and  killed  his  grandmother  and  took  these  little  girls  prisoners.  His  mother 
was  taken  to  Piqua,  Ohio,  and  adopted  into  the  family  of  a  brother  of  Tecumseh. 
When  she  grew  up,  she  married  Alexander  Clark,  an  Indian  trader  from  Malden, 
Canada.  He  afterward  established  a  post  at  Fort  Wayne,  where  John  K.  was 
born.  He  was  a  twin.  His  twin  brother’s  name  was  Andrew,  who  was  an  aid 
to  Tecumseh  at  the  battle  ot  the  Thames,  and  fell  with  him  in  that  conflict. 

His  father  afterward  died,  and  after  Wayne’s  treaty  his  mother  returned 
with  him  to  Virginia. 

His  mother’s  sister  married  John  Kinzie,  Sr.,  as  his  first  wife. 

After  John  K.  grew  up,  he  came  to  Detroit,  and  in  the  Fall  of  1816  he 
came  from  that  place  with  his  aunt,  Mrs.  Kinzie,  to  Chicago,  as  a  guide, 
knowing  something  of  the  country,  and  having  a  perfect  knowledge  of  the 
Indian  character  and  the  languages  spoken  in  that  part  of  the  country.  He 
remained  at  Chicago  for  some  time  and  joined  with  James  Kinzie  in  trading 
with  the  Indians. 

In  1818,  he  went  to  Milwaukee,  and  there  engaged  in  trading  with  the 
Indians  for  two  years.  He  then  went  back  to  Virginia  and  brought  his  mother 
to  Chicago.  He  cut  the  first  wagon  track  from  Fort  Wayne  to  Chicago. 

He  was  in  Maj.  Bailey’s  battalion,  in  Fort  Dearborn,  at  Chicago,  in  the 
Blackhawk  war,  in  1832,  and  subsequently  went  as  an  express  from  Gen.  Scott 
to  Gen.  Atkinson  at  the  Four  Lakes,  in  Wisconsin. 

He  possessed  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  geography  of  the  country  in  the 
Northwest,  which  he  acquired  Tby  actual  observation  long  before  its  settlement 
by  the  whites.  He  died,  a  few  years  since,  at  his  home  in  North  field,  Cook 
County,  much  respected  by  all  who  knew  him. 

The  first  town  meeting  in  this  town  was  held  at  the  Green  Bay  House,  a 
tavern  situated  upon  the  old  military  road,  a  short  distance  south  of  Port  Clin¬ 
ton,  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850.  Lyman  Wilmot  was  chosen  Moder¬ 
ator,  and  Edwin  Caldwell,  Clerk.  The  following  were  chosen  the  first  officers  : 
Supervisor,  Caleb  Caldwell;  Town  Clerk,  F.  A.  Goodbody  ;  Assessor,  John 
Millen ;  Collector,  James  Duffy ;  Overseer  of  the  Poor,  Philemon  Caldwell ;  Com¬ 
missioners  of  Highways,  Benjamin  Raudenbusch,  Michael  Mehan  and  Francis 
McGovern;  Justice  of  the  Peace,  John  Denker;  Constable,  II.  J.  Kollar. 
The  number  of  votes  cast  for  town  officers  at  this  meeting  was  71. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  in  this  town  for  1850,  including 
both  real  and  personal,  was  $56,740.  The  amount  of  tax  computed  on  the 
same  for  collection  was  $753.40.  The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  the 
year  1877  was  $596,621. 

The  villages  and  incorporated  towns  in  this  township  are  as  follows : 

Deerfield  Corners,  on  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  Railroad  ;  Re- 
vinia,  Highland  Park  and  Highwood,  on  the  Milwaukee  line  of  the  Northwestern 



Railway.  At  an  early  day,  something  over  thirty  years  ago,  a  town  plat  was 
laid  out  on  the  lake,  east  of  what  is  now  Highwood,  called  St.  John’s.  Some 
progress  was  made  in  building  here,  with  the  prospect  of  making  it  quite  a 
place ;  but  the  title  to  the  land  becoming  involved  in  litigation,  its  further 
progress  became  impeded,  and  the  enterprise  was  finally  abandoned,  and  the  town 
plat  became  vacated.  About  the  year  1850,  Jacob  C.  Bloom,  William  Steele 
and  others  laid  out  a  town  plat  on  the  lake,  immediately  on  the  south  of  St. 
John  s,  called  Port  Clinton.  A  post  office  was  established  here  in  April,  1850. 
A  steam  saw-mill  was  erected,  followed  by  the  erection  of  dwelling  houses  and 
other  buildm0s  foi  various  purposes.  A  plank  road  was  projected  from  this 
place  to  Half  Day,  and  considerable  progress  was  made  in  grading  it,  but  about 
this  time  it  was  discovered  that  plank  roads  were  a.  failure,  when  the  enterprise 
was  abandoned. 

After  the  construction  of  the  Chicago  &  Milwaukee  Railroad,  a  station 
was  established  at  Highland  Park  and  a  town  plat  was  laid  out  and  the  work  of 
building  up  a  town  at  this  point  commenced.  This  was  done  by  a  company 
organized  and  known  as  the  Port  Clinton  Land  Company.  Among  the  stock¬ 
holders  of  this  company  were  some  of  the  most  substantial  men  of  the  country 
at  that  day,  mostly  residents  of  Chicago.  They  were  Francis  C.  Sherman, 
Dr.  C.  V.  Dyer,  M.  D.  Ogden,  Elisha  S.  Wadsworth,  Ezra  L.  Sherman, 
Walter  S.  Gurnee  and  Hiram  A.  Tucker. 

Mr.  Gurnee,  after  a  time,  purchased  all  the  stock  of  the  company  and  be¬ 
came  the  owner  of  all  its  property. 

The  original  town  plat  of  this  town  was  laid  out  in  1855. 

At  the  session  of  the  General  Assembly  in  1867.  a  special  charter  wras 
granted  to  the  Highland  Park  Building  Company,  and  a  corporation  under  that 
style  was  duly  organized.  To  this  company  Mr.  Gurnee  sold  the  entire  prop¬ 
erty  of  the  Port  Clinton  Land  Company.  The  principal  stockholders  of  the 
Highland  Park  Building  Company  were  mostly  citizens  of  Chicago  and  were  as 
follows:  James  E.  Tyler,  Judge  Henry  Booth,  Jesse  0.  Norton,  Rev.  W.  W. 
Evarts,  R.  E.  Goodell,  H.  B.  Hurd,  Frank  P.  Hawkins,  C.  R.  Field,  John 
H.  Wrenn,  W.  H.  Lunt  and  Rev.  G.  L.  Wrenn.  The  first  President  of  the 
company  was  W.  H.  Lunt,  and  C.  R.  Field  was  the  first  Secretary  and  Treas¬ 
urer.  Frank  P.  Hawkins  was  appointed  General  Agent  and  Manager.  The 
capital  stock  of  the  company  is  $500,000. 

The  property  of  the  Highland  Park  Building  Company,  acquired  from  the 
source  before  mentioned,  and  which  originally  included  that  upon  which  the 
city  of  Highland  Park  is  situated,  is  a  tract  of  land  of  great  natural  beauty 
and  adaptability  to  the  purposes  for  which  it  was  purchased — the  building  of  a 
suburban  town.  It  was  bought  at  what  was  considered  at  that  time  a  very  low 
figure,  the  suburban  idea  at  that  day  not  having  been  at  all  developed  in  Chi¬ 
cago.  Highland  Park  was  among  the  pioneers  in  this  new,  popular  movement 
for  creating  beautiful  homes  in  the  suburbs. 



The  Highland  Park  Building  Company  claim  that,  while  they  were  among 
the  first  to  go  extensively  into  the  real  business  of  building  and  creatine  an  at- 
tractive  and  first-class  suburban  town,  they  can  show  a  greater  growth  and 
greater  prosperity  than  any  of  its  competitors  in  the  same  line  of  business,  and 
that  they  have  constructed  more  miles  of  good  streets  and  drives,  built  more 
houses  and  sidewalks,  than  any  suburban  company. 

It  is  claimed  for  this  company  that  its  affairs  have  been  conducted  and  han¬ 
dled  in  a  broad,  liberal  and  progressive  manner,  and  that  its  management 
points  with  pride  to  the  beautiful  town  that  has  been  created  under  their  care, 
with  its  high-toned  population,  its  churches  and  schools,  its  elegant  residences 
and  beautiful  drives,  for  which  they  feel  a  commendable  satisfaction.  Highland 
Park  is  situated  on  a  high  bluff,  traversed  with  deep,  picturesque  ravines.  It 
is  about  eighty  feet  above  the  Lake.  The  whole  property  is  covered  with  a  vig¬ 
orous  growth  of  young  trees,  which  have  been  carefully  preserved  in  the  midst 
of  the  residences,  and  properly  trained.  The  undulations  of  the  ground  afford 
excellent  natural  drainage,  which  has  been  well  and  suitably  improved. 

The  streets  and  drives  have  been  laid  out  under  the  direction  of  the  most 
skillful  landscape  gardeners  that  could  be  procured. 

Rustic  bridges  have  been  built  over  the  ravines,  on  the  line  of  the  streets 
and  drives. 

A  pier  has  been  built  on  the  Lake  shore,  to  accommodate  the  landing  of 
excursion  parties,  and  for  unloading  lumber  to  facilitate  building. 

Of  public  buildings  in  Highland  Park  there  are  three  churches  and  two 
public  schools.  There  is,  also,  a  commodious  hotel.  About  four  years  ago,  a 
fine  building  was  erected  in  this  place  for  a  hotel,  and  which  was  occupied  as 
such  until  something  over  a  year  ago,  when  it  was  transferred  to  Prof.  Weston, 
to  be  occupied  as  an  educational  institution  for  young  ladies,  as  will  be  hereafter 
mentioned.  This  building  is,  indeed,  a  very  fine  structure.  Its  length  is  300 
feet,  with  a  corresponding  width.  It  is  three  stories  in  height,  and  the  eleva¬ 
tion  to  the  roof  is  50  feet,  above  which  is  a  beautiful  look-out  tower,  affording  a 
view  of  Lake  Michigan  and  the  country  for  miles  around.  The  structure  is 
surrounded  by  verandas,  affording  1,000  feet  of  promenade.  The  building  is 
divided  into  rooms  of  convenient  dimensions,  each  having  a  door  leading  both 
to  a  veranda  on  the  outside  and  a  hall  on  the  inside.  The  halls  run  clear 
through  the  building,  with  large  windows  at  each  end,  giving  excellent  ventila¬ 
tion.  It  is  surrounded  by  handsome  grounds,  from  which  numerous  graveled 
drives  lead  to  all  parts  of  the  town. 

Among  the  original  owrners  of  property  and  residents  of  this  place — most 
of  whom  still  remain — were  the  following  prominent  citizens  :  Thomas  R. 
Willard,  Col.  William  A.  James,  Maj.  J.  S.  Curtiss,  J.  B.  Preston,  Thomas  II. 
Beebe,  C.  R.  Field,  A.  K.  Allen,  J.  M.  Fisher,  J.  M.  Smith,  Frank  P.  Haw¬ 
kins,  Thomas  H.  Spencer,  F.  S.  French,  George  G.  Leslie,  William  II.  Boy- 
ington,  C.  G.  Hammond,  George  L.  Wrenn,  Samuel  S.  Streeter,  Van  Buren 



Denslow,  James  W.  Dean,  G.  Gray,  Jonas  Steers,  V.  E.  Rusco,  W.  S.  Downs, 
W.  S.  Davis,  J.  Atwater,  R.  Atwater,  E.  H.  Plumer,  H.  W.  Hotchkiss,  J. 
McDonald.  Edmond  P.  Harris,  G.  S.  Green,  Hiram  Hosier,  N.  Hawkins,  G. 
H.  Dennison,  U.  Gray  and  S.  B.  William. 

Highland  Park  was  incorporated  as  a  city  under  a  special  act  of  the  Legis¬ 
lature,  approved  March  11.  1869.  The  charter  was  accepted  by  a  vote  of  the 
people  thereof  March  27,  1869.  The  first  city  election  was  on  the  12th  of 
April  of  the  same  year.  The  following  were  the  first  city  officers :  Mayor, 
Frank  P.  Hawkins;  City  Clerk,  Geo.  W.  Williams;  Treasurer,  A.  0.  Fay; 
Marshal,  J.  W.  Ayers ;  Assessor,  Jonas  Steers ;  Police  Magistrate,  Lucius 
Field;  Street  Comm'r,  P.  Hoffman;  Surveyor,  Milton  H.  Baker.  Aldermen 
— First  Ward,  Geo.  N.  Hammer,  Thos.  S.  Dickerson  ;  Second  Ward,  Milton 
H.  Baker,  Henry  Mowers  ;  Third  Ward,  George  Grussing,  William  Osterman  : 
Fourth  Ward,  Jacob  S.  Curtis,  A.  0.  Fay. 

At  the  present  time,  the  city  contains  but  three  wards,  with  the  following 
city  officers  :  Mayor,  John  Middleton  ;  Clerk,  W.  H.  Plummer  ;  Treasurer, 
Geo.  B.  Cumming ;  Attorney,  Edward  H.  Beebe ;  Marshal,  J.  H.  Hinckle ; 
Aldermen — First  Ward,  0.  H.  Morgan,  A.  H.  Winslow  ;  Second  Ward,  Pat¬ 
rick  Dooley,  Edwid  R.  Hall;  Third  Ward,  Martin  L.  Burdick,  Thos.  Willard. 

At  Highland  Park  is  located  a  preparatory  and  collegiate  institution,  for 
the  education  of  young  ladies,  styled  Highland  Hall.  The  building  occupied 
for  this  purpose  was  originally  designed  for  a  hotel,  as  hereinbefore  stated. 

The  location  of  this  school  is  well  chosen.  About  fifteen  minutes’  walk 
from  the  lake  shore,  in  the  midst  of  picturesque  scenery  and  surrounded  by 
the  residences  of  cultured  and  wealthy  families,  quiet  and  healthful — these 
natural  advantages,  combined  with  its  nearness  to  the  city,  which  enables 
students  to  have  the  benefit  of  the  best  concerts  and  lectures,  altogether  render 
it  one  of  the  most  fortunatelv  located  schools  in  the  West.  The  doors  of  this 
institution  were  opened  for  the  accommodation  of  pupils,  for  the  first  time,  in 
September,  1876.  The  school  is  under  the  control  of  Prof.  Edward  P.  Weston, 
a  gentleman  of  rare  ability  and  enthusiasm,  who  has  had  a  wide  experience  as 
an  educator  to  prepare  him  for  this,  which  he  hopes  to  make  the  crowning  work 
of  his  life.  For  thirteen  years  he  had  charge  of  the  Maine  Female  College, 
after  which  he,  for  a  number  of  years,  filled  the  office  of  Superintendent  of 
Public  Instruction  in  the  same  State,  from  which  he  was  called  to  the  presi¬ 
dency  of  Ferry  Hall,  at  Lake  Forest,  where  he  remained  until  he  resigned  his 
position  to  undertake  this  more  congenial  work  at  Highland  Park. 

The  aim  of  this  institution  is  to  provide  opportunities  for  the  most  advanced 
as  well  as  the  elementary  studies.  Thus,  there  is  a  preparatory  department, 
a  collegiate  or  classical  course,  one  of  music  and  arts,  besides  which  provision 
is  made  for  a  graduating  course  of  English  studies,  upon  the  satisfactory  com¬ 
pletion  of  which  a  diploma  is  awarded.  In  connection  with  the  different 
studies,  and  supplementary  thereto,  are  numerous  historical,  literary,  scientific 



and  aesthetic  lectures  given  each  year.  Experienced  teachers  of  well  estab¬ 
lished  reputation  have  charge  of  the  music  and  art  departments. 

The  school  is  not  sectarian,  but  in  its  teachings  is  decidedly  religious. 

The  corps  of  instructors  is  large,  and  is  composed  of  ladies  and  gentlemen 
who  have  won  distinction  as  teachers.  A  fine  library,  cabinet  and  other  appli¬ 
ances  are  already  provided,  and  if  Highland  Hall  has  not  a  successful  future, 
then  I  am  a  false  prophet. 

The  building  in  which  this  institution  is  conducted  is  of  elegant  and  impos¬ 
ing  architectural  appearance — not  a  wooden  barn,  after  the  fashion  in  vo^ue  at 
many  of  the  so-called  watering  places,  but  a  building  intended  to  stand  the 
wear  and  tear  both  of  the  elements  and  of  criticism.  The  cost  was  somewhere 
in  the  neighborhood  of  $75,000,  and  nearly  an  equal  sum  was  expended  in  the 
furniture  and  fixtur°s,  which  are  of  a  very  superior  character. 

It  is  the  policy  of  this  institution  not  to  burden  young  ladies  with  arbitrary 
rules  and  useless  restraints,  but  to  adopt  only  such  regulations  as  are  needed 
to  secure  due  attention  to  study  and  the  formation  of  correct  habits  and  worth v 
characters.  Pupils  are  expected  to  yield  a  cheerful  obedience  to  these  regula¬ 
tions,  under  the  promptings  of  conscience  and  their  better  judgment,  with  the 
least  possible  resort  to  penalties. 

Teachers  and  pupils  constitute  one  family,  eating  at  the  same  tables  and 
sharing  the  same  social  life ;  thus  securing,  as  far  as  consistent  with  the  disci¬ 
pline  of  the  school,  the  advantages  of  the  home  circle.  Social,  aesthetic  and 
religious  culture  are  carefully  combined  with  physical  exercise  and  mental 

Every  pupil  is  required  to  take  proper  exercise  in  the  open  air,  when  the 
weather  is  suitable,  either  in  walking,  riding,  skating,  croquet  or  other  games, 
while  the  light  gymnastics,  calisthenics  and  the  parlor  graces  receive  their 
appropriate  attention.  Great  care  is  taken  to  guard  the  young  ladies  against 
sickness,  and  to  furnish  them  needed  attention  when  not  well.  In  case  of 
serious  illness,  parents  will  be  promptly  notified,  and  the  treatment  of  their 
daughters  made  subject  to  their  wishes.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  no  such  cases 
have  occurred  since  the  opening  of  the  school  at  Highland  Hall,  the  location 
proving  to  be  eminently  healthful.  This  is  to  be  attributed  to  its  elevated  site, 
its  spacious  and  airy  rooms,  its  careful  ventilation,  proper  heating,  abundant 
pure  water,  well-regulated  diet,  good  personal  habits  and  careful  physical 

The  instructors  of  this  institution  are  as  follows :  Edward  P.  Weston,  A.  M., 
President,  Mental  Science  and  Civil  Government;  Nathaniel  Butler,  A.  M.,  Latin 
and  Greek  Languages;  Edward  B.  Weston,  A.  M.,  M.  D., Natural  Sciences  ;  W. 
S.  B.  Mathews,  Piano  and  Organ ;  Mrs.  Edw.  P.  Weston,  General  Charge;  Miss 
Fannie  E.  Marsh,  Ethics  and  Literature ;  Miss  Anna  Stoecklein,  Modern  Lan¬ 
guages  ;  Miss  Martha  E.  Weston,  Piano  Forte ;  Mrs.  Grace  A.  Hall,  Drawing 
and  Painting  ;  Miss  Clara  E.  Munger,  Individual  Vocal  Training  ;  Miss  Eliz- 



abeth  B.  Root,  General  English  Branches;  Miss  Abby  J.  Benedict,  Mathemat¬ 
ics  and  Latin  ;  Miss  Charlotte  E.  Smith,  Preparatory  Department. 

The  first  Protestant  religious  organization  in  Highland  Park  was  an  associ¬ 
ation  of  the  different  evangelical  denominations  of  the  place,  called  the  High¬ 
land  Park  Religious  Association,  organized  in  October,  1869,  of  which  Rev.  G. 

L.  Wrenn  was  President. 

A  meeting  was  held  at  the  residence  of  C.  R.  Field,  Esq.,  for  the  purpose 
of  organizing  a  Church  of  the  Baptists  of  Highland  Park  and  vicinity,  May 
18th,  1871.  There  were  present  Jonas  Steers,  C.  R.  Field,  Rev.  George  L. 
Wrenn,  Mrs.  Pickard,  Mrs.  C.  R.>  Field,  Mrs.  C.  R.  Huntington,  Mrs.  S.  S. 
Streeter,  Mrs.  S.  S.  Dickerson,  Charles  R.  Huntington,  Samuel  Jeffrey  and 
wife,  Mrs.  G.  Y.  Orton,  Miss  Grace  Dickerson,  Simeon  Mears,  E.  Ashley 
Mears,  C.  G.  Hammond,  Henry  Evarts,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Seelye. 

They  held  their  first  communion  June  4,  1871,  when  the  following  united 
by  letter,  experience  and  baptism  : 

Rev.  George  L.  Wrenn  and  wife,  C.  R.  Field  and  wife,  Mrs.  S.  S.  Streeter, 
Mrs.  S  S.  Dickerson,  Clarence  Dickerson,  Miss  Grace  Dickerson,  Charles  R. 
Huntington  and  wife,  Miss  Eva  C.  Huntington,  Miss  Kittie  J.  Huntington,  E. 
Ashley  Mears  and  wife,  Y.  B.  Denslow  and  wife,  Miss  Mary  H.  Henderson, 
Samuel  Jeffrey  and  wife,  Henry  H.  Evarts  and  wife,  Miss  Mary  Mooney,  Mrs. 

M.  E.  Dykeman,  Mathias  Mason  and  wife,  Samuel  Mitchell  and  wife,  William 
E.  Cutting,  James  Warren.  C.  G.  Hammond  and  wife  united  in  July  following. 

A  church  building  or  house  of  worship  was  erected  in  1872,  and  dedicated 
October  20th  of  that  year.  The  total  cost  of  the  building  was  $10, 000. 

Rev.  G.  L.  Wrenn  was  the  first  Pastor  of  the  church,  and  still  continues  in 
that  relation.  The  church  has  at  this  time  eighty-eight  members. 

The  Highland  Park  Presbyterian  Church  was  formally  organized  June 
2,  1871,  with  a  membership  of  thirty-three  persons,  viz.:  Mr.  Thos.  R.  Wil¬ 
lard,  Mrs.  Susan  B.  Willard,  Mr.  Stephen  B.  Williams,  Mrs.  Susan  F.  Will¬ 
iams,  James  C.  Dean,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  Dean,  Miss  Eliza  Dean,  Jacob  S. 
Curtiss,  Mrs.  Laura  A.  Curtiss,  Mrs.  Abbie  M.  Hardinge,  Lucius  Hardinge, 
Mrs.  Agnes  Hardinge,  S.  Merritt  Allen,  Mrs.  Helen  M.  Allen,  Mrs.  Mattie 
C.  Walker,  Ephraim  H.  Denison,  Mrs.  Caroline  H.  Denison,  Mrs.  Pamela 
JI.  Bronnell,  Edward  B.  Rambo,  Mrs.  Mary  T.  Rambo,  Lucius  Field,  Mrs. 
Lucia  Field,  Mrs.  Dea.  Pliny  Allen,  Mrs.  Lucy  T.  C.  Allen,  Mrs.  Josephine 
Carter,  Wm.  B.  Hayes,  Mrs.  Harriet  L.  Hayes,  Miss  Cornelia  G.  Hayes,  Miss 
Mary  E.  Hayes,  Mrs.  Anna  M.  Allen,  Miss  Sarah  A.  Patchin,  Mrs.  Julia  S. 
Atwater,  Mrs.  Emma  S.  Allen. 

Messrs.  S.  M.  Allen,  S.  B.  Williams,  Lucius  Field  and  E.  H.  Denison 
were  elected  and  ordained  as  Elders,  and  Messrs.  J.  S.  Curtiss,  J.  C.  Dean, 
T.  R.  Willard.  T.  H.  Spencer  and  Edward  B.  Rambo,  Trustees. 

For  some  time,  the  church  members  worshiped  with  the  Highland  Park  Re¬ 
ligious  Association,  a  union  church,  composed  of  the  members  of  all  denomina- 



tions.  Occasionally  a  communion  service  was  held  under  the  particular 
auspices  of  the  Presbyterian  Church. 

In  1873,  the  church  undertook  the  erection  of  a  building,  which  was  com¬ 
pleted  and  dedicated  early  in  1874.  It  was  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  Re¬ 
ligious  Association,  and  services  held  there  by  that  body  for  some  months.- 

The  Baptist  portion  of  the  association  organized  as  a  separate  church  in 
1871,  and  the  Episcopalian  members  also  did  so  in  1874.  By  general  consent 
of  the  remaining  members,  the  Association  was  then  disbanded,  and  the  Pres¬ 
byterian  Church  took  possession  of  the  building,  and  called  the  Rev.  E.  L. 
Hurd,  the  Pastor  of  the  Association,  to  its  pulpit. 

In  June,  1875,  Hr.  Hurd  resigned,  and  the  church  remained  without  a 
Pastor  until  August,  1877,  when  the  services  of  Mr.  F.  T.  Lee,  late  of 
Kenosha,  were  secured. 

The  church  has  as  present  about  ninety  members,  and  numbers  among  its 
most  valued  attendants  and  supporters  several  members  of  other  denominations 
who  have  not  united  with  it. 

Its  present  officers  are :  Elders — Messrs.  S.  R.  Bingham,  Elisha  Gray  and 
E.  H.  Denison;  Trustees — Elisha  Gray,  S.  R.  Bingham,  E.  H.  Denison,  II. 
C.  Caun  and  S.  M.  Coe ;  Pastor — F.  H.  Lee  ;  Superintendent  of  Sunday 
School — T.  H.  Spencer. 

An  Episcopal  Church  was  organized  in  Highland  Park  in  1874.  The  first 
minister  was  Rev.  F.  0.  Osborne,  who  continued  until  the  Spring  of  1875, 
since  which  Mr.  J.  C.  Cushman  has  acted  as  lay  reader.  A  church  edifice  was 
erected  in  1875. 

Deerfield,  or  Deerfield  Corners,  as  commonly  called,  is  a  place  of  some 
local  importance,  but  not  incorporated,  situated  in  the  southwest  part  of  the 
township,  on  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  Railroad.  A  post  office  was 
established  here  in  May,  1850,  and  Caleb  Caldwell  appointed  Postmaster.  It 
contains  stores  and  mechanics  of  various  kinds,  and  is  a  point  of  trade  for  the 
country  around. 

The  Evangelical  St.  Paul’s  Church  was  organized  here  May  5,  1875.  The 
following  were  the  first  members  of  the  church  : 

C.  Antes,  William  Stuckel,  M.  Hermann,  William  Ostermann,  John  Ott,  M. 
Horenberger,  D.  Horenberger,  M.  M.  Ilorenberger,  John  Selig,  William  Bart- 
mus,  A.  Hinterberg,  F.  Gloder,  J.  Antes,  J.  Wittmer,  John  Ielil,  F.  Meierhoff, 
P.  Bleuriehl,  George  Ott,  C.  Strandt,  C.  Bier,  F.  Mau,  II.  Schwingle,  C.  Ott. 

The  first  Pastor  of  the  church  was  Rev.  J.  W.  Allard,  who  still  continues 
in  that  relation.  A  church  edifice  was  erected  in  1875. 

The  first  Presbyterian  Church  of  Deerfield  was  organized  at  Deerfield  Cor¬ 
ners  in  May,  1876,  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  E.  S.  Hurd,  who  was  the  first  Pastor. 
The  first  members  were  Lyman  Wilmot,  Clarissa  Wilmot,  Philip  Gutzler,  Ade- 
lia  Gutzler,  Louis  Todd,  Caroline  Todd,  Mrs.  Lizzie  Hall,  Mrs.  Mary  S. 
Muhlke,  Lyman  Wilmot,  Jr. 



A  church  edifice  was  built  during  the  present  year. 

The  church  has  no  regular  Pastor  at  the  present  time.  The  church  is  sup¬ 
plied  by  a  student  from  Princeton,  N.  J.,  Mr.  A.  P.  Kerr. 

The  Evangelical  Methodist  Association  -was  organized  here  about  the  vear 
1845.  In  1868,  they  built  a  house  of  worship  at  Deerfield  Corners.  It  was 
dedicated  October  11,  1868,  having  at  that  time  forty-five  members.  It  now 
has  about  eighty  members.  The  minister  at  that  time  was  Rev.  W.  Goessele. 
The  present  minister  is  Rev.  Samuel  Dickover. 

About  two  miles  south  of  Highland  Park,  in  this  township,  on  the  line  of 
the  Northwestern  Railroad,  is  the  village  of  Ravinia.  The  name  originally 
intended  to  be  given  to  this  place  was  South  Highland ;  but  from  its  numerous 
ravines,  the  name  of  Ravinia  was  suggested  and  adopted.  This  place  is  situated 
midway  between  Glencoe  in  Cook  County  and  Highland  Park,  and  just 
twenty  miles  from  Chicago.  The  plat  of  the  town  was  laid  out  in  April,  1872, 
and  contains  between  five  hundred  and  six  hundred  acres  of  land,  extending 
from  Lake  Michigan  westward  for  about  half  a  mile  beyond  the  railroad.  The 
streets  are  mostly  irregular,  conforming  to  the  natural  surface  of  the  land  and 
irregular  course  of  the  ravines.  Roger  Williams  avenue  is  straight  from  the 
railroad  passenger  station  house  to  the  lake,  and  is  very  beautiful.  Bridges 
are  built  over  the  ravines  at  the  crossing  of  the  streets,  and  a  beautiful  drive 
connects  with  Highland  Park. 

Among  the  original  owners  of  property  here  were  the  following  promi¬ 
nent  individuals  :  Walter  S.  Gurnee,  Col.  Eloyd  Jones  of  the  U.  S.  Army,  B. 
F.  Jacobs,  J.  F.  Gillette,  E.  A.  Mears,  W.  W.  Evarts,  Gen.  J.  D.  Webster, 
A.  F.  Bartow,  M.  A.  Farwell,  John  G.  Shortall,  H.  A.  Stowell,  D.  W.  Baker, 
W.  M.  Foster,  J.  S.  Turner,  R.  S.  Parker,  R.  R.  Donnelly,  F.  F.  French,  J.. 
E.  Tyler  and  A.  H.  Walker. 

Highwood  is  a  village  in  the  township  of  Deerfield,  on  the  railroad,  adjoin¬ 
ing  the  town  plat  of  Highland  Park  on  the  north,  but  the  depot  or  station 
house  at  this  place  is  about  a  mile  from  that  at  Highland  Park.  The  town  plat 
of  this  place  was  laid  out  in  April,  1871.  It  is  about  three  miles  south  of  Lake 
Forest.  It  is  connected  with  Highland  Park  by  broad  avenues,  on  some  of 
which  the  buildings  are  scattered  along,  so  that  the  dividing  point  between  the 
two  places  is  not  discernible.  The  streets  and  avenues  were  first  laid  out  by 
Rev.  Dr.  Evarts.  Directly  east  of  the  railroad  depot  he  secured  a  handsome 
bluff  of  nine  acres  of  land  for  his  homestead.  He  afterward  parted  with  a  por¬ 
tion  of  the  same  to  his  friend  and  parishioner,  W.  W.  Boyington,  the  well- 
known  architect  of  Chicago,  who  built  a  fine  residence  thereon. 

Soon  thereafter,  E.  Ashley  Mears  purchased  several  tracts  of  land  adjoin¬ 
ing  and  in  the  vicinity,  making  in  all  about  160  acres,  and  subdivided  the 
same  into  lots  as  a  part  of  the  town  plat,  on  which  he  erected  a  large  number 
of  dwelling  houses  and  other  buildings,  including  a  fine  and  attractive  residence 
for  himself.  The  dwellings  and  buildings  he  erected  were  designed  for  sale  to 


individuals  who  might  desire  to  purchase  them  and  become  citizens.  He  has 
sold  a  large  number  of  them  to  permanent  residents. 

Like  Highland  Park,  the  ground  of  this  place  is  covered  with  forest  trees  of 
natural  growth,  which  add  greatly  to  its  beauty. 

The  handsome  fence  and  park  about  the  depot  grounds  never  fail  to  attract 

The  policy  of  Mr.  Mears  of  building  houses  of  style  and  price  to  suit  all, 
and  selling  them  on  terms  to  bring  them  within  the  reach  of  all,  has  done  much 
to  build  up  this  place  and  add  to  its  population. 

Among  the  original  proprietors  of  property  in  this  place  were  the  following  : 
John  Churchill,  E.  Ashley  Mears,  Samuel  Burkwell,  H.  Salyard,  Henry 
Evarts,  John  Skidmore,  William  A.  Baldwin,  Louis  Wood,  Jonas  Samson,  F. 
F.  Pratt,  G.  W.  Eakle,  Rev.  Dr.  Evarts,  George  Rose,  James  Quackenbush,  J.  J. 
Way,  William  H.  Hoyner,  James  D.  Robertson,  James  De  Burges,  S.  C. 
Culps,  Harry  Pryke,  John  Fletcher,  James  E.  Tyler,  F.  R.  Wilson,  Jirah  D. 
Cole,  Jr.,  B.  F.  Jacobs,  J.  E.  Burchill,  A.  H.  Walker,  Lucius  Willard,  Thomas 
Foster  and  Simeon  Mears. 


This,  as  a  Congressional  Township,  is  known  as  Township  43,  north  Range 
10  east.  The  settlement  of  the  town  was  commenced  in  the  Fall  of  1835. 
Among  the  early  settlers  were  George  Ela,  John  Robertson,  S.  A.  Shephard, 
John  E.  Deil,  George  Cook,  Leonard  Loomis  and  Richard  Archer. 

The  town  takes  its  name  from  Hon.  George  Ela,  one  of  the  first  settlers. 
He  came  in  the  Fall  of  1835,  and  made  a  claim  of  land  at  Deer  Grove,  in  the 
southern  part  of  the  town,  and  built  a  house  there  the  following  Spring,  where 
he  continued  to  reside  until  a  few  years  ago,  when  he  removed  to  Barrington 
Station,  on  the  Cook  County  side  of  the  line,  where  he  still  resides. 

When  the  Commissioners  divided  the  county  into  towns  for  township  organ¬ 
ization,  there  was  no  expression  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  township  concerning 
their  wishes  as  to  a  name,  presented  to  them.  They  w^ere,  therefore,  left  to  select 
such  name  as  they  thought  proper.  Mr.  Ela  being  one  of  the  first  settlers  of 
the  town,  and  being  a  prominent  citizen,  having  served  as  a  Representative  of 
the  county  in  the  State  Legislature,  the  name  of  Ela  was  considered  by  the 
Commissioners  as  highly  appropriate ;  they  accordingly  selected  and  fixed  this 
as  the  name  of  the  town. 

The  first  post  office  in  this  town  was  established  in  1844,  at  the  house  ot 
George  Ela,  who  was  appointed  Postmaster.  The  name  of  the  office  was  Sur- 
ryse.  This  name  was  afterward  changed  to  Ela. 

This  town  is  watered  by  the  several  branches  of  Indian  Creek,  which  stream 
takes  its  rise  mostly  within  its  limits. 



The  groves  of  this  town  are  Long  Grove,  Deer  Grove  and  Russell’s  Grove. 
The  woodland  and  prairie  of  this  town  are  not  so  equally  divided  as  in  most  of 
the  other  towns  of  the  county ;  there  being  by  far  a  greater  portion  of  the 
latter.  The  prairies  are  dry  and  undulating  and  easy  of  cultivation. 

A  good  share  of  the  population  is  made  up  of  Germans,  who  are  character¬ 
ized  for  their  integrity  and  habits  of  industry. 

There  is  a  beautiful  lake  in  the  western  part  of  this  town,  called  Lake  Zu¬ 
rich,  covering  about  500  acres,  lying  in  Sections  17,  18, 19  and  20.  This  lake 
was  first  visited  by  persons  exploring  for  locations  in  1835,  and  became  known 
at  first  as  Cedar  Lake,  from  the  large  number  of  cedar  trees  around  its  banks. 

In  the  summer  of  1836,  Seth  Paine,  of  Chicago,  visited  the  locality  of  this 
lake  while  exploring  the  country  around  in  search  of  a  place  suited  to  his  taste 
for  a  farm  and  rural  home.  Being  forcibly  struck  with  the  beauty  of  this 
lake  and  the  country  in  the  vicinity,  he  decided  to  locate  here  and  purchased  a 
claim  which  had  been  made  by  some  one  on  the  south  and  east  side  of  the  lake. 

Mr.  Paine,  being  a  man  of  taste  and  withal  much  ideality,  desired  that  this 
lake  should  have  a  more  attractive  name ;  having  in  mind  the  reported  beauties 
of  Lake  Zurich,  of  Switzerland,  he  gave  that  as  the  name  of  this  lake. 

Mr.  Paine  was  at  this  time  a  merchant  in  Chicago.  He  was  the  junior 
partner  of  the  firm  of  Taylor,  Breese  &  Co.,  dealers  in  dry  goods.  He  after¬ 
ward  became  a  man  of  note  for  his  eccentricities,  and  w~as  indeed  a  remarkable 
man.  Soon  after  the  purchase  of  this  claim,  he  commenced  to  put  up  buildings 
and  improve  the  land.  He  occupied  the  place  at  first  by  tenants  and  hired 
help.  He  took  up  his  residence  there  about  1841.  Up  to  this  time  he  had  always 
ranked  as  a  very  snug  business  man,  devoting  himself  exclusively  to  his  busi¬ 
ness  affairs,  abstaining  especially  from  the  subjects  of  both  religion  and  politics. 
This  marked  his  character  as  peculiar,  because  at  that  day  men  were  rare  who 
w~ere  not  zealous  on  either  one  or  the  other  of  these  subjects.  In  his  demeanor, 
Mr.  Paine  wTas  morose,  indulging  in  few  words,  giving  attention  to  that  only 
which  was  in  the  line  of  business. 

Some  two  or  three  years  after  Mr.  Paine  took  up  his  residence  at  Lake 
Zurich,  he  suddenly  plunged  into  the  Abolition  movement,  and  commenced  to 
advocate  the  abolition  of  slavery  in  the  United  States.  He  became  promi¬ 
nent  and  exceedingly  zealous  in  this  movement.  This  was  at  a  time  when  the 
agitation  of  this  subject  was  very  unpopular.  Those  who  engaged  in  it  were 
ridiculed  by  their  neighbors  and  in  the  public  prints  without  reserve.  Paine 
now  became  loquacious,  and  was  ready  for  a  confab  on  the  subject  of  abolition 
with  any  one.  Among  his  neighbors  he  had  one  sympathizer  and  co-worker  in 
this  movement,  in  the  person  of  Thomas  Haggerty,  who  lived  about  three  miles 
north,  also  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Ela ;  who  is  likewise  remembered  for 
his  zeal,  and  as  a  pioneer  in  this  movement. 

As  the  Abolition  movement  grew  in  strength  and  proportions,  and  became  a 
popular  subject,  Seth  Paine  suddenly  became  a  lukewarm  adherent.  His 





.-••••'  /*' 

r-»  ■ , '  t»  - ,-  -  ,  •  : . 

'.-J  ■  »  • 

<y  c^t 





specialty  in  the  interest  of  the  African  slave  gave  way  to  a  general  sentiment 
in  his  mind  that  the  whole  human  race  was  in  a  conditinn  of  moral  slavery 
more  terrible  than  slavery  in  other  forms.  His  theory  was  that  all  restraint 
upon  human  conduct  was  in  violation  of  natural  law,  and  that  the  institution 
of  civil  government  should  be  abolished.  In  this  connection  he  considered  the 
institution  of  marriage  under  our  system  as  one  equally  oppressive  with  Afri¬ 
can  slavery  He  would  state  the  case  something  like  this  :  By  the  relation  of 
husband  and  wife,  under  our  laws  and  customs,  a  man  owns  a  woman,  and  she  is 
subject  to  his  absolute  control  as  much  so  as  the  slave  would  be  to  his  master. 
He  would  neither  vote  nor  take  part  in  administering  the  government  in 
any  manner.  He  refused  to  give  countenance  to  judicial  proceedings,  either 
as  a  party  litigant,  or  as  a  witness.  If  his  testimony  in  court  was  needed, 
however,  he  held  it  to  be  his  duty  to  aid  his  neighbor  by  stating  on  any 
occasion  required  what  might  be  within  his  knowledge,  but  he  would  not  give 
countenance  to  judicial  proceedings  by  being  sworn  or  taking  an  oath,  no  matter 
what  penalty  might  be  imposed  for  refusal. 

He  was  the  owner  of  considerable  property,  but  he  refused  to  pay  the  taxes 
assessed  upon  it.  Payment  of  taxes  he  considered  would  also  be  a  recognition 
of  civil  government,  which  he  could  not  consent  to. 

He  believed  that  people  in  communities  should  assemble  often  together  for 
social  intercourse  and  free  discussion  of  subjects  relating  to  their  welfare.  For 
this  purpose  he  erected  a  commodious  building  in  what  is  now  the  village  of 
Lake  Zurich,  having  a  large  hall  for  public  meetings,  which  he  called  the  Hall 
of  Humanity. 

He  finally  obtained  some  printing  material,  and  had  a  paper  printed  for  a 
time  at  Lake  Zurich,  called  the  Christian  Banker,  one  or  two  numbers  of 
which  had  some  time  before  been  issued  in  Chicago,  where  he  for  a  time 
conducted  a  banking  scheme,  as  he  alleged,  on  Christian  principles.  After 
the  paper  was  removed  to  Lake  Zurich,  however,  its  financial  character 
was  dropped,  and  it  became  devoted  to  the  general  subject  of  oppressed 

Paine  afterward  removed  to  Chicago,  and  became  interested  in  establishing 
a  home  for  women  who  were  unable  to  provide  for  themselves.  In  this  he  la¬ 
bored  earnestly  for  several  years.  He  obtained  the  co-operation  of  P.  W. 
Gates,  and  other  philanthropic  individuals,  and  caused  the  erection  of  a  very 
comfortable  and  good-sized  building  on  the  West  Side,  called  the  Woman's 
Home.  It  is  well  managed  and  has  done  much  for  many  worthy  women  in 
indigent  circumstances.  Paine  labored  zealously  for  the  benefit  of  this  institu¬ 
tion  until  his  death,  a  few  years  ago.  Of  him  it  may  be  justly  said,  as  the 
Latinist  would  express  it,  Requiescat  in  pace. 

It  has  been  before  noticed,  in  a  preceding  portion  of  this  history,  that  Seth 
Paine  built  a  steam  saw-mill  at  Lake  Zurich,  in  1843.  He  afterward  added  a 
grist-mill,  but  both  have  long  since  disappeared. 



What  is  now  known  as  the  town  of  Ela  in  early  days  contained  a  tavern, 
or  house  of  entertainment  for  travelers,  of  considerable  note.  It  was  in  the 
north  part  of  the  town,  on  the  road  from  Half  Day  to  McHenry.  It  was  built 
by  Erastus  Houghton,  who  came  from  Vermont  in  the  Fall  of  1836,  and  soon 
thereafter  built  this  house.  He  called  it  the  “Yankee  Tavern,”  which  words 
he  had  painted  on  a  sign  board  and  put  up  in  a  conspicuous  place.  Quite  a 
large  business  was  done  at  this  place  for  many  years,  and  to  this  day  the  local¬ 
ity  is  remembered  by  the  older  inhabitants  as  the  “Yankee  Tavern.” 

It  has  been  mentioned  that  John  Robertson  was  one  of  the  early  settlers  of 
this  town.  He  commenced  in  moderate  circumstances,  but  in  time  acquired  a 
large  property  and  became  a  prominent  and  influential  citizen. 

On  the  8th  of  September,  1877,  a  circumstance  occurred  which  resulted  in 
his  death  by  a  pistol  shot.  He  was  one  of  the  Commissioners  of  Highways  of 
the  town,  and  had  met  with  the  other  two  at  the  premises  of  Peter  Davison,  in 
the  western  part  of  the  town,  for  the  purpose  of  opening  what  they  claimed 
was  a  public  road.  Besides  the  Commissioners,  there  wrere  present  a  Mr. 
Allen,  who  seemed  to  have  been  quite  conspicuous,  Peter  Davison,  his  son 
Charles  and  one  or  two  others. 

Mr.  Davison  appeared  on  the  ground  to  resist  the  acts  of  the  Commissioners 
in  their  attempt  to  open  the  road.  During  the  affair  Mr.  Robertson  was  shot 
by  a  pistol,  as  is  alleged,  at  the  hands  of  Peter  Davison.  But  as  a  trial  has 
not  been  had  at  the  time  of  this  writing,  an  attempt  at  a  statement  of  the  facts 
might  be  considered  unjust,  or  at  least  premature ;  and  as  a  work  of  this  kind 
will  be  expected  to  contain  some  extended  account  of  a  matter  of  the  impor¬ 
tance  of  this,  from  the  prominence  of  the  parties,  there  is  here  subjoined,  with¬ 
out  comment,  a  statement  of  the  witnesses,  as  given  in  evidence  before  the 
examining  magistrate,  before  whom  Peter  Davison  was  brought  on  the  charge 
of  murder,  as  the  fairest  statement  of  the  facts  that  can  be  given : 

Dr.  Charles  Butterfield  was  sworn  and  testified  substantially  as  follows  :  “  I 
am  a  practicing  physician  and  surgeon,  and  was  summoned  at  the  time  of  the 
wounding.  Death  was  caused  by  a  ball  which  entered  the  lower  jaw  just  under 
the  right  of  the  chin.  After  entering  the  chin,  it  went  backward  through  the 
center  of  the  so-called  Adam’s  apple,  through  the  gullet,  and  then  to  the  bone 
back  of  the  same.  The  ball  struck  several  vital  parts,  and  caused  hemorrhage, 
which  filled  the  lungs.  It  was  about  an  hour  and  a  half  after  the  shooting  that 
I  reached  him,  and  I  found  him  already  black  in  the  face  and  apparently  in  the 
first  stages  of  suffocation.  I  found  that  no  artery  had  been  severed,  only  a 
vein,  but  the  flow  of  blood  was  great  and  impossible  to  stop.  I  raised  him 
almost  to  a  standing  posture,  as  he  breathed  even  then  with  difficulty  when  in 
a  prostrate  condition.  I  never  treated,  and  have  never  read  or  heard  of,  an 
exactly  similar  case  before,  but  I  am  confident  that  no  treatment  could  have 
saved  him.  The  ball  had  taken  a  fatal  course,  and  the  rushing  blood  excluded, 
the  air.  He  died  about  6  o’clock  in  the  evening.” 



Mr.  Jacob  Bees,  who  gave  as  evidence  :  u  I  am  a  Road  Commissioner  of 
Lake  County,  and  have  lived  in  the  town  of  Ela  for  the  last  twenty -two  years. 
I  was  well  acquainted  with  John  Robertson  a  good  part  of  this  time.  With 
Mr.  Kuikke  and  one  or  two  others,  on  last  Saturday  morning,  I  went  over  to 
Davison’s  farm  on  a  little  road  business.  When  we  came  to  the  place  where 
the  shooting  took  place,  we  saw  the  son,  who,  at  our  bidding,  called  his  father. 
We  had  to  wait  some  time  for  the  arrival  of  the  two,  and  after  they  did  come  a 
discussion  arose  about  the  opening  of  the  road  through  his  place.  We  said  we 
had  to  open  it,  and  then  a  long  time  was  wasted  in  talk  about  the  two  roads. 
We  could  come  to  no  agreement,  and  finally  started  to  take  down  the  obstruc¬ 
tion,  which  was  a  crooked  rail  fence.  There  were  three  fences  across  the  road. 
On  the  middle  one  there  sat  Mr.  Davison,  his  wife,  son  and  hired  man.  He 
was  told  that  we  would  put  a  fence  through  on  the  south  road  if  time  would  be 
given  until  January  1st,  but  it  was  no  go.  A  break  was  made  for  the  second 
fence.  One  of  the  men  approached  Charlie,  who  swung  a  club  at  him.  This 
was  soon  taken  away,  and  then  both  the  old  man  and  boy  drew  revolvers.  Mr. 
Robertson  immediately  said  to  the  former:  ‘  Mr.  Davison,  we  don’t  want  any 
fuss.  We  don’t  want  any  fighting.  If  we  do  not  act  right,  then  use  the  law.’ 
He  was  answered :  ‘  If  you  go  on,  I’ll  use  force  enough  to  stop  you.’ 

“At  this  time,  Mr.  Davison  was  standing  on  the  fence  with  a  club  in  his 
left  hand  and  a  revolver  in  his  right.  Mr.  Robertson,  Mr.  Kuikke  and  a  hired 
man  stood  near.  I  was  a  little  way  off,  beside  a  buggy.  Mr.  Davison  pointed 
the  revolver  at  the  three  men  and  fired.  Mr.  Robertson  immediately  turned 
around  and  bent  over,  and  I  saw  blood  dripping.  I  soon  noticed  that  he  was 
gradually  falling  to  the  ground.  Mr.  Davison  immediately  walked  off  toward 
the  barn,  while  the  other  three  he  was  with  ran  toward  the  orchard  near  the 
house.  I  did  not  see  Mr.  Robertson  have  any  weapon,  or  attempt  in  any  way 
to  strike  Mr.  Davison  during  the  day.  They  always  seemed  to  be  on  good 
terms.  Mr.  Allen  was  not  very  friendly  with  Davison,  and  he  was  with  us  a 
part  of  the  time.  He  was  sent  for  to  obtain  his  consent  to  open  the  road,  as  he 
was  one  of  the  Commissioners.  Allen  said,  ‘  Look  here,  gentlemen  ;  you  have 
a  legal  right  to  the  road  and  you  ought  to  use  and  hold  it.'  We  decided  to  go 
through.  We  all  went  in  together,  but  Allen  sort  of  took  the  lead.  He  was 
about  four  feet  from  the  fence  at  the  time. 

“  Davison  stood  on  the  second  board  of  the  fence.  Someone  raised  a  plank 
and  struck  the  fence,  and  then  he  fired.  Allen  was  just  then  standing  a  few 
leet  distant,  and  Robertson  was  near  him,  neither  doing  nor  saying  anything  as 
far  as  I  can  remember.  If  there  was  any  fuss  going  on,  it  was  between  Allen, 
his  hired  man,  and  Davison,  but  I  am  not  sure  that  there  was  any  at  all. 

Mr.  August  Kuikke  next  took  the  stand.  He  testified  as  follows :  “  1  am 

a  Road  Commissioner,  and  was  at  the  fuss.  I  went  over  with  Mr.  Robertson 
and  others  to  put  through  a  road  that  had  been  talked  about  a  great  deal.  It 
was  an  old  road  that  we  wanted  to  open  for  use.  Davison  had  all  along  op- 



posed  the  move.  I  live  near,  and  am  a  farmer,  and  have  been  acquainted  with 
Mr.  Robertson  for  several  years.  I  saw  Mr.  Davison  reach  out  his  arm  and 
shoot,  but  there  was  no  previous  quarrel  between  these  men  to  my  knowledge. 
I  saw  Mr.  Allen’s  hired  man  strike  the  fence  with  a  board  endwise,  and  then 
step  back  a  foot  or  two,  just  before  the  report  occurred.  At  the  time,  I  stood 
on  the  east  side  of  the  fence  and  about  three  feet  in  front  of  Mr.  Robertson. 
We  were  standing  back  from  Mr.  Davison,  and  let  the  hired  man  of  Mr.  Allen 
begin  the  tearing  down  of  the  fence.  Mr.  Davison  had  not  said  a  word  to  Mr. 
Robertson  during  the  time,  to  my  knowledge.  I  told  the  hired  man  to  tackle  a 
board  separate  from  the  one  Mr.  Davison  was  sitting  upon,  and  he  did  so.  I 
saw  Charlie  Davison  sitting  on  the  fence  holding  a  revolver  and  club.  Robert¬ 
son’s  hired  man  walked  toward  him  with  an  axe,  but  I  happened  to  look  else¬ 
where  just  then  and  did  not  see  whether  or  not  the  axe  was  drawn  threateningly 
on  Charlie.  I  do  not  think  Charlie  offered  to  shoot,  or  do  anything  else. 
There  were  present  with  the  Davison  party  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Davison,  Charlie, 
and  a  hired  man  called  Robertson.” 

August  Randolph,  the  hired  man,  under  questioning,  said:  “  I  was  present 
at  the  shooting,  and  saw  Mr.  Davison  shoot  Mr.  Robertson.  He  was  standing 
on  the  fence,  on  the  second  board  from  the  bottom,  and  was  holding  out  his 
right  arm,  with  a  pistol  in  his  hand.  Charlie  drew  a  revolver  on  me,  because 
I  took  a  club  from  him.  That  was  all  I  had  to  do  with  the  fuss.  I  do  not 
remember  whether  there  was  any  discussion  or  not.  I  went  over  because  Mr. 
Robertson  and  Mr.  Allen  told  me  to  go  along  with  them,  and  I  did  not  know 
what  they  did  want  with  me  until  I  got  there.  I  did  not  say  anything  that  I 
can  remember.” 

Joseph  C.  Whitney  stated  that  he  lived  in  Lake  County,  and  had  known 
Mr.  Davison  more  or  less  for  the  last  twenty-seven  years,  and  was  on  friendly 
terms  with  him.  He  heard  Mr.  Davison  say,  last  winter,  that  he  could  shoot 
John  Robertson  and  enjoy  the  best  night’s  sleep  he  had  ever  had.  This  oc¬ 
curred  last  January,  and  at  his  house.  He  did  not  know  what  he  w*as  there 
for  now,  but  that  he  was  at  his  house.  Being  asked  if  he  remembered  anything 
else  said  at  the  time,  he  said  he  did  not,  but  there  was  some  talking  done  in 
regard  to  the  road.  He  did  not  think  at  the  time  that  Davison  meant  any¬ 
thing.  There  was  no  quarrel  between  the  two  men,  that  he  had  any  knowledge 
of,  and  in  fact  he  knew  little  at  the  time  about  the  new  road  trouble.  He  had 
not  told  any  one  this,  except  a  few  who  had  questioned  him  on  the  subject. 
He  tried  to  keep  ignorant  in  regard  to  the  road  trouble. 

The  testimony  closed  with  this  statement,  and,  as  nothing  had  been  ad¬ 
duced  to  show  that  Charles  Davison,  the  son  who  had  been  arrested  with  the 
father,  was  a  participant  in  the  fatal  shooting,  he  was  discharged  from  custody. 
The  father,  Peter  Davison,  was  recommitted  to  await  criminal  trial. 

The  first  town  meeting  in  this  town  was  held  at  the  house  of  Charles  S. 
Williams,  at  Russell’s  Grove,  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850.  J.  A. 



Halleck  was  chosen  Moderator,  and  Timothy  Bartles,  Clerk.  The  following 
were  the  town  officers  elected:  Supervisor,  Stephen  Bennett;  Town  Clerk, 
J.  A.  Halleck;  Justices  of  the  Peace,  Elisha  Lake  and  Oren  Ott ;  Commis¬ 
sioners  of  Highways,  E.  Hubbard,  A.  Morse  and  C.  R.  Logan;  Assessor, 
Henry  Morse;  Collector,  Daniel  Walters;  Constables,  Daniel  Walters*  and 
George  Proutz  ;  Overseer  of  the  Poor,  John  Clark.  The  number  of  votes  cast 
at  this  town  meeting  for  town  officers  was  114. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  in  this  town  for  1850,  including  both 
real  and  personal,  was  $78,503.  The  amount  of  tax  computed  on  the  same 
was  $1,026.11.  The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  the  year  1877  was 

The  first  school  house  built  in  this  town  was  on  land  now  occupied  by  Peter 
Davison,  about  the  year  1838,  the  work  being  done  mostly  by  his  father,  who 
then  lived  near  by.  The  first  school  taught  in  the  town  was  in  this  house,  soon 
after  it  was  completed,  by  Lucretia  Freeman. 

The  first  religious  organization  in  this  town  was  a  class  of  the  Methodist 
Church,  in  1843,  with  the  following  members :  Charles  Eletcher  and  wife,  Al¬ 
exander  Russell,  James  Millard,  Capt.  Turner,  William  Wenburn,  John  Clark, 
Thomas  Haggerty  and  wife,  James  Haggerty,  Jane  Haggerty,  Cyrus  Haggerty 
and  Harvey  Haggerty. 

The  first  regular  preacher  in  the  town  was  the  Rev.  J.  Nason.  A  church 
edifice  or  house  of  worship,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  was  built  at 
Russell’s  Grove,  in  1850.  This  was  known,  to  some  extent,  as  the  Fairfield 
Church.  Before  this  church  was  built,  the  meetings  for  religious  worship  were 
held  at  the  house  of  Thomas  Haggerty  and  at  the  house  of  Alexander  Russell. 
There  is  also  a  German  Lutheran  Church  in  this  town,  having  a  house  of 
worship  near  Russell’s  Grove,  which  was  built  in  1864.  It  has  a  large  con¬ 
gregation.  There  is,  likewise,  a  German  Methodist  Church  in  the  southern 
part  of  the  town,  in  the  vicinity  of  Long  Grove. 


This,  as  a  Congressional  Township,  is  known  as  Township  44,  north  Range 
10  east.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Avon,  on  the  east  by  Libertyville,  on 
the  south  by  Ela  and  on  the  west  by  Wauconda. 

The  setlement  of  what  is  now  the  town  of  Fremont  was  commenced  in 
1835.  Among  the  early  settlers  were  Daniel  Marsh,  William  Fenwick,  Dr. 
Bryan,  John  G.  Ragan,  Hiram  and  Elisha  Clark,  Oliver  and  Stephen  Paine, 
Nelson  and  Thomas  Darling,  Joseph  and  Samuel  L.  Wood,  Thomas  H.  Payne, 
Oliver  Booth,  Charles  Fletcher,  P.  P.  Houghton  and  Michael  Murry. 

Daniel  Marsh  came  in  the  Fall  of  1835  and  made  a  claim  of  land.  Early 
in  1836,  he  built  a  house  and  brought  his  wife  and  niece,  Ellen  Watson,  then  a 
little  girl. 



Mr.  Marsh’s  place  was  near  where  now  stands  the  German  Catholic  Church, 
south  of  Fremont  Center.  This  part  of  the  country  was,  for  some  time  there¬ 
after,  known  as  Marsh’s  Settlement. 

Other  claims  of  land  were  made  in  this  town  in  1835 ;  but  it  is  not  remem¬ 
bered  that  any  permanent  habitations  were  erected  until  early  in  1836,  except 
that  of  William  Fenwick,  who  came  and  made  a  claim  in  1835,  and  built  a 
house  on  the  south  bank  'of  Diamond  Lake,  where  he  continues  to  reside. 
This  was  the  first  house  built  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Fremont. 

Michael  Murry  and  John  G.  Ragan  came  in  August,  1836.  Mr.  Ragan 
settled  on  the  place  where  he  continues  to  reside. 

In  June,  1836,  the  wife  of  Oliver  Booth,  who  had  remained  at  the  East, 
joined  him,  bringing  their  daughter  Helen  and  his  wife’s  sister,  Mrs.  Hannah 
Tucker — Mr.  Booth,  with  Charles  Fletcher  and  P.  P.  Houghton,  having  come 
out  previously.  They  were  from  the  State  of  Vermont. 

This  town  takes  its  name  from  Gen.  John  C.  Fremont,  who  had  then 
acquired  fame  in  the  world  as  a  Western  explorer.  The  matter  of  selecting  a 
name  was  referred  by  the  Commissioners  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  town.  A 
sharp  contest  followed. 

An  election  for  an  expression  of  the  people  was  held  on  January  12,  1850, 
at  the  school  house  near  E.  P.  Penniman’s,  a  short  distance  south  of  the  present 
German  Catholic  Church.  Christopher  Seeber,  Charles  Darling  and  Charles 
H.  Bartlett  acted  as  Judges,  and  William  Clarke  as  Clerk.  Fifty-five  votes  were 

The  names  voted  for  were  Hale,  Gilman,  Fort  Hill,  Seneca,  Tickleville  and 
Haddam.  There  were  for  Hale,  1  vote ;  for  Gilman,  25  ;  Fort  Hill,  9  votes ; 
Seneca,  1  vote;  Tickleville,  2  votes,  and  Haddam,  17  votes.  Those  voting  for 
these  several  names,  as  appears  by  the  returns  cf  the  election,  were  as  follows : 
For  Hale,  I.  H.  Smith ;  for  Tickleville,  T.  Raymond  and  Isaac  H.  Smith ; 
for  Seneca,  Thomas  IT.  Payne ;  for  Fort  Hill,  William  I.  Lusk,  John  Strick¬ 
land,  Joel  B.  Sherman,  Harvey  Taylor,  William  Austin,  Robert  Lyons,  Daniel 
Grover,  Justus  Grover  and  Christopher  Seeber;  for  Gilman,  B.  G.  Holley, 
N.  M.  Darling,  Jacob  Smith,  Hiram  Penniman,  James  Millard,  David  Perkins, 
Daniel  Marsh,  E.  Penniman,  William  Gould,  Arthur  Penniman,  Christian 
Thomas,  Henry  Ames,  James  C.  Price,  Milton  Schenck,  J.  B.  Thomas,  H.  S. 
Trumbull,  Levi  Price,  A.  C.  Green,  Thomas  Bryan,  Peter  C.  Schenck,  How¬ 
ard  Horton,  Edwin  Cruver,  William  Beach,  Charles  Darling,  Charles  H.  Bart¬ 
lett  ;  for  Haddam,  H.  Swan,  J.  H.  Swan,  James  S.  Clark,  G.  S.  Brainard, 
Clark  Jones,  H.  E.  Swan,  T.  F.  Swan,  William  Cook,  Alfred  Wood,  Milton 
Schenck,  R.  D.  Maynard,  A.  B.  Patridge,  S.  C.  Payne,  S.  Hurlbut,  William 
Colvin,  Francis  Bryant,  A.  N.  Parsons. 

The  returns  of  this  election  were  submitted  to  the  Commissioners  having  in 
charge  the  duty  of  dividing  the  county  and  giving  names  to  the  several  towns, 
then  in  session  at  Waukegan,  together  with  the  following  petition  : 


“We,  whose  names  are  underwritten,  were  not  present  at  the  election 
on  Satuiday,  the  12th  mst.,  and  as  there  was  no  choice  of  a  name  for  town¬ 
ship  (44)  forty-four,  range  (10)  ten,  would  give  our  preference  to  the  name 
of  Haddam  (as  the  name  of  our  town)  over  every  other  voted  for  at  said 

To  this  petition  were  subscribed  the  following  names :  H.  Payne,  Thomas 
P.  Harrington,  Alfred  Payne,  L.  Abbot,  Whiting  S.  Shepherd,  Edward  S. 
Chapman,  Charles  Stebbings,  S.  B.  Madole,  Diming  Gibbons,  William  Cauph- 
lan,  Robert  Granger,  Gideon  Wenbon,  W.  W.  Bement,  George  Wells,  Daniel 
Harvey,  A.  B.  Cook,  James  Wade,  Jarlin  Wisner,  Samuel  H.  Swan,  A.  M. 

Christopher  Seeber,  one  of  the  Judges  of  the  election  and  a  prominent  citi¬ 
zen  of.  the  town  at  that  time,  in  transmitting  to  the  Commissioners  the  returns 
of  the  election,  submitted  the  following  well- written  and  candid  communication  : 

“  Fort  Hill,  Jan.  14,  1850. 

To  Col.  J.  Molton ,  E.  M.  Haines ,  Esq.,  and  M.  Dulanty ,  Esq.,  Commis¬ 
sioners  : 

“  Gentlemen — By  referring  to  the  4  poll  book  ’  herewith  inclosed,  you  will 
perceive  that  4  Gilmer  ’  has  the  greatest  number  of  votes,  but  not  a  majority 
over  all  the  rest.  An  attempt  was  made  early  in  the  day  of  election  to  unite  on 
a  name,  but  it  was  soon  found  to  be  impossible.  The  election  was  held  one  and 
a  half  miles  south  of  the  center  of  the  town,  and  in  the  very  heart  of  the  neigh¬ 
borhood  of  the  friends  to  the  name  of  4  Gilmer,’  and  still  they  failed  to  carry 
the  name  over  all  the  rest.  The  name  of  4  Haddam,’  which  you  will  perceive  is 
the  next  highest,  was  not  introduced  until  after  1  o’clock,  and  still  it  received 
seventeen  votes.  After  the  polls  were  closed,  an  attempt  was  made  to  unite 
upon  a  name,  but  without  effect. 

44  If  either  of  the  names  running  highest  are  adopted,  the  majority  of  our 
voters  will  be  dissatisfied ;  and  under  the  existing  circumstances,  permit  me  to 
suggest  a  new  name  which,  in  my  opinion,  will  be  satisfactory  to  all.  I  will 
suggest  the  name  of  4  Herkimer ,’  and  beg  you  to  take  it  under  your  most  serious 
4  advisement.  ’ 

44  The  Board  recommend  that  our  first  election  be  held  at  the  school  house, 
near  E.  P.  Penniman’s. 

44  And  I  recommend  that  the  place  of  holding  our  caucus  (if  you  act  on  it) 
be  at  the  house  of  John  Strickland,  it  being  the  most  central,  taking  the  actual 
settlement  into  consideration.  Your  most  obedient  servant, 

44  Christopher  Seerer.” 

Delegations  of  citizens,  representing  the  names  of  Gilmer  and  Haddam,  ap¬ 
peared  before  the  Commissioners  and  urged  the  names  of  their  choice. 

The  party  in  favor  of  Gilmer  was  headed  by  John  G.  Ragan,  while  that 
in  favor  of  Haddam  was  headed  by  James  S.  Clark. 



A  post  office  had  been  established  in  the  township  in  1844,  called 
Gilmer,  and  John  G.  Ragan  appointed  Postmaster.  It  w'as  so  named 
in  honor  of  Thomas  W.  Gilmer,  Secretary  of  the  Navy  under  President 
Tyler,  who  was  killed  by  the  bursting  of  a  gun  on  board  of  the  United  States 
Steamer  Princeton,  February  28,  1844.  Mr.  Ragan,  as  might  well  be 
supposed,  became  greatly  attached  to  this  name,  and  urged  it  with  much 

Mr.  Clark  was  a  native  of  Haddam,  in  the  State  of  Connecticut,  as  were 
many  of  his  neighbors.  This  induced  his  wishes  in  that  direction  and  gave 
strength  to  that  name. 

But  for  reasons  disclosed  by  Mr.  Seeber’s  communication,  the  Commission¬ 
ers  were  not  inclined  to  adopt  either  of  the  names  thus  presented,  not 
being  able  to  determine  from  the  proceedings  what  were  the  wishes  of  the 

At  that  time,  the  name  of  Fremont  was  on  everybody’s  lips  as  the  great 
Western  explorer,  and  to  fall  upon  such  a  name  was  an  easy  matter.  This 
name  was  suggested  by  some  one  present,  whereupon  a  compromise  was  effected 
and  this  was  adopted  as  the  name  of  the  town. 

That  elevation  of  ground,  or  considerable  sized  mound,  known  as  Fort  Hill, 
which  rises  in  the  prairie  in  the  northern  part  of  the  town,  is  a  matter  justly 
worthy  of  a  passing  notice.  Thomas  H.  Payne,  Joseph  Wood  and  Joel  H. 
Johnson  were  probably  the  first  white  persons  who  ever  set  foot  upon  this  spot 
of  ground,  which  was  in  the  month  of  January,  183T,  when  they  gave  to  it,  at 
the  suggestion  of  Mr.  Payne,  the  name  of  Fort  Hill,  in  consequence  of  its  com¬ 
manding  position  over  the  surrounding  country. 

The  settlement  which  they  commenced  in  the  Spring  following,  in  the 
vicinity  of  this  mound,  was  for  a  long  time  thereafter  known  as  the  “  Fort  Hill 
Settlement.”  In  the  Spring  of  1838,  a  post  office  was  established,  by  the  name 
of  Fort  Hill,  about  a  mile  southwest  from  the  hill,  at  the  house  of  Joseph 
Wood,  who  was  appointed  Postmaster. 

As  has  already  been  stated  in  this  history,  under  the  head  of  the  county  at 
large,  before  township  organization,  under  the  subdivision  of  the  county  into 
precincts,  there  was  a  precinct  or  election  district,  comprising  this  part  of  the 
county,  called  Fort  Hill  Precinct.  It  became  known  as  the  Fort  Hill  country. 
Its  superior  advantages,  after  they  became  known,  attracted  general  attention, 
and  settlers  came  in  very  rapidly. 

The  following  communication,  in  the  columns  of  a  paper  published  in  Chi¬ 
cago  in  1844,  in  June  of  that  year,  called  the  Gem  of  the  Prairie ,  under  the 
head  of  ‘’Fort  Hill,”  seems  to  give  us  a  pretty  fair  idea  of  this  portion  of 
country  at  that  date  and  the  progress  it  was  making.  The  writer,  one  of  the 
early  settlers,  says  : 

“This  is  the  name  of  a  beautiful  and  fertile  tract  of  country  situated  in 
the  western  part  of  Lake  County,  Ill.,  containing  about  sixty-four  square  miles. 



Its  superior  advantages  as  a  farming  country  have  been,  until  a  few  years  back, 
but  little  known  abroad. 

“  In  the  Spring  of  1836,  while  seeking  a  location  in  the  western  country 
upon  which  to  spend  the  remainder  of  my  days,  I  was  by  chance  led  upon  the 
tract  in  question.  I  immediately  saw  the  numerous  advantages  which  it  pos¬ 
sessed  over  the  surrounding  country,  having  about  an  equal  quantity  of  prairie 
and  timber,  and  both  of  the  best  quality,  being  also  well  watered  by  streams 
and  small  lakes,  so  that  nearly  every  farm  could  be  accommodated  by  living  water  ; 
and  knowing  that  my  neighbors,  if  civilization  should  ever  reach  me,  would 
possess  equal  advantages  with  myself,  as  far  as  location  of  a  farm  was  con¬ 
cerned,  I  resolved  to  settle  myself  here  and  go  no  further.  The  country  was 
at  this  time  but  a  wilderness,  and  not  a  mark  of  civilization  was  to  be  found 
within  the  distance  of  several  miles,  and  many  an  immigrant  passed  on  to  Big 
Foot,  Rock  River  and  other  places  of  note,  thinking  and  making  it  as  an  objec¬ 
tion  that  this  part  of  the  country  would  always  be  in  the  background.  And 
another  reason  why  immigrants  passed  was  that  this  was  not  a  part  of  the 
country  which  they  had  ever  heard  of  before,  and  imagined,  therefore,  that  if 
it  were  superior  to  other  parts  around  it,  its  name  would  certainly  have  gone 

u  Bet  us  now  take  a  view  of  the  country  at  the  present  date — but  mark  the 
change  !  The  progress  of  eight  years  has  wrought  a  change  which  I  had  not 
expected  to  see  short  of  the  space  of  twenty.  The  country  has  become  thickly 
populated,  nearly  as  much  so  as  the  Eastern  States,  from  which  most  of  the 
settlers  have  immigrated.  Public  roads  have  been  established  in  every  direc¬ 
tion  and  well  improved.  The  prairies  are  in  a  high  state  of  cultivation  and 
covered  with  fields  of  grain;  and,  in  short,  Fort  Hill  is  now  acknowledged  to 
be  the  richest  and  most  flourishing  part  of  the  country. 

“  A  town,  which  bids  fair  to  be  a  place  of  importance,  has  been  commenced 
upon  Lake  Michigan,  which  is  about  twelve  miles  distant,  where  our  farmers 
are  taking  most  of  their  produce.  There  are  many  who,  seven  years  ago, 
shunned  this  part  of  the  country  and  settled  fifty  miles  to  the  west,  who  are 
now  returning  and  paying  from  three  to  five  dollars  per  acre  for  wild  land,  for 
the  purpose  of  settling  nearer  to  a  market.” 

The  first  post  office  established  in  this  township  was  in  1839,  on  the  road 
from  Half  Day  to  McHenry,  about  a  mile  or  so  north  of  the  town  line,  called 
Darlington,  and  Charles  Darling  appointed  Postmaster.  It  existed  about  three 
years,  when  it  was  discontinued.  It  was  succeeded  by  the  establishment  of 
Gilmer,  in  1844,  as  before  related.  The  original  name  suggested  for  the  Gil¬ 
man  post  office,  when  petitioned  for,  was  Wentworth,  in  honor  of  John  Went¬ 
worth,  then  a  Representative  in  Congress  from  the  district  in  which  Lake 
County  was  comprised.  The  petition  was  sent  to  Mr.  Wentworth,  at  Wash¬ 
ington,  for  his  aid  in  procuring  the  office.  Fearing  that  he  might  not  succeed, 
and  desiring  to  serve  his  friends  in  that  neighborhood — of  which  Mr.  Ragan  was 



the  acknowledged  leader — Mr.  Wentworth  erased  his  own  name  from  the  peti¬ 
tion  and  inserted  that  of  Gilmer,  knowing  that  the  Postmaster  General  had 
been  much  attached  to  Mr.  Gilmer,  late  Secretary  of  the  Navv,  whose  sad  fate 
had  cast  a  gloom  over  the  whole  country. 

On  presenting  the  petition  to  the  Postmaster  General,  thus  amended,  the 
office  was  established  without-  objection. 

There  was  afterward  a  post  office  established  near  the  center  of  the  town, 
called  Fremont  Center,  and  subsequently  another,  on  Section  28,  called  Dean's 
Corners.  A  small  village  has  grown  up  at  the  latter  place,  and  it  has  become 
quite  a  center  of  trade  for  the  surrounding  country.  The  name  of  the  place 
has  recently  been  changed  to  Ivanhoe. 

The  first  road  laid  out  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Fremont  was  a  road 
running  from  Bangs'  Lake  (now  Wauconda),  to  Half  Day.  This  part  of  the 
country  being  at  that  time  attached  to  Cook  County,  for  judicial  purposes  and 
management  of  county  affairs,  the  petition  was  granted  by  the  County  Com¬ 
missioners  of  Cook  County,  who  appointed  John  Gridley,  Seth  Washburn 
and  Daniel  Marsh,  Viewers. 

The  old  Yankee  Tavern  was  built  on  this  road,  by  Erastus  Houghton,  who 
came  in  the  Fall  of  1836,  of  which  mention  has  been  made  in  the  history  of 
the  town  of  Ela.  This  was  in  the  Fall  of  1836. 

The  next  road  laid  out  was  from  the  Milwaukee  road,  near  Buffalo  Grove, 
to  McHenry,  on  Fox  River,  and  became  known  as  the  McHenry  and  Chicago 
road.  This  road  also  passed  by  the  Yankee  Tavern.  The  Viewers  to  locate 
the  road  were  John  G.  Ragan,  Joseph  Wood  and  Mr.  Goodnow.  They  were 
appointed  by  the  County  Commissioners'  Court  of  McHenry  County,  by 
authority  of  which  the  road  was  established.  It  was  surveyed  by  John  A. 
Mills,  Surveyor,  and  laid  out  and  established  in  1837. 

The  first  marriage  occurring  in  the  township  is  said  to  have  been  that  of 
John  G.  Ragan  with  Miss  Hannah  Tucker,  January  9,  1839.  They  were 
married  by  Hiram  Kennicott,  a  Justice  of  the  Peace. 

The  first  child  born  in  the  township  was  David  Booth,  in  November,  1837. 

The  first  death  which  occurred  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Fremont  was 
Oliver  Booth,  who  died  in  the  Spring  of  1840.  He  was  buried  at  Bangs' 
Lake.  The  funeral  sermon  was  preached  by  Rev.  Samuel  Hurlbut,  father  of 
Henrv  Hurlbut,  now  living  in  the  town  at  Ivanhoe. 

The  first  Justice  of  the  Peace  acting  in  this  township  was  John  G.  Ragan. 
He  was  elected  when  this  county  formed  a  part  of  McHenry  County,  and  com¬ 
missioned  by  Gov.  Duncan,  August  5th,  1837.  He  joined  in  marriage  James 
M.  Washburn  and  Hannah  Hubbard,  on  the  6th  of  August,  1837.  This  was 
the  first  marriage  in  this  county  after  it  became  a  part  of  McHenry  County. 

On  the  4th  of  July,  1842,  a  celebration  of  the  day  was  held  on  Fort  Hill, 
being  the  first  occurrence  of  the  kind  in  the  township.  The  arrangements  for  the 
occasion  were  very  complete  and  extensive,  and  a  large  congregation  were  as- 



sembled.  People  came  from  all  parts  of  the  county;  a  celebration  of  this 
kind  at  such  a  place,  away  off  on  the  prairie,  being  considered  a  novel  affair. 
The  oration  was  delivered  by  George  Thompson.  During  the  day,  an  accident 
occurred,  which  cast  a  gloom  over  the  occasion,  and  soon  brought  the  proceed¬ 
ings  to  a  close.  A  son  of  Elisha  Clark,  of  Mechanics’  Grove,  was  accidentallv 


shot  by  a  pistol  in  his  own  hands,  and  died  soon  after  being  removed  home. 

The  first  town  meeting  for  this  township  under  township  organization  was 
held  at  the  house  of  Peter  C.  Schenck,  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850. 
A.  B.  Partridge  was  chosen  Moderator,  and  Christopher  Seeber  Clerk.  The 
following  persons  were  elected  town  officers :  Hurlhut  Swan,  Supervisor  ; 
Christopher  Seeber,  Town  Clerk  ;  Justices  of  the  Peace,  Sheldon  Wood  and 
Henry  Ames ;  Commissioners  of  Highways,  William  Colvin,  Joel  B.  Sherman 
and  Thomas  H.  Payne  ;  Constables,  E.  P.  Pennaman  and  D.  Gibbons ;  Over¬ 
seer  of  the  Poor,  A.  B.  Partridge  ;  Collector,  D.  Gibbons. 

The  eastern  portion  of  the  township  is  mostly  prairie,  while  the  western 
portion  is  mostly  woodland  and  oak  openings.  There  is,  however,  a  fair  share 
of  woodland  in  proportion  to  the  prairie.  A  portion  of  Diamond  Lake  is  in 
the  southwest  corner  of  this  town,  on  Section  36.  On  Section  IT  is  another 
small  lake  or  pond,  called  Grass  Lake,  from  which  Squaw  Creek  takes  its  rise, 
and  runs  northwestward  into  Eox  River.  * 

The  inhabitants  are  mostly  from  the  Eastern  States,  with  a  small  share  of 
Germans.  The  neat  and  tasty  appearance  of  the  farms  in  this  township  affords 
the  best  evidence  of  the  perseverance  and  industry  of  its  citizens. 

The  fruit  nursery  of  Thomas  H.  Payne,  Esq.,  is  a  matter  worthy  of  a  mo¬ 
ment’s  attention,  and  one  which  reflects  much  credit  upon  the  flourishing  town 
of  Fremont.  It  contains  about  100,000  trees  of  different  kinds  and  varieties. 
He  has  also  about  thirty  acres  of  orcharding,  composed  of  bearing  trees  and 
of  the  choicest  varieties  of  grafted  fruit.  He  has  about  ninety  varieties  of 
apples,  sixteen  of  plums,  thirty  of  cherries,  forty  of  pears,  fifteen  of  grapes 
and  five  of  apricots. 

The  valuation  of  property  of  this  town  for  1850,  including  both  real  and 
personal,  was  $73,150.  The  amount  of  tax  computed  thereon  was  $920.41. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  this  year,  1877,  was  $382,349. 

Hurlbut  Swan  is  a  prominent  citizen  of  this  township,  and  identified  with 
its  early  history.  He  is  a  thrifty  farmer  in  the  north  part  of  the  town,  and  lias 
held  several  public  positions  of  honor  and  trust.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Constitutional  Convention  of  Illinois,  in  1847.  He  was  the  first  Supervisor  ot 
the  town  and  was  for  two  terms  a  Representative  for  Lake  County  in  the  State 

Thomas  H.  Payne,  whose  name  has  been  mentioned  as  one  of  the  early 
settlers  of  this  township,  has  from  an  early  day  been  a  prominent  citizen  of  tin* 
county.  He  was  one  of  the  County  Commissioners,  at  the  time  of  the  removal 
of  the  county  seat  from  Liberty ville  to  Little  Fort.  It  was  his  vote  in  the 



Board  that  decided  the  question  in  favor  of  Little  Fort — the  efforts  of  the 
people  of  the  county  at  that  day  being  to  contribute  all  in  their  power  toward 
building  up  the  latter  place,  to  make  it  a  market  place  and  point  for  shipment 
on  the  lake,  it  being  before  the  days  of  railroads  and  before  it  wras  supposed 
that  a  railroad  could  be  built  and  made  successful  from  a  point  east  of  the  lakes 
to  this  country.  Mr.  Payne  has  always  been  a  man  of  great  public  spirit, 
earnest  and  zealous  in  whatever  he  undertakes,  both  in  his  own  business  affairs 
as  well  as  in  matters  of  public  concern.  He  was  the  pioneer  in  this  part 
of  the  country  in  the  nursery  and  fruit  business,  and  in  this  regard  his 
labors  have  been  of  much  value  to  the  county.  He  is  a  brother  of  Henry 
B.  Payne,  of  Cleveland,  Ohio,  and  recently  a  member  of  Congress  from  that 

John  G.  Ragan,  whose  name  is  also  mentioned  as  among  the  earliest  settlers 
of  this  town,  who  is  so  closely  identified  with  its  early  history,  and  who  has 
been  styled  the  Patriarch  of  Fremont,  has  long  been  a  prominent  citizen  of 
this  township.  He  was  elected  County  Commissioner  in  1844,  and  was  after¬ 
ward  Sheriff  of  the  county. 

Charles  H.  Bartlett,  who  has  been  before  referred  to  as  one  of  the  first 
County  Commissioners  of  McHenry  County  and  one  of  the  oldest  citizens  of 
the  county,  is  likewise  a  resident  of  this  township,  living  near  Diamond  Lake. 
Mr.  Bartlett,  as  has  also  been  before  stated,  was  one  of  the  first  County  Com¬ 
missioners  of  Lake  County,  after  it  was  set  off  from  McHenry.  He  resided  at 
that  time  near  Libertyville,  and  the  interest  of  those  he  more  immediatelv  rep¬ 
resented  led  him  in  the  matter  of  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  to  support 
the  cause  of  Libertyville.  His  course,  however,  was  characterized  by  candor, 
and  he  preserved  the  respect  of  the  people. 

The  name  of  a  citizen  of  this  town,  now  nearly  forgotten,  may  be  mentioned 
in  this  connection  to  show  an  instance  of  personal  integrity  seldom  equaled.  A 
man  by  the  name  of  Bates  once  lived  in  the  central  part  of  this  town,  who  be¬ 
came  partially  insane.  He  had  married  a  second  wife,  who  had  a  familv  of 
children.  After  his  insanity,  he  left  his  wife,  sold  his  property  and  disap¬ 
peared  for  some  time.  He  went  to  Chicago,  and  there  called  to  see  Philo  Car¬ 
penter,  a  well  known  citizen  there,  who  had  been  an  old  friend  and  acquaint¬ 
ance  of  his.  He  informed  Mr.  Carpenter  that  he  had  §800  that  he  wished 
him  to  take  and  keep  until  he  called  for  it.  Mr.  Carpenter  stated  that  he  did 
not  desire  to  take  it  on  such  terms ;  that  the  church  to  which  he  belonged  was 
then  building  a  house  of  worship,  and  could  use  the  money  for  a  time  and  al¬ 
low  him  interest  on  it ;  that  he  would  take  his  money  for  the  use  of  the  church, 
and  repay  it  at.  a  time  named,  with  interest.  Bates  accordingly  handed  him 
the  money,  refusing  to  take  any  note  or  evidence  of  the  transaction  whatever. 
Bates  thereupon  went  away.  The  time  for  payment  of  the  money  arrived,  but 
Mr.  Carpenter  heard  nothing  of  Bates,  neither  did  he  know  wrhere  he  lived  or 
had  gone.  Time  rolled  on,  and  finally  Mr.  Carpenter  heard  by  accident  that 



Bates  was  dead,  and  had  left  a  widow  in  Lake  County,  in  the  town  of  Fremont. 
He  at  once  communicated  to  the  widow  the  fact  that  her  husband  had  some 
years  before  left  with  him  a  sum  of  money,  which  awaited  the  order  of  his  legal 
representatives.  His  administrator  called  on  Mr.  Carpenter  and  received  the 
money,  with  interest.  The  name  of  Philo  Carpenter  is  familiar  to  every  one 
in  the  city  of  Chicago  as  a  man  of  property  and  influence.  He  came  to  Chi¬ 
cago  at  an  early  day,  and  was  very  successful  in  business. 

The  first  school  house  in  this  town  was  built  in  the  Marsh  settlement,  on 
Section  83,  about  1839.  The  first  school  taught  was  about  the  same  time,  in 
this  house,  by  Laura  B.  Sprague,  of  Half  Day. 

The  first  church  organization  in  this  town  occurred  at  the  house  of  Alfred 
Payne,  February  20,  1838,  at  which  Rev.  Mr.  Blachford  acted  as  Moderator, 
the  church  being  Presbyterian  in  form  of  government.  The  following  were 
the  first  members  of  the  church :  Elisha  Clark,  Cornelia  Clark,  Hiram  Clark, 
Melinda  Clark,  Matthew  Hoffman,  Lucy  Hoffman,  Ira  Harden,  Phoebe  Harden. 
Oliver  L.  Payne,  Mary  Payne,  Mercy  Payne,  Alfred  Payne,  Nancy  Gridley, 
Paulina  Norton,  Emeline  A.  Schenck,  Sarah  Harden — in  all,  sixteen  members. 

The  church  was  changed  to  Congregational  in  form  of  government  in  1844. 
The  first  minister  of  the  church,  by  some,  is  said  to  have  been  Rev.  Joseph 
Payne ;  by  others,  Rev.  Elbridge  G.  Howe.  A  house  of  worship  for  the 
church  was  first  built  at  Libertyville  in  1845.  This  building  was  finally  aban¬ 
doned,  and  a  church  building  was  built  in  1856  at  Dean’s  Corners.  Rev.  A. 
R.  Fox  is  the  present  minister.  St.  John’s  Church,  Roman  Catholic,  was 
organized  in  1841,  and  a  church  building  was  erected  the  same  year,  in  the 
southwest  part  of  the  township,  on  Section  30,  on  land  owned  by  John  Murry. 
The  first  priest  was  John  Guigan  ;  the  present  priest  is  Patrick  O’Neil.  The 
first  members  of  the  church  were  John  Murry,  Michael  Murry,  Hugh  Devlin, 
Felix  Givens,  Robert  Conmee,  Michael  Senott,  John  Roney,  William  Simmons, 
John  Ryan. 

The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  at  Diamond  Lake  was  organized  in  this 
town  in  1858.  A  church  building  was  erected  the  same  year.  The  first  min¬ 
ister  was  Rev.  H.  S.  Trumbull ;  the  present  minister  is  W.  A.  Adrian.  The 
first  members  of  this  church  were  as  follows  :  William  Wenban,  Charles  Whit¬ 
ney,  Mrs.  Daniel  Cruver,  Gideon  Wenban,  Samuel  Hulbert,  Mrs.  Stephen 
Bennett.  The  present  Trustees  of  the  church  are  Alexander  Bolinski,  Fayette 
Butterfield,  John  Allison,  Salem  Cruver,  C.  G.  Wenban.  The  Weslyan  Meth¬ 
odists  in  this  vicinity  worship  in  the  church  building  aforesaid. 

The  St.  Mary’s  German  Roman  Catholic  Church,  of  this  town,  was  organ¬ 
ized  some  twenty-five  years  ago.  Their  house  of  worship,  which  was  built 
many  years  ago,  is  on  Section  21. 




This  township  is  situated'  on  the  western  boundary  of  the  county,  and  is 
only  four  miles  in  width.  As  a  Congressional  township  it  is  known  as  Town¬ 
ship  15,  north  Range  9  east.  It  has  the  least  population,  and  ranks  the  least 
in  the  assessed  value  of  property  of  any  town  in  the  county. 

Among  the  early  settlers  of  this  township  were  Harley  Clark,  Rufus  Wil¬ 
lard,  Robert  Stanley,  Chester  Hamilton,  Hevereaux  and  Henry  Goodale,  T.  D. 
and  D.  C.  Townsend  and  Timothy  B.  Titcomb. 


The  first  house  in  the  township  was  built  by  Harley  Clark,  on  the  north 
side  of  Fish  Lake,  in  the  Summer  of  1839. 

This  town  was  originally  named  Goodale,  in  honor  of  Devereaux  Goodale. 
who  was  one  of  the  early  settlers,  and  then  a  resident  of  the  town.  Mr. 
Goodale  stated  to  his  neighbors  that  if  the  inhabitants  would  consent  to  have 
the  town  named  after  him  he  would  proceed,  within  a  reasonable  time,  and 
erect  a  town  house,  for  the  use  of  the  town,  at  such  point  as  might  be  selected. 
There  were  but  very  few  inhabitants  in  the  township  at  the  time,  and  as  far  a^ 
known  they  consented  to  this  name. 

A  certificate  was  laid  before  the  Commissioners  having  the  matter  in  charge, 
signed  by  Noah  Dunbar,  Chairman,  and  Wm.  C.  Neale,  Secretary,  setting  forth 
that  at  a  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  Township  45,  north  Range  9  east,  held  in 
said  township  on  the  18th  of  January,  1850,  it  was  agreed  that  the  same  be 
named  Goodale ;  whereupon  the  Commissioners  named  it  accordingly. 

But  the  town  house,  promised  in  consideration  of  the  name,  was  never 
built.  Mr.  Goodale  soon  afterward  removed  to  California,  and  has  never  re¬ 
turned.  In  1867,  the  name  of  the  town  was  changed  to  Grant. 

This  town  is  watered  by  Fish  Lake,  Wooster  Lake,  Sullivan’s  Lake,  Mud 
Lake,  Duck  Lake,  Long  Lake,  part  of  the  Pistakee  Lakes  and  some  two  or 
three  smaller  ponds,  not  named ;  also  by  Squaw  Creek,  which  passes  through 
the  northern  portion. 

The  Pistakee  Lakes,  so  called,  spoken  of,  are  a  chain  of  lakes  in  the  western 
part  of  the  county,  which  are  attracting  much  attention  of  late  as  a  place  of 
resort  for  hunting  and  fishing,  especially  the  locality  within  this  township. 
These  lakes  are  three  in  number.  The  first  is  commonly  called  Grass  Lake* 
and  the  second,  Fox  Lake. 

Although  forty  years  have  elapsed  since  the  settlement  of  the  country 
around  these  lakes  was  commenced,  yet  that  portion  in  the  immediate  vicinity 
presents  nearly  as  wild  an  appearance  to-day  as  at  the  beginning.  This  results 
largely  from  the  peculiar  topography  of  the  country.  In  some  places  the  land 
is  low  and  marshy.  The  shores  of  die  lakes  are  irregular,  interrupted  by  in¬ 
numerable  nooks  and  points,  and  within  the  lakes  are  several  islands. 



Before  the  settlement  of  the  country,  this  was  a  place  of  general  resort  for 
the  PottawTattomie  tribe  of  Indians.  This  was  within  their  country.  Here 
were  their  villages  and  most  extensive  cornfields.  The  lakes  were  filled  with 
fish  ;  the  waters  were  covered  with  wild  fowl,  and  the  country  around  abounded 
in  game. 

In  a  newspaper  published  in  Chicago  in  1844,  we  found  several  articles 
referring  to  these  lakes  and  country  around,  in  one  of  which  the  writer  states 
that  it  was  Blackhawk’s  endeavor  in  commencing  his  war  with  the  whites,  in 
1832,  to  reach  this  chain  of  lakes  with  his  tribe  as  a  place  of  security  ;  and 
the  writer  remarks  that  had  Blackhawk  succeeded  in  gaining  this  ground, 
the  many  points  and  islands  of  these  lakes  would  have  long  secured  his  forces 
from  an  army  unacquainted  with  the  country.  No  authority  is  given  for  this 
conclusion,  but  a  reference  to  Blackhawk’s  own  account  of  the  circumstances 
attending  the  commencement  of  his  hostilities  would  lead  to  the  correctness  of 
this  statement.  This  account  shows  that  his  plan  was  to  form  a  coalition  with 
the  Pottawattomies,  by  which  they  would  provide  him  a  place  of  security  for 
the  women  and  children  and  old  men  of  his  tribe.  These  lakes  were  then  in 
the  heart  of  the  Pottawattomie  country.  It  is  known  that  the  Pottawattomies 
entertained  Blackhawk’s  proposition  at  a  three  days’  council  on  the  Aux  Plaines 
River,  west  of  Chicago.  It  is  said  to  have  been  defeated  only  by  the  efforts  of 
Billy  Caldwell  and  Alexander  Robinson,  two  half-breed  chiefs. 

The  following  from  Blackhawk’s  narrative,  as  given  at  Rock  Island  after 
his  return  from  captivity  in  1833,  to  Mr.  J.  B.  Patterson,  through  the  Gov¬ 
ernment  Interpreter,  will  be  found  of  especial  interest  in  this  connection,  as 
confirming  the  opinion  given  of  the  original  intention  of  this  noted  chief  of 
coalition  and  finding  security  in  the  country  of  the  Pottawattomies,  as  has  been 
hereinbefore  stated  : 

“  About  this  time,  Ne-a-Pope  (who  started  to  Malden,  where  it  was  ascer¬ 
tained  that  the  great  war  chief,  Gen.  Gaines,  was  coming  to  remove  us)  re¬ 
turned.  He  said  he  had  seen  the  chief  of  our  British  Father,  and  asked  him  if 
the  Americans  could  force  us  to  leave  our  village.  He  said  :  4  If  we  had  not 

sold  our  village  and  land,  the  American  Government  could  not  take  them  from 
us.  That  the  right  being  vested  in  us,  could  only  be  transferred  by  the  voice 
and  will  of  the  whole  nation  ;  and  that  as  we  had  never  given  our  consent  to 
the  sale  of  our  country,  it  remained  our  exclusive  property,  from  which  the 
American  Government  never  could  force  us  away  !  And  that  in  the  event  of 
war  we  should  have  nothing  to  fear ,  as  they  would  stand  by  and  assist  us.' 
He  said  he  had  called  at  the  Prophet's  village,  on  his  way  down,  and  there 
learned  for  the  first  time  that  we  had  left  our  village.  He  informed  me,  pri¬ 
vately,  that  the  Prophet  was  anxious  to  see  me,  as  he  had  much  good  news  to 
tell  me,  and  that  I  would  hear  good  news,  in  the  Spring,  from  our  British 
Father.  The  Prophet  requested  me  to  inform  you  of  all  the  particulars.  I 
would  much  rather,  however,  you  should  see  him,  and  learn  all  from  himself. 



But  I  will  tell  you  that  he  has  received  expresses  from  our  British  Father,  who 
says  that  he  is  going  to  send  us  guns,  ammunition,  provisions  and  clothing, 
early  in  the  Spring.  The  vessels  that  bring  them  will  come  by  way  of  Mil- 
wa-ke.  The  Prophet  has  likewise  received  wampum  and  tobacco  from  the 
different  nations  on  the  lakes — Ottawas,  Chippewas  and  Pottawattomies — and 
as  for  the  Winnebagoes,  he  has  them  all  at  his  command.  We  are  going  to  be 
happy  once  more  !” 

We-a  pope  said :  “  The  Prophet  told  me  that  all  the  different  tribes  before 
mentioned  would  fight  for  us,  if  necessary,  and  the  British  would  support  us. 
My  party  having  all  come  in  and  got  ready,  we  commenced  our  march  up 
the  Mississippi — our  women  and  children  in  canoes,  carrying  such  provisions 
as  we  had,  camp  equipage,  etc.,  and  my  braves  and  warriors  on  horseback, 
armed  and  equipped  for  defense  The  Prophet  came  down  and  joined  us  below 
Rock  River,  having  called  at  Rock  Island,  on  his  way  down,  to  consult  the 
War  Chief,  agent  and  trader,  who  (he  said)  used  many  arguments  to  dissuade 
him  from  going  with  us  ;  and  requested  him  to  come  and  meet  us,  and  turn  us 
hack.  They  told  him,  also,  that  there  was  a  war  chief  on  his  way  to  Rock 
Island,  with  a  large  body  of  soldiers. 

The  Prophet  said  he  would  not  listen  to  this  talk,  because  no  war  chief 
dare  molest  us  as  long  as  we  are  at  peace  ;  that  we  had  a  right  to  go  where  we 
pleased,  peaceably,  and  advised  me  to  say  nothing  to  any  braves  and  warriors 
until  we  encamped  that  night.  We  moved  onward  until  we  had  arrived  at  the 
place  where  Gen.  Gaines  had  made  his  encampment  the  year  before,  and 
encamped  for  the  night.  The  Prophet  then  addressed  my  braves  and 
warriors.  He  told  them  to  “  follow  us,  and  act  like  braves,  and  we  had 
nothing  to  fear  but  much  to  gain ;  that  the  Americans  might  come,  but 
would  not  nor  dare  not  interfere  with  us  so  long  as  we  acted  peaceably  !  That 
we  were  not  yet  ready  to  act  otherwise.  We  must  wait  until  we  ascend  Rock 
River  and  receive  our  re-enforcements,  and  we  with  them  be  able  to  withstand 
any  army  !  ” 

That  night,  the  White  Beaver  (Gen.  Atkinson),  with  a  party  ]of  soldiers, 
passed  up  in  steamboats.  Our  party  became  alarmed,  expecting  to  meet  the 
soldiers  at  Rock  River,  to  prevent  us  from  going  up.  On  our  arrival  at  its 
mouth,  we  discovered  that  the  steamboats  had  passed  on.  I  was  fearful  that 
the  war  chief  had  stationed  his  men  on  some  bluff,  or  in  some  ravine,  that  we 
might  be  taken  by  surprise.  Consequently,  on  entering  Rock  River,  we  com¬ 
menced  beating  our  drums  and  singing,  to  show  the  Americans  that  we  were 
not  afraid.  Having  met  with  no  opposition,  we  moved  up  Rock  River  leisurely 
some  distance,  when  we  were  overtaken  by  an  express  from  the  White  Beaver 
with  an  order  for  me  to  return  with  my  band,  and  recross  the  Mississippi  again. 
I  sent  him  word  that  I  would  not  (not  recognizing  his  right  to  make  such  a 
demand),  as  I  was  acting  peaceably,  and  intended  to  go  to  the  Prophet’s  village, 
at  his  request,  to  make  corn. 










4  exPress  returned.  W  e  moved  on,  and  encamped  some  distance  below 
the  Prophet’s  village. 

“  Having  accomplished  that,  the  White  Beaver  would  not  permit  us  to  remain 
here.  I  began  to  consider  what  was  best  to  be  done,  and  concluded  to  keep  up 
the  river  and  see  the  Pottawattomies  and  have  a  talk  with  them.  Several  Win¬ 
nebago  chiefs  were  present,  whom  I  advised  of  my  intentions.  As  they  did  not 
seem  disposed  to  render  us  any  assistance,  I  asked  them  if  they  had  not  seen 
us  wampum  during  the  winter,  and  requested  us  to  come  and  join  their  people 
and  enjoy  all  the  rights  and  privileges  of  their  country.  They  did  not  deny 
this,  and  said,  if  the  white  people  did  not  interfere,  they  had  no  objection  to 

our  making  corn  this  year  with  our  friend,  the  Prophet,  but  did  not  wish  us 
to  go  any  further  up. 

“  The  next  clay,  I  started  with  my  party  to  Kish-wa-co-kee.  That  night  I 
encamped  a  short  distance  above  the  Prophet’s  village.  After  all  was  qui°et  in 
my  camp,  I  sent  for  my  chiefs,  and  told  them  we  had  been  deceived  :  that  all  the 
fair  promises  that  had  been  held  out  to  us,  through  Ne-a-pope,  were  false! 
But  it  would  not  do  to  let  our  party  know  it.  We  must  keep  it  secret 
among  ourselves  and  move  on  to  Kish-wa-co-kee,  as  if  all  was  right,  and  say 
something  on  the  way  to  encourage  our  people.  I  will  then  call  on  the  Potta¬ 
wattomies,  and  hear  what  they  say  and  see  what  they  will  do.  We  started  the 
next  morning,  after  telling  our  people  that  word  had  just  come  from  Mil-wa-ke, 
that  a  chief  of  our  British  father  would  be  there  in  a  few  days. 

u  Finding  that  our  plans  were  defeated,  I  told  the  Prophet  that  he  must  go 
with  me  and  we  would  see  what  could  be  done  with  the  Pottawattomies.  On 
our  arrival  at  Kish-wa-co-kee,  an  express  was  sent  to  the  Pottawattomie  villages. 
The  next  day  a  deputation  arrived.  I  enquired  if  they  had  corn  in  their  vil¬ 
lages.  They  said  they  had  very  little  and  could  not  spare  any  !  I  asked  them 
different  questions  and  received  unsatisfactory  answers.  This  talk  was  in  the 
presence  of  all  my  people.  I  afterward  spoke  to  them  privately  and  requested 
them  to  come  to  my  lodge,  after  my  people  had  got  to  sleep.  They  came  and 
took  seats.  I  asked  them  if  they  had  received  any  word  from  the  lake,  from 
the  British.  They  said  no.  I  inquired  if  they  had  heard  that  a  chief  of  our 
British  father  was  coming  to  Mil-wa-ke,  to  bring  us  guns,  ammunition,  goods 
and  provisions.  They  said  no.  I  then  told  them  what  word  had  been  brought 
to  me,  and  requested  them  to  return  to  their  village  and  tell  the  chiefs  that  I 
wished  to  see  them  and  have  a  talk  with  them. 

“After  this  deputation  started,  I  concluded  to  tell  ray  people  that  if  the 
White  Beaver  came  after  us  we  would  go  back, as  it  was  useless  to  think  of  stop¬ 
ping  or  going  on  without  provisions.  I  discovered  that  the  Winnebagoes  and 
Pottawattomies  were  not  disposed  to  render  us  any  assistance. 

16  The  next  day,  the  Pottawattomie  chiefs  arrived  at  my  camp.  1  had  a  dog 
killed  and  made  a  feast.  When  it  was  ready,  I  spread  my  medicine  bags  and 
the  chiefs  began  to  eat.  When  the  ceremony  was  about  ending,  I  received 



news  that  three  or  four  hundred  white  men,  on  horseback,  had  been  seen  about 
eight  miles  off.  I  immediately  started  three  young  men,  with  a  white  flag,  to 
meet  them  and  conduct  them  to  our  camp,  that  we  might  hold  a  council  with 
them,  and  descend  Rock  River  again,  and  directed  them,  in  case  the  whites, 
had  encamped ,  to  return,  and  1  would  go  and  see  them .  After  this  party  had 
started,  I  sent  five  young  men  to  see  what  might  take  place.  The  first  party 
went  to  the  encampment  of  the  whites  and  were  taken  prisoners.  The  last 
party  had  not  proceeded  far  before  they  saw  about  twenty  men  coming  toward 
them  in  full  gallop  !  They  stopped,  and,  finding  that  the  white  men  were  com¬ 
ing  so  fast  in  a  warlike  attitude,  they  turned  and  retreated,  but  were  pursued 
and  two  of  them  overtaken  and  killed  !  The  others  made  their  escape.  When 
they  came  in  with  the  news,  I  was  preparing  my  flags  to  meet  the  war  chief. 
The  alarm  was  given.  Nearly  all  my  young  men  were  absent,  about  ten  miles 
off.  I  started  with  wdiat  I  had  left  (about  forty),  and  had  proceeded  but  a  short 
distance  before  we  saw  a  part  of  the  army  approaching.  I  raised  a  yell  and 
said  to  my  braves  :  4  Some  of  our  people  have  been  killed  ! — wantonly  and 
cruelly  murdered  !  We  must  revenge  their  death  !  ’ 

“  In  a  little  while,  we  discovered  the  whole  army  coming  toward  us  in  full 
gallop  !  We  were  now  confident  that  our  first  party  had  been  killed.  I  im¬ 
mediately  placed  my  men  in  front  of  some  bushes,  that  we  might  have  the  first 
fire  when  they  approached  close  enough.  They  made  a  halt  some  distance 
from  us.  I  gave  another  yell,  and  ordered  my  brave  warriors  to  charge  upon 
them,  expecting  that  we  would  all  be  killed.  They  did  charge.  Every  man 
rushed  and  fired,  and  the  enemy  retreated  in  the  utmost  confusion  and  con¬ 
sternation  before  my  little  but  brave  band  of  warriors. 

44  After  pursuing  the  enemy  some  distance,  I  found  it  useless  to  follow  them„ 
as  they  rode  so  fast,  and  returned  to  my  encampment  with  the  few  of  my  brave* 
(about  twenty-five  having  gone  in  pursuit  of  the  enemy).  I  lighted  my  pipe 
and  sat  down  to  thank  the  Great  Spirit  for  what  we  had  done. 

44  The  next  morning,  I  told  the  crier  of  my  village  to  give  notice  that  we 
must  go  and  bury  our  dead.  In  a  little  while  all  were  ready.  A  small  depu¬ 
tation  was  sent  for  our  absent  warriors,  and  the  remainder  started.  We  first 
disposed  of  our  dead,  and  then  commenced  an  examination  in  the  enemy  V 
deserted  encampment  for  plunder.  We  found  arms,  ammunition  and  provisions, 
all  of  which  we  were  in  want  of — particularly  the  latter,  as  we  were  entirely 
without.  We  found  also  a  variety  of  saddle-hags  (which  I  distributed  among 
my  braves),  and  a  small  quantity  of  whisky,  and  some  little  barrels  that  had, 
contained  this  had  medicine,  but  they  were  empty.  I  was  surprised  to  find 
that  the  whites  carried  whisky  with  them,  as  I  had  understood  that  all  the  pale 
faces  belonged  to  temperance  societies. 

44  Having  returned  to  our  encampment  and  found  that  all  our  young  men 
had  come  in,  I  sent  out  spies  to  watch  the  movements  of  the  army,  and  com¬ 
menced  moving  up  Kish-wa-co-kee  with  the  balance  of  my  people.  I  did  not 



know  where  to  find  a  place  of  safety  for  my  women  and  children,  but  expected 
to  find  a  good  harbor  about  the  head  of  Rock  River.  I  concluded  to  go  then*, 
and  thought  my  best  route  would  be  to  go  round  the  head  of  Kish-wa-co-kee,  so 
that  the  Americans  would  have  some  difficulty  if  they  attempted  to  follow  s. 
On  arriving  at  the  head  of  Kish-wa-co-kee  I  was  met  by  a  party  of  Winnebagoes 
who  seemed  to  rejoice  at  our  success.  They  said  they  had  come  to  offer  their 
services,  and  were  anxious  to  join  us.  I  asked  them  if  they  knew  where  there 
was  a  safe  place  for  my  women  and  children.  They  told  me  that  they  would 
send  two  old  men  with  us  to  guide  us  to  a  good  and  safe  place. 

“  1  arranged  war  parties  to  send  out  in  different  directions  before  I  pro¬ 
ceeded  further.  The  Winnebagoes  went  alone.  The  war  parties  having  all 
been  fitted  out  and  started,  we  commenced  moving  to  the  Four  Lakes ,  the 
place  where  our  guides  were  to  conduct  us.” 

The  skirmish  with  the  whites,  of  which  Blackhawk  speaks,  was  that  which 
became  known  as  the  defeat  of  Stillman’s  Run,  in  what  is  now  Ogle  County, 
about  fifty  miles  distant  from  the  country  of  the  Pistakee  Lakes. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  Blackhawk  was  proceeding  up  what  he  calls  the 
Kish-wa-co-kee  River  now  called  the  Kishwaukee — the  former  being  a  Potta- 
wattomie  term,  it  is  said,  meaning  “land  of  sycamore  trees.”  He  says  he  pro¬ 
ceeded  around  the  head  waters  of  this  river.  This  would  bring  him  into  what 
is  now  the  western  part  of  McHenry  County,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  present 
village  of  Marengo,  within  about  twenty  miles,  or  a  day’s  travel  of  the  Pistakee 
Lakes.  But  it  seems,  however,  after  the  Pottawattomies  failed  him,  Blackhawk 
accepted  the  protection  of  the  Winnebagoes,  and,  guided  by  them,  proceeded  to 
the  Four  Lakes,  now  Madison,  Wisconsin. 

Among  the  Pottawattomie  villages  with  which  Blackhawk  communicated, 
and  from  which  he  states  he  received  deputations,  were  no  doubt  those  about  the 
Pistakee  Lakes.  This  was,  at  that  day,  the  great  corn  country  of  this  tribe, 
especially  that  portion  lying  in  and  about  the  northern  part  of  this  township. 

The  Lake  and  McHenry  plank  road,  during  the  days  of  its  existence, 
passed  through  the  southeastern  part  of  this  township,  on  Section  36. 

The  Fort  Hill  post  office  was  for  a  time  located  in  this  town,  in  the  south¬ 
eastern  part,  at  what  was  known  as  Goodale’s  Corners. 

The  first  school  house  in  this  town  was  a  log  building,  of  hewn  lo^s,  at  the 
crossing  of  the  north  McHenry  road,  and  the  road  leading  to  the  Nippersink 
Point.  It  was  built  in  1844.  Daniel  Armstrong  was  the  first  teacher. 

The  first  town  meeting  in  this  town  was  held  at  the  Goodale’s  Tavern,  on 
the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850,  at  which  the  following  persons  were  elected 
town  officers :  Chester  Hamilton,  Supervisor ;  D.  C.  Townsend,  Town  Clerk  ; 
Jehiel  Compton,  Assessor;  Orren  Marble,  Collector;  Cornelius  Smith,  Over¬ 
seer  of  the  Poor;  Calvin  Clark,  Rufus  M.  Way  and  Robert  Stanley,  Commis¬ 
sioners  .of  Highways;  Chester  Hamilton  and  A.  S.  Maltby,  Justices  of  the 
Peace;  L.  P.  Barnes  and  Orren  Marble,  Constables. 



The  total  valuation  of  property  for  1850,  including  both  real  and  personal, 
was  $33,868.  The  amount  of  tax  computed  on  the  same,  for  collection,  was 

The  total  valuation  of  property  for  the  year  1877  was  $142,202. 

The  Roman  Catholic  Church  have  a  church  edifice  in  the  northeastern  part 
of  this  town,  near  Fox  Lake,  which  was  built  about  twelve  years  ago. 


This,  as  a  Congressional  township,  is  known  as  Township  44,  north  Range 
11  east. 

Much  that  pertains  to  the  early  history  of  this  township  has  been  given  in 
a  previous  portion  of  this  history,  under  the  head  of  the  county  at  large. 

Among  the  early  settlers  of  this  town  were  Richard  Steele,  Henry  B.  Steele, 
Tobias  Wynkoop,  A.  B.  Wynkoop,  William,  Robert  and  Christopher  Irwin, 
Ransom  Steele,  William  Crane,  H.  C.  Steele,  Horace  Butler,  Dr.  J.  H. 
Foster,  Charles  H.  Bartlett,  William  and  James  Lloyd,  E.  Tingley,  James 
Bartlett.  Levi  Hutchinson,  Ira  Waugh,  Solomon  Norton,  Lewis  G.  Schenck, 
Thomas  and  William  Kellam  and  Levi  Baxter. 

This  town  was  named  by  the  Commissioners,  in  accordance  with  the  wishes 
of  the  inhabitants  expressed  at  an  election  held  in  the  township  for  that  pur¬ 
pose,  January  12,  1850. 

The  vote  on  the  subject  of  a  name  was  as  follows:  For  Liberty ville,  37 
votes ;  for  Bern,  32  votes  ;  for  Burlington,  3  votes.  Bern  was  the  name  of  a 
Hungarian  General  which  had  passed  into  note  in  this  country  about  that  time, 
from  the  struggle  occurring  a  short  time  previous  under  their  leader,  Kossuth. 

The  first  organized  public  meeting  held  in  what  is  now  the  county  of  Lake, 
for  anv  purpose,  was  held  in  this  town.  It  was  a  general  meeting  of  the  settlers 
for  the  purpose  of  adopting  regulations  and  forming  a  compact  for  the  purpose 
of  protecting  each  other  in  their  rights  as  claimants  on  the  public  lands,  a 
reference  to  which  has  been  made  in  a  previous  portion  of  this  history. 

At  this  meeting,  resolutions  were  passed  and  regulations  adopted,  defining 
the  rights  of  settlers  and  providing  for  the  organization  of  a  compact.  The 
following  are  the  proceedings  of  this  meeting,  together  with  a  copy  of  the  reso¬ 
lutions  and  regulations,  as  published  officially  by  the  compact : 

“  At  a  numerous  meeting  of  the  inhabitants  on  the  Upper  Des  Plaines 
River,  held,  pursuant  to  notice,  at  Independence  Grove,  on  Friday,  December 
2,  1836,  Samuel  Brooks,  Esq.,  in  the  Chair,  and  George  Kimball,  Secretary, 
a  committee,  consisting  of  Nelson  Landon,  Samuel  Brooks  and  Willard  Jones, 
was  appointed  to  present  resolutions  and  regulations.  The  following,  on  being 
reported,  were  unanimously  adopted : 

“  Whereas,  The  unsurveved  Government  lands  situate  between  Indian 


Creek  and  the  north  boundary  of  the  State,  lying  on  and  in  the  vicinity  of  the 



Des  Plaines  River,  have,  within  the  last  three  years,  become  thickly  settled, 
and  fresh  settlers  are  daily  coming  in  and  seeking  a  residence  and  locating  in 
the  same  neighborhood — many  unwilling  to  encroach  on  the  hitherto  respected 
boundaries  of  older  settlers,  others,  with  a  too  manifest  intention  of  occupy¬ 
ing  land  for  the  sole  purpose  of  speculation,  and  some  who  seem  desirous  of  re¬ 
taining  for  their  exclusive  advantage  a  large  proportion  of  woodland  and 
prairie  than  appears  necessary  for  a  farmer  on  the  largest  scales  of  calculation. 

k‘  Many  new  settlements,  under  similar  circumstances,  have  adopted  resolu¬ 
tions  for  the  purpose  of  defining  the  extent  of  land  which  each  settler  may 
hold,  and  for  protecting  others  in  the  quiet  possession  of  their  claims,  and  for 
this  purpose  have  entered  into  mutual  compact  and  agreement  to  carry  such 
resolutions  into  effect. 

u  It  appears  to  your  committee,  upon  reading  the  notice  for  convening  this 
meeting,  that  no  time  should  be  lost  in  pursuing  such  measures  as  the  present 
situation  of  the  settlement  seems  to  demand,  as  well  for  the  maintenance  and 
promotion  of  harmony  in  the  neighborhood  as  for  the  encouragement  of  re¬ 
spectable  and  actual  settlers  among  us. 

“  1.  Resolved ,  That  it  is  expedient  and  necessary  to  adopt  measures  by 
which  the  settlers  in  this  section  of  the  country  may  be  protected  from  en¬ 
croachments,  and  their  claims  upon  lands  better  defined — to  encourage  and 
protect  those  who  wish  to  come  and  reside  among  us. 

“  2.  Resolved ,  That  it  is  expedient  to  protect  individuals  from  taking  up 
and  holding  larger  claims  on  land  than  themselves  and  families  can  cultivate, 
and  that  no  one  individual  shall  hold  more  than  one  section  of  land. 

“  3.  Resolved,  That  it  is  necessary  for  the  advancement  and  well  being  of 
this  settlement  to  prevent  the  holding  claims  on  land  solely  for  the  purpose  of 

“4.  Resolved ,  That  the  country  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Des  Plaines  River, 
between  Indian  Creek  and  the  north  boundary  of  this  State,  be  divided  into 
three  sections,  viz. :  The  first  section  commencing  at  Indian  Creek,  and  ex¬ 
tending  northward  to  Independence  Grove,  inclusive ;  the  second  section  ex¬ 
tending  from  Independence  Grove  to  Mr.  Lovejoy's  Tavern,  inclusive ;  the 
third  section  extending  thence  northward  to  the  north  boundarv  of  the  State. 

“  II.  That  there  be  three  Commissioners  appointed  for  each  section  (to 
serve  for  one  year,  and  until  a  re-election  shall  take  place),  who  shall  have  full 
and  exclusive  power,  and  whose  duty  it  shall  be,  at  the  request  of  any  one,  to 
establish  and  protect  each  and  every  settler  in  his,  her  or  their  just  and  equita¬ 
ble  claim  or  claims  on  lands,  and  decide  all  difficulties  concerning  the  same, 
and  to  establish  the  lines  and  boundaries  thereof. 

“  III.  That  the  decision  of  said  Commissioners,  or  two  of  them,  shall  be 
final,  unless  within  two  days  an  appeal  be  made  by  either  of  the  parties  to  the 
inhabitants  of  the  section  in  which  the  claim  may  be,  in  which  case  it  shall  be 
the  duty  of  said  Commissioners,  or  either  of  them,  immediately  upon  notice  of 



such  appeal,  to  convene  a  meeting  of  the  settlers  resident  in  such  section  for 
the  purpose  of  obtaining  their  decision  on  the  matter  in  dispute. 

“  IV.  That  the  inhabitants  of  each  and  all  the  said  sections  shall  be  bound 
at  all  times  to  carry  into  effect  the  orders  or  decisions  of  said  Commissioners, 
or  any  two  of  them,  concerning  any  claims  or  rights  of  persons  relating  to  any 
claim  or  claims. 

“  V.  That  if  any  person  shall  neglect  or  refuse  to  assist  when  required 
to  carry  into  effect  any  order  or  decision  of  said  Commissioners,  or  any 
two  of  them,  or  to  carry  into  effect  any  final  decision  after  an  appeal,  he 
shall  he  considered  inimical  to  justice  and  good  order,  and  shall  be  treated 

“  VI.  That  there  shall  be  a  Clerk  appointed  for  one  year  (and  eligible  to 
re-election),  to  keep  a  book  to  register  the  proceedings  of  this  meeting  and  the 
claims  of  each  claimant  w/thin  the  three  sections,  which  shall  be  kept  for  the 
inspection  of  any  person,  at  all  times. 

“  VII.  That  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  each  claimant  to  procure  a  certificate 
of  the  Commissioners,  or  any  two  of  them,  residing  in  the  section  where  the 
said  claim  may  be,  and  file  the  same  with  the  Clerk  for  registration,  and  then 
and  there  only  shall  his,  her  or  their  claim  be  established. 

“  VIII.  That  the  said  Commissioners,  or  any  two  of  them,  may  call  a. 
meeting  of  the  settlers  at  any  time  they  may  see  fit. 

u  IX.  That  the  said  Commissioners  be  at  liberty  to  demand  and  receive 
for  their  services  for  establishing  each  claim,  including  the  corner  posts,  not 
less  than  two  and  not  more  than  five  dollars. 

“  X.  That  every  one  wishing  to  avail  himself  of  the  benefit  of  the  forego¬ 
ing  resolutions  and  regulations  shall  subscribe  his  name  to  the  same,  and, 
omitting  to  do  so,  shall  derive  no  advantages  resulting  from  the  provisions 

“  XI.  Resolved,  That  all  who  hold  claims  at  the  present  time  shall  reg¬ 
ister  them  within  two  months,  and  that  all  new  comers  shall  register  within 
three  months  after  making  their  claims.” 

The  place  mentioned  as  Lovejoy’s  Tavern,  in  the  fourth  resolution,  passed 
at  the  preceding  meeting,  was  afterward  known  as  the  Oplain  House,  on  the 
east  side  of  the  river,  at  the  place  now  known  as  the  Oplain  Bridge,  in  the  town 
of  Warren. 

Independence  Grove,  from  this  time  forward,  became  the  general  center  for 
public  gatherings  of  all  descriptions.  It  was  here  that  schemes  were  laid  and 
plans  matured  for  dividing  the  county  of  McHenry,  and  locating  the  county 
seat  of  the  new  county  of  Lake. 

A  master  spirit  in  these  movements  was  understood  to  be  A.  B.  Wyn- 
koop,  who  came  to  the  Grove  about  the  first  of  the  year  1837.  He  was  a 
young  man  of  good  ability,  but  of  rather  an  angular  disposition.  He  had  come 
west  with  an  ambition  to  acquire  distinction  by  engaging  in  politics.  He  was 



nephew  of  Tobias  Wynkoop,  of  whom  mention  has  been  made  as  one  of  the 
early  settlers  of  the  county  and  resident  of  this  town. 

In  this  connection,  it  may  be  here  mentioned  that  Liberty  ville,  in  the  early  his¬ 
tory  of  the  county,  has  produced  more  marked  men  and  notable  characters  than 
any  other  town  in  this  county.  Among  the  number,  Tobias  Wynkoop,  before 
mentioned,  is  entitled  to  a  passing  notice.  He  settled  in  the  Fall  of  1835,  at. 
the  point  where  the  Milwaukee  road  crosses  the  creek,  north  of  Libertyville, 
afterward  known  as  Wynkoop’s  Creek.  He  had  expansive  ideas  as  to  the  size 
of  a  farm  he  required.  He  declared  that  a  quarter-section  of  land  would  only 
answer  him  for  a  garden  spot.  He  claimed  nearly  the  entire  breadth  of  prai¬ 
rie  on  the  west,  extending  westward  about  three  miles.  His  boundaries  were 
defined  by  laying  down  a  single  rail  around  it,  in  the  form  of  a  Virginia  fence. 
When  the  land  sale  came,  he  Was  unable  to  purchase  the  land,  and  it  passed 
into  other  hands. 

Horace  Butler,  who  settled  at  Libertyville  in  1837,  was  the  second  lawyer 
who  came  to  the  county,  but  Avas  really  the  first  Avho  practiced  his  profession. 
He  was  a  man  of  ability,  and  one  of  the  main  supporters  of  the  interests  of 
Libertyville  in  all  its  early  contests.  He  Avas  a  member  of  the  Constitutional 
Convention  of  this  State  in  1847,  and  was,  for  one  term,  a  Representative  in 
the  Legislature  from  Lake  County. 

Dr.  J.  H.  Foster,  Avho  likeAvise  settled  at  Libertyville  at  an  early  day 
(August,  1837),  was  the  first  physician  who  settled  and  practiced  in  the  county. 
He  was  a  man  of  public  spirit,  of  earnest  convictions,  and  among  the  most 
tenacious  adherents  to  the  cause  of  Libertyville  in  its  local  contests. 

Dr.  Wm.  Crane  is  remembered  as  one  of  the  prominent  characters  in  the 
early  history  of  this  town.  He  Avas  a  man  of  more  than  ordinary  capacity, 
although  circumstances  conspired  to  affect  his  reputation,  in  some  degree,  for  a 
time,  yet,  after  all,  he  Avas  much  respected  by  his  neighbors ;  as  an  evidence  of 
which  it  may  be  mentioned  that  he  Avas  elected  as  the  first  Supervisor  of  the 
town,  under  township  organization,  with  little  or  no  opposition. 

Henry  B.  Steele,  whose  name  has  been  before  mentioned  as  the  first  Sheriff 
of  Lake  County,  was  among  the  first  settlers  in  this  tOAvn.  He  Avas  noted  for 
his  large  proportions  and  heavy  Aveight,  and  as  a  jolly  good  felloAv.  No  man 
was  more  popular  in  his  day  than  Henry  B.  Steele. 

About  the  year  1837,  there  came  to  Libertyville  a  man  of  the  name  of 
Stoliker.  He  was  from  Canajoharie,  N.  Y.,  and  Avas  of  that  class  knoAvn  as 
MohaAvk  Dutchmen.  He  Avas  a  fiddler  by  profession  (or,  as  it  would  be  called 
in  this  day,  a  performer  on  the  violin).  Fie  Avas  the  first  of  this  profession  avIio 
came  to  Lake  County.  Hereupon  an  era  of  life  and  excitement  commenced  at 
Libertyville  and  the  country  around  not  enjoyed  before.  Stoliker, Avas  in  de¬ 
mand  almost  nightly,  at  every  log  house  Avhere  the  floor  was  sufficiently  even 
and  the  size  sufficiently  large  to  accommodate  a  company  for  a  social  dance. 
But  Stoliker  had  acquired  the  habit  of  drinking  strong  drink  ;  but  it  Avas  said  of 



him  that  his  natural  talent  as  a  fiddler  was  such,  that  no  matter  how  much  in¬ 
toxicated,  his  nerves  never  failed  him  in  holding  out  with  his  music  to  the  end 
of  the  dance — that  even  if  exhausted  so  much  that  he  would  fall  asleep,  still 
the  music  went  on  with  as  complete  regularity  in  all  respects  as  if  he  had  been 

The  county  seat  was  located  at  Libertyville  in  June,  1839,  and  removed  to 

Little  Fort  in  April,  1841.  At  the  time  of  the  location  at  Libertyville,  there 

was  considerable  condemnation  of  the  act  of  the  Commissioners  in  locating  the 


county  seat  at  this  place,  but  it  came  in  general  from  sources  interested  in 
other  points.  The  better  opinion  seems  to  be,  that  most  men  of  fair  judgment 
and  disinterested  motives  would  at  that  time,  under  like  circumstances,  have 
reached  the  same  conclusion. 

It  was  supposed  that  the  road  from  Chicago  to  Milwaukee,  by  the  way  of 
Libertyville,  could  never  be  superseded,  but,  on  the  contrary,  must  continue  to 
increase  in  importance,  until  it  would  become  one  of  the  greatest  thoroughfares 
in  the  W  estern  country.  It  was  therefore  considered  that  the  interest  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  county  required  the  location  of  the  seat  of  justice  upon  this 
thoroughfare,  in  view  of  which  Libertyville  was  considered  to  be  unques¬ 
tionably  the  most  favorable  point.  Upon  the  east  side  of  the  Des  Plaines 
River  it  was,  as  yet,  but  thinly  settled,  and  the  prospects  for  a  dense  popu¬ 
lation  in  that  portion  of  the  county  seemed  not  at  this  period  to  be  very 


The  post  office  was  established  at  Libertyville,  in  April,  1837. 

The  first  town  meeting  in  this  town  was  held  at  Libertyville  village,  on  the 
first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850,  and  the  following  persons  were  elected  town 
officers : 

William  Crane,  Supervisor ;  H.  C.  Hutchinson,  Town  Clerk  ;  John  Locke, 
Assessor  ;  E.  H.  Hall,  E.  H.  Mason  and  R.  Drew,  Commissioners  of  High- 
ways ;  S.  P.  Statton,  Overseer  of  the  Poor;  S.  C.  Brown,  Constable  and  Col¬ 
lector;  and  D.  C.  Steele  and  C.  F.  Apply,  Justices  of  the  Peace.  The  num¬ 
ber  of  votes  cast  was  125. 

The  assessed  valuation  of  property  for  the  year  1850,  including  both  real 
and  personal,  was  $88,899.00,  and  the  amount  of  tax  computed  upon  the  same 
was  $1,178.13. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  the  year  1877  was  $419,287. 

The  first  school  house  in  this  town  was  built  at  Independence,  in  the  Fall 
of  1836,  as  has  been  stated  in  a  previous  portion  of  this  history. 

The  village  of  Libertyville  is  a  flourishing  and  delightful  place,  situated  in 
this  township  on  the  east  side  of  Independence  Grove.  It  contains  a  hotel, 
several  stores,  and  various  mechanics  found  in  a  country  village.  It  has  a  good 
public  school  house,  a  town  hall,  and  a  fine  church  edifice. 

The  first  church  in  this  township  was  built  in  this  village,  in  1844,  by  Dr. 
J.  H.  Foster  and  James  Hutchinson,  and  donated  by  them,  with  the  lot  upon 



which  it  stood,  to  the  Methodist  Church.  The  building  was  burned  in  the  Fall 
of  1866. 

A  church  edifice  was  built  here  by  the  Congregational  Church,  originally 
formed  at  the  house  of  Alfred  Payne,  at  Mechanics’  Grove,  in  1838,  as  has  been 
stated  in  the  history  of  the  township  of  Fremont.  This  was  discontinued  -as  a 
house  of  worship  and  sold  to  the  town  for  a  town  hall,  and  continues  to  be 
occupied  as  such,  a  house  of  worship  in  its  stead  having  been  built  at  Dean’s 
Corners,  in  the  town  of  Fremont. 

After  the  burning  of  the  Methodist  church,  as  before  stated,  the  several 
denominations  of  Methodists,  Congregationalists,  Presbyterians,  Baptists  and 
Universalists  joined  and  erected  the  present  church  edifice,  in  the  village  of 
Libertyville.  It  was  completed  in  the  Summer  of  1868. 


This,  as  a  Congressional  township,  is  known  as  Township  46,  north  Range 
11  east;  the  northern  boundary  being  upon  the  Wisconsin  State  line. 

Among  the  early  settlers  in  this  township  were  Jacob  Miller,  Merrill  Pear¬ 
sons,  Alvin  Ames,  James  Melinda,  John  Reid,  Asa  Winter,  Peter  Cassidy, 
James  Emery,  Elijah  Alvord. 

Jacob  Miller  was  the  first  claimant,  and  built  the  first  habitation  in  what  is 
now  the  town  of  Newport,  in  the  Summer  or  Fall  of  1835.  This  was  on  Mill 
Creek,  in  the  south  part  of  the  town.  Here  he  built  a  saw-mill,  in  1836  ;  and 
soon  thereafter  he  built  a  grist-mill  at  the  same  place,  it  being  the  first  grist¬ 
mill  erected  and  put  in  operation  in  the  county. 

Mr.  Miller  had  previously  explored  the  country  for  the  purpose  of  finding 
a  mill  site  as  near  Chicago  as  possible.  This  was  the  nearest  that  he  could  find 
at  that  day,  on  Government  land  that  had  not  been  already  claimed.  He  gave 
to  the  stream  the  name  of  Mill  Creek,  as,  in  his  opinion,  it  afforded  at  the  point 
where  he  had  located  a  superior  mill  site.  Both  these  mills  for  some  time  did  a 
prosperous  business.  They  were  patronized  by  the  inhabitants  for  a  consider¬ 
able  distance  around.  The  mills  finally  ceased  to  be  profitable  and  became 

Jacob  Miller  was  a  native  of  Virginia.  He  immigrated  to  Illinois  and  first 
settled  at  Chicago,  a  few  months  before  the  breaking  out  of  the  Black  Hawk 
war  in  1832,  in  which  war  he  engaged  at  the  beginning  and  served  to  the  close. 
He  was  a  noble  hearted  Virginian,  whose  memory  is  greatly  respected  by  the 
early  settlers,  and  whose  hospitalities  are  remembered  with  gratitude. 

Being  an  adventurous  spirit,  and  desiring  to  better  his  pecuniary  condition, 
he  set  out  in  the  Spring  of  1849,  with  his  two  oldest  sons,  for  California,  a 
country  from  which  the  most  fabulous  reports  had  reached  us,  concerning  its 
mines  of  gold. 



The  fatigue  and  privations  of  a  protracted  journey  brought  on  disease, 
from  which  he  died  soon  after  reaching  the  country  of  his  destination.  He 
died  on  Feather  River,  California,  in  the  Fall  of  1849. 

In  addition  to  Mill  Creek,  this  town  is  watered  by  the  Aux  Plaines  River, 
passing  through  near  the  center,  from  north  to  south. 

In  this  town  there  was  to  be  seen,  not  many  years  since,  a  succession  or 
chain  of  ancient  mounds — such  as  are  found  in  various  parts  of  the  western 
country — on  the  west  bank  of  the  Aux  Plaines  River,  extending  from  near 
the  State  line,  southward  some  two  or  three  miles.  When  these  mounds  were 
more  distinctly  visible,  and  before  their  shape  had  been  disturbed  by  cultivation 
of  the  soil,  they  were  frequently  dug  into  by  the  inhabitants — it  is  stated,  find¬ 
ing  therein  human  bones,  in  some  instances  in  a  very  perfect  state. 

Upon  the  east  bank  of  the  river,  a  short  distance  below  the  State  line,  in 
this  town,  there  was,  in  early  days,  in  the  midst  of  a  thicket  of  timber,  a  pecul¬ 
iar  spot,  which  had  evidently  been  a  general  camping  ground  for  the  aborigines 
of  the  country  from  time  immemorial,  as  shown  by  the  bleached  bones  of 
animals,  shells  of  turtles  and  other  evidences. 

Alvin  Ames,  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  this  township,  is  remembered  to 
to  have  stated  that  in  the  Winter  of  1840,  in  cutting  and  splitting  a  red  oak 
tree,  near  the  spot  before  mentioned,  he  cut  out  an  ounce  leaden  ball,  which  was 
seventy  grains  from  the  surface  ;  having,  as  he  thinks,  been  lodged  there  about 
the  year  1TT0,  and  was  probabty  discharged  from  some  French  or  English 

In  1844,  this  township  was  organized  for  school  purposes,  and  temporarily 
received  the  name  of  Sterling. 

A  post  office  was  established  in  this  town,  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  in 
1846,  under  the  name  of  Mortimer,  and  James  Melinda  appointed  Postmaster. 
The  name  was  subsequently  changed  to  Newport,  to  correspond  with  the  present 
name  of  the  township. 

Under  township  organization  the  name  of  Newport  was  given  to  this  town,  in 
accordance  with  the  wishes  of  the  inhabitants,  as  expressed  at  a  public  meeting 
called  for  that  purpose.  The  vote  on  the  question  of  a  name  was  as  follows : 
For  Newport,  seventy  votes;  for  Mortimer,  seven  votes;  for  Verona, two  votes. 

The  first  town  meeting  in  this  township,  under  township  organization,  was 
held  at  the  house  of  John  Turk,  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850.  Titus 
D.  Gail  was  chosen  Moderator,  and  Merrill  Pearsons,  Clerk;  John  Reid  was 
elected  Supervisor ;  Caleb  Cook  and  J.  Lowe,  Justices  of  the  Peace ;  A.  J. 
Cummings,  Constable ;  B.  F.  Backus,  Chester  Ames  and  H.  C.  Biddlecome, 
Commissioners  of  Highways.  The  number  of  votes  cast  for  town  officers 
was  158. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  the  year  1850,  including  both  real 
and  personal,  was  $94,644.  The  amount  of  tax  computed  thereon  for  collec¬ 
tion  was  $1,394.26. 



The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  the  year  1877  was  $337,778. 

About  twelve  years  ago,  a  post  office  was  established  in  this  town,  at  what 
was  known  as  Turk’s  Corners,  near  the  center  of  the  town,  called  Rosecranz, 
where  quite  a  thriving  village  has  sprung  up. 

The  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  R.  R.  passes  through  this  township, 
along  the  Aux  Plaines  River.  Since  the  completion  of  this  road,  an  impetus 
has  been  given  to  the  trade  and  business  of  the  town,  which  bids  fair  to  place 
it  among  the  first  in  the  county. 

The  town  of  Newport  has  two  stations  on  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St. 
Paul  R.  R.,  Russell  and  Wadsworth.  The  former  is  situated  a  short  distance 
«outh  of  the  State  line.  The  Newport  post  office  was  removed  to  this  place  in 
1876,  and  the  name  changed  to  Russell. 

The  station  at  Wadsworth  is  becoming  a  place  of  considerable  local  impor¬ 
tance.  A  town  plat  was  laid  out  here  by  John  Lux,  and  completed  October  8, 
1874.  The  railroad  was  completed  and  trains  commenced  running  in  Febru¬ 
ary,  1873.  The  building  up  of  the  place  commenced  in  the  Spring  following. 
A  post  office  was  established  here  in  May,  1873,  but  the  mail  was  not  supplied 
at  the  office  until  April,  1874.  Chas.  A.  Goodwin  was  the  first  Postmaster. 
The  present  Postmaster  is  Thos.  Strang.  In  1875,  James  Pollack  commenced 
to  buy  grain  at  this  place,  and  has  recently  built  a  large  warehouse  here.  The 
place  has  two  stores  and  various  mechanics.  Amongst  other  things  is  the 
agriculturalimplement  store  of  Heydeckers. 

There  are  in  this  town  three  church  edifices — the  Roman  Catholic,  built 
about  1849,  and  since  enlarged  ;  the  Baptist,  built  about  1866  ;  and  the  Meth¬ 
odist,  built  about  1871. 


This,  as  a  Congressional  Township,  is  known  as  Fractional  Township  44, 
north  range  12  east.  It  is  bounded  upon  the  north  by  Waukegan,  on  the 
east  by  Lake  Michigan,  on  the  south  by  Deerfield,  and  on  the  west  by  Liberty  - 
ville.  The  first  settlement  of  this  township  was  commenced  in  the  year  1836. 
Among  the  early  settlers  were  Dr.  Richard  Murphy,  William  Dwyer,  John 
Dwyer,  Lawrence  Carroll,  Benjamin  P.  Swain,  Isaac  Hickox,  Godfrey  Dwel- 
ley,  Michael  Dulanty,  Michael  C.  McGuire,  Thomas  Maguire,  John  Mullery, 
Otis  Hinckley  and  John  Cloes. 

The  Chicago  and  Green  Bay  Road,  which  was  established  by  the  I  nited 
States  in  early  days,  and  commonly  known  as  the  “Military  road,’  passed 
through  about  the  center  of  this  township,  and  upon  which  the  first  habitations 
of  the  early  settlers  were  mostly  erected. 

The  early  settlers  of  this  township  were,  with  a  few  isolated  exceptions, 
natives  of  Ireland.  Many  of  them  had  come  to  Illinois  to  engage  in  work  on 



the  Illinois  &  Michigan  Canal.  After  working  awhile,  learning  that  there 
was  Government  land  to  be  had  so  near  in  the  vicinity,  they  came  and  settled 
in  this,  as  well  as  in  other  adjoining  townships. 

This  town  was  named  in  honor  of  Gen.  James  Shields,  a  hero  in  the  Mexi¬ 
can  war  of  1846—7,  and  at  the  time  of  so  naming  the  town  a  Senator  from  Illi¬ 
nois  in  the  United  States  Senate. 

In  October,  1852.  Gen.  Shields  acknowledged  the  compliment  by  visiting 
the  town  and  addressing  the  citizens,  assembled  at  the  house  of  Mrs.  Dwyer, 
widow  of  William  Dwyer,  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  the  township,  before 

This  township  was  the  home  of  Dr.  Richard  Murphy,  who  has  been  before 
mentioned  in  this  history  as  a  prominent  citizen  in  the  early  settlement  of  the 
county.  Dr.  Murphy  was  the  first  Representative  from  Lake  County  in  the 
State  Legislature,  which  position  he  occupied  during  a  period  of  six  years, 
where  he  acquired  a  high  reputation  as  a  debater,  and  a  man  of  marked  ability. 
As  a  public  speaker,  he  was  forcible  and  fluent ;  as  a  writer  on  general  sub¬ 
jects  of  public  concern,  he  had  no  superiors  in  his  day,  in  this  part  of  the 
country.  He  was  a  man  of  learning,  and  ranked  high  in  his  profession  as 
a  physician.  He  was  a  formidable  competitor  of  John  Wentworth  for  Con¬ 
gress,  in  1843. 

In  the  northeast  part  of  this  town  is  a  small  stream,  running  into  Lake 
Michigan,  which,  in  early  days,  was  known  as  Pine  Creek.  There  was  once  a 
saw-mill  on  this  creek,  near  the  mouth,  built  by  Benjamin  P.  Swayne,  in  1837, 
who  was  one  of  the  early  settlers  at  that  point.  This  mill,  like  others  of  the 
kind  in  the  county,  before  spoken  of.  has  long  since  disappeared. 

The  first  town  meeting  in  this  town  under  township  organization  was  con¬ 
vened  at  the  tavern  house  of  Mrs.  Dwyer,  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850, 
at  which  Michael  C.  McGuire  presided  as  Moderator,  and  who  was  elected  the 
first  Supervisor  of  the  town. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  the  year  1850,  including  both  real 
and  personal,  was  $44,300.  The  amount  of  tax  computed  on  the  same  for  col¬ 
lection  was  $641.71. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  the  year  1877  was  $449,804. 

[n  early  days,  there  lived  in  the  northern  part  of  this  town  a  man  of  Amer¬ 
ican  birth,  by  the  name  of  Neal,  who  was  for  a  long  time  the  only  native  Amer¬ 
ican  in  that  part  of  the  town.  He  was  called  “Yankee  Neal,’’  to  distinguish 
him  from  another  man  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  same  name,  of  foreign  birth. 
At  the  time  of  the  public  sale  of  lots  at  Waukegan,  in  1844,  John  Wentworth, 
who  attended  the  sale,  on  his  way  there  from  Chicago  stopped  at  the  house  of  Yan¬ 
kee  Neal  over  night.  It  was  a  small  log  house,  of  the  style  and  usual  capacity 
of  that  day.  Wentworth,  who  acquired  the  name  of  Long  John,  was  about 
six  feet  and  six  inches  in  height.  It  is  said  that,  on  rising  in  the  morning 
to  dress  himself,  he  found  the  ceiling  so  low,  or  himself  so  tall,  that  there  was. 



not  space  enough  to  admit  of  raising  his  arms  to  put  on  his  coat,  and  that  he 
had  to  go  out  of  doors  for  that  purpose. 

The  first  school  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Shields  was  taught  by  William 
Cunningham,  at  his  house,  on  the  Green  Bay  Road,  near  where  now  is  Lake 
Forest,  in  1838. 

In  this  township  is  the  city  of  Lake  Forest,  a  place  of  note  and  importance 
for  its  institutions  of  learning,  aided  by  its  natural  and  artificial  attractions. 

In  1855,  a  number  of  gentlemen  of  Chicago,  among  whom  were  H.  M. 
Thompson,  Dr.  C.  H.  Quinlan,  D.  J.  Lake,  Rev.  R.  W.  Patterson  and  others, 
feeling  the  importance  of  establishing,  at  some  point  in  the  vicinity  of  Chicago, 
a  college  and  other  kindred  institutions,  held  several  meetings  and  finally 
adopted  a  plan  of  operation  to  accomplish  this  design.  At  a  meeting  held  at 
the  office  of  Dr.  Quinlan,  a  subscription  paper  was  drawn  up  to  raise  funds  for 
the  contemplated  object.  To  this  $59,500  was  subscribed,  as  a  temporary  ad¬ 
vance  of  funds  until  a  permanent  organization  could  be  effected.  The  enter¬ 
prise  was  aided  by  the  labors  of  Rev.  J.  J.  Slocum,  of  Cincinnati,  who  proposed, 
on  behalf  of  Mr.  Gibson,  of  that  city,  the  donation  of  $100,000  as  an  endow¬ 
ment  to  the  institution  of  learning  to  be  founded,  if  it  should  bear  Mr.  Gib¬ 
son’s  name. 

Five  Trustees  were  appointed  from  among  the  subscribers  aforesaid  to  act 
temporarily  for  the  contemplated  association,  until  a  permanent  organization 
could  be  effected,  viz. :  Hiram  F.  Mather,  Peter  Page,  David  J.  Lake,  Thomas 
R.  Clark  and  Franklin  Ripley,  Jr. 

And  the  following  persons  were  appointed  a  committee  to  draft  articles  of 
association,  viz.  :  Hiram  F.  Mather,  John  H.  Kedzie  and  H.  G.  Shumway. 
Meanwhile  the  Trustees  appointed  as  aforesaid  proceeded,  by  direction  of  the 
subscribers,  to  make  purchases  of  land,  the  location  having  been  determined 
upon  at  the  present  site  of  Lake  Forest. 

Samuel  M.  Dowst,  of  Waukegan,  was  employed  as  the  agent  of  the  company 
to  examine  titles  and  negotiate  purchases  of  land. 

The  land  purchased  for  the  association  originally  comprised  about  1,300  acres, 
situated  in  Section  3,  Township  44,  and  Sections  27,  28,  33  and  34,  Range 
12,  in  Lake  County,  lying  on  Lake  Michigan,  extending  back  across  the 
Milwaukee  Division  of  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern  Railroad.  It  was 
divided  between  the  Lake  Forest  Association  and  the  University  afterward 

A  permanent  organization  was  effected  by  articles  ol  association,  bearing 
date  February  28, 1856,  the  style  thereof  to  be  “  The  Lake  Forest  Association. 
The  capital  stock  was  fixed  at  not  less  than  $50,000,  and  not  to  exceed  $60,000, 
in^shares  of  $500  each. 

The  following  persons  were  constituted  the  first  Board  of  Trustees  of  the 
association,  viz.  :  Hiram  F.  Mather,  Thomas  R.  Clark,  Peter  Page,  Franklin 
Ripley,  Jr.,  David  J.  Lake. 



The  following  were  designated  as  the  first  Board  of  Trustees  for  the  institu¬ 
tion  contemplated  by  the  articles  of  association,  viz.  :  Benjamin  W.  Raymond, 
Franklin  Y.  Chamberlain.  Thomas  B.  Carter,  Charles  R.  ‘Starkweather, 
Charles  H.  Quinlan,  Deville  R.  Holt,  Amazi  Benedict,  John  J.  Slocum, 
Shubal  G.  Spees,  Harvey  Curtiss,  Robert  W.  Patterson,  Ansel  D.  Eddy,  Ira 
M.  Weed,  Harvey  M.  Thompson,  Sylvester  Lind  and  Lewis  H.  Loss. 

The  town  plat  of  Lake  Forest  was  laid  out  and  the  work  completed  July 
23,  1857,  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Hotchkiss,  of  St.  Louis,  which  is  a  mar¬ 
vel  of  landscape  work. 

The  first  building  erected  in  Lake  Forest  was  the  present  hotel.  The  enter¬ 
prise  was  started  by  Mr.  D.  J.  Lake.  This  was  followed  by  dwellings  and 
other  buildings,  until  it  has  become  a  populous  town  and  place  of  suburban 

The  first  elegant  dwelling  was  that  of  Mr.  H.  M.  Thompson.  This  was 
followed  by  those  of  John  Y.  Farwell  and  Hon.  Charles  B.  Farwell.  These 
several  mansions  are  among  the  finest  to  be  found  in  any  suburban  town. 

The  original  forest  trees  on  the  ground  have  been  carefully  preserved,  which 
adds  greatly  to  the  beauty  of  the  place.  Its  location  in  the  forest  on  the  lak* 
suggested  the  name  of  Lake  Forest. 


Lake  Forest  was  incorporated  as  a  city,  and  held  its  first  election  for  city 
officers  March  23,  1861,  at  which  the  following  were  elected  as  the  first  city 
officers  : 

Mayor,  H.  M.  Thompson;  Aldermen — First  Ward  :  E.  Bailey,  J.  H.  Hul- 
burd ;  Second  Ward,  W.  M.  Laughlin,  L.  Rossiter  ;  Treasurer,  C.  H.  Quin¬ 
lan  ;  Assessor,  E.  Mather  ;  Marshal,  A.  M.  Laughlin  :  Street  Commissioner, 
E.  Bailey ;  Clerk,  S.  W.  Kellogg. 

The  following  are  the  city  officers  for  1877  : 

Mayor,  A.  Benedict;  Aldermen — First  Ward,  T.  J.  Kirk.  P.  C.  Healey; 
Second  Ward,  E.  Buckingham,  C.  Durand  ;  Third  Ward,  R.  Russell,  A.  W, 
Taylor';  Treasurer,  S.  D.  Ward ;  Assessor,  L.  Rossiter ;  Street  Commissioner, 
Sam'l  Barnum;  Marshal,  T.  Howe;  City  Clerk,  Wm.  A.  Morgan. 

The  exertion  of  Mr.  Slocum,  to  whom  the  matter  was  largely  entrusted, 
having  failed  in  procuring  funds  wherewith  to  erect  the  college  buildings,  Mr. 
Sylvester  Lind,  of  Chicago,  proposed  to  endow  the  institution  with  a  fund  of 
§100,000,  as  a  University,  for  the  education  of  young  men  for  the  ministry, 
to  be  located  at  Lake  Forest,  on  condition  that  there  be  erected  a  building  to- 
cost  not  less  than  §30,000.  The  proposition  being  accepted,  a  charter  was 
obtained  incorporating  the  institution  under  the  name  of  the  Lind  University. 

The  following  were  the  corporators,  and  constituted  the  first  Board  of 
Trustees : 

B.  W.  Raymond,  President ;  C.  R.  Starkweather,  Secretary ;  Sylvester 
Lind,  Treasurer ;  Rev.  Harvey  Curtiss,  Rev.  R.  W.  Patterson,  Rev.  Ira  M, 
Weed,  Rev.  L.  H.  Loss,  Rev.  A.  D.  Eddy,  A.  Benedict,  C.  B.  Nelson,  C.  H, 



Quinlan,  D.  R.  ,Holt,  D.  J.  Lake,  Rev.  S.  G.  Spees,  S.  L.  Brown.  H.  E. 
Seeley,  H.  M.  Thompson. 

But,  unfortunately,  before  the  time  limited  for  the  erection  of  said  building 
had  expired,  Mr.  Lind  became  financially  unable,  and  failed  to  comply  with 
his  agreement  to  endow  the  institution  as  aforesaid.  Thereupon,  to  prevent 
misapprehension  as  to  the  name,  the  Board  of  Trustees  applied  to  the  Legis¬ 
lature  and  procured  a  change  to  that  of  “The  Lake  Forest  University,”  by 
which  the  institution  continues  to  be  known. 

The  history  of  Lake  Forest,  beyond  what  has  been  given,  is  comprised 
largely  in  that  of  its  educational  institutions. 

The  Lake  Forest  University  is  comprised  in  its  organization  of  three  de¬ 
partments  :  1.  The  Academy,  or  Preparatory  Department  :  2.  Ferry  Hall,  or 
Young  Ladies'  College ;  3.  The  Collegiate  Department. 

In  1857,  $38,000  was  raised  by  subscription,  with  which  the  present 
Academy  building  was  built.  The  subscribers  to  this  fund  were  afterward  re¬ 
imbursed  by  lands  from  the  University,  at  $500  per  acre. 

In  1858,  a  school  was  opened  at  the  Academy  building,  under  the  super¬ 
vision  of  Prof.  S.  F.  Miller  as  Principal,  with  the  following  as  the  first 
students :  William  H.  Spencer,  John  Patterson,  George  Manier. 

Prof.  Miller,  with  whom  became  associated  Rev.  Wm.  C.  Dickenson,  con¬ 
tinued  in  charge  of  the  Academy  until  1861.  These  teachers  were  enthusiastic 
and  successful. 

From  1861  to  1864,  Prof.  J.  D.  Butler  was  Principal. 

In  1864,  Mr.  S.  M.  Johnson  became  Principal,  and  continued  four  years, 
when  Mr.  Thomas  Band,  Mr.  Jones  and  others  had  charge  of  the  school  for 
one  year.  Under  the  care  of  these  teachers,  the  school  was  more  or  less  pros¬ 
perous.  V ery  many  students,  during  this  time,  prepared  for  entering  college, 
and  have  since  become  graduates  thereof.  Thus  the  academy  has  accomplished 
a  good  work  in  sending  its  graduates  well  prepared  into  the  different  walks  of 
life  and  various  professions  in  the  Northwest.  But  while  a  good  work  was  be¬ 
ing  done,  the  tuition  was  low,  and  there  being  no  permanent  endowments  the 
receipts  from  tuition  were  not  sufficient  to  pay  expenses,  and  deficiencies 
were  made  up  by  disposing  of  property,  and  thus  a  large  portion  of  the  property 
of  the  university  was  exhausted. 

In  the  year  1869,  Prof.  Ira  W.  Allen  was  elected  Principal,  under  a  special 
contract,  under  whose  supervision  the  academy  was  well  patronized,  although 
the  price  of  board  and  tuition  was  greatly  increased.  He  continued  in  charge 
four  years,  haviug  during  this  time,  by  careful  management  and  thorough  busi¬ 
ness  talent,  put  the  school  on  a  firm  basis — more  than  paying  its  expenses 
during  the  time. 

In  1874,  Prof.  A.  R.  Sabin,  for  many  years  connected  with  the  High 
School  of  Chicago,  and  a  thorough  disciplinarian,  became  Principal  of  the 
academy.  Under  his  efficient  management  this  department  is  fulfilling  its  in- 



tended  mission  as  a  primary,  grammar  and  high  school  for  boys  in  Lake  Forest 
and  vicinity.  It  is  also  a  boarding  school  for  non-resident  pupils.  It  has 
always  been  a  college  preparatory  school  and  its  graduates  have  entered  with 
credit  the  leading  colleges  of  the  country,  East  and  West. 

It  is  the  aim  of  the  present  management  to  make  iPthe  leading  preparatory 
school  in  the  West.  The  course  of  study  is  as  full  as  any  afforded  in  the  New 
England  academies,  and  is  as  follows : 

Latin — Smith’s  Principia,  Harkness’  Grammar,  Reader  and  Latin  Prose, 
Arnold’s  Latin  Prose,  Csesar,  Ovid,  Sallust,  Cicero  and  Virgil.  Greek — 
White’s  First  Lessons,  Goodwin’s  Grammar,  Xenophon  and  Homer,  Jones’ 
Greek  Prose.  Mathematics — Fish's  Arithmetic,  Ficklin’s  and  Olney’s  Al¬ 
gebra,  Olney’s  Geometry  and  Todhunter’s  Euclid.  English — Reading,  Writ¬ 
ing,  Spelling,  Grammar,  Composition,  Elocution,  History  of  the  Lmited  States, 
England,  Greece  and  Rome.  Geography — Ancient,  Modern  and  Physical. 

In  the  Academic  Department,  in  addition  to  the  Mathematics  and  English 
studies  of  the  Classical  Course  are  the  following  studies :  German,  French, 
Book-keeping,  Drawing,  Natural  Philosophy,  Chemistry,  Physiology,  Botany, 
Geology,  Political  Economy  and  English  Literature.  Singing  and  Piano 
Music  have  also  a  prominent  place  in  the  actual  daily  wrork,  not  for  show, 
sound  or  ornament,  but  for  study,  culture  and  discipline. 

The  following,  from  the  report  of  the  Committee  on  Examinations  for 
1876-7,  will  serve  as  the  most  comprehensive  statement  that  can  be  given  of 
the  present  condition  of  this  department  of  the  LTniversity,  the  Committee 
being  composed  of  the  following  learned  gentlemen  :  Rev.  Wm.  A.  Nichols, 
Lake  Forest;  Rev.  J.  B.  Stewart,  D.  D.,  Milwaukee,  Wis.  :  Rev.  Edward  H. 
Curtiss,  Waukegan;  Rev.  Geo.  C.  Noyes,  D.  D.,  Evanston  ;  Rev.  J.  H.  Trow¬ 
bridge,  Riverside : 

“  During  an  examination  of  several  days,  it  was  everywhere  evident  to  the 
Committee  that  substance,  rather  than  show,  had  been  the  object  of  the  year’s 
labor  in  this  institution. 

“1.  Reading,  spelling,  writing,  grammar  and  composition  have  been  pur¬ 
sued  through  the  school  year  as  fundamental  to  an  English  education. 

“2.  In  the  higher  mathematics,  algebra,  geometry  and  trigonometry 
have  been  taught  by  persistent  drill.  Ordinarily  no  text  book  was  brought  to 
the  class,  either  by  the  teacher  or  the  pupils,  and  such  has  been  the 
style  of  teaching  as  well  as  examination.  The  work  consisted  in  canvass¬ 
ing  principles  and  in  illustrating  the  same  by  extemporized  examples.  During 
this  process,  the  Committee,  with  the  other  visitors,  often  did  their  best  to  find 
the  weak  places  in  the  instruction,  if  there  were  any.  The  result  was  most 

“3.  In  the  classical  department  of  an  academy  we  have  known  a  larger 
area  of  text  books  in  Greek  and  Latin  traversed  by  classes  in  the  same  time ; 
but  not  often  a  more  critical  mastery  of  the  substance,  as  fundamental  to  the 



••  ■  -  ■ 





subsequent  pursuit  of  classical  studies  with  pleasure  and  profit.  The  grammar 
of  a  language  examined  was  fully  brought  out  and  applied  with  minuteness  and 
accuracy.  The  exact  force  and  nice  application  of  the  modes  and  tenses  was 
exhibited  with  clearness,  especially  in  prose  composition  on  the  blackboard. 
The  geography,  history  and  mythology  suggested  by  the  text  book  came  in  as 
a  constant  reference.  The  pupils  were  required  to  trace  on  the  maps  the 
march  of  armies  and  the  wanderings  of  voyagers,  including  the  localities 
of  the  countries,  cities,  seas  and  islands  incident  to  the  narrative. 

“  4-  Music  is  cultivated  as  a  science,  and  practiced  as  a  pastime,  but  not 
prosecuted  to  the  neglect  of  more  solid  studies,  for  it  appeared  in  the  exami¬ 
nation  that  the  best  musicians  were  also  among  the  best  scholars  in  other  depart¬ 
ments.  This,  indeed,  is  a  natural  result,  where  the  Principal  himself  is  a 
thorough  scholar  and  a  scientific  musician. 

“  5.  Prizes,  as  an  encouragement  to  excellence  in  scholarship,  have  been 
awarded  to  successful  competitors  in  penmanship,  composition  and  oratory. 

“  6.  To  those  who  have  known  the  students  previously,  the  most  gratifying 
result  of  the  year’s  labor  is  the  growth  of  character  among  the  students.  The 
evidence  of  this  appeared  in  the  composition  and  oratory  of  the  closing  exer¬ 
cises.  The  productions  for  the  stage  were  original,  and  the  manly  thought,  the 
impressive  and  often  graceful  oratory,  were  palpable  evidence  that  the  young 
men  were  beginning  to  put  away  childish  things.” 

In  1859,  Rev.  Baxter  Dickeson,  with  his  daughter,  came  to  Lake  Forest  and 
purchased  of  the  Lake  Forest  University  a  lot,  and  erected  a  buildinu  to  be 
used  as  a  Young  Ladies’  Seminary.  This  relieved,  for  a  time,  the  Board  being 
to  the  expense  of  building  the  Department  of  Music  for  the  ladies.  This 
ladies’  school  was  a  great  success  under  Dr.  Dickeson,  until  about  the  time  of 
building  Ferry  Hall  by  the  University. 

Ferry  Hall  is  the  name  given  to  the  Young  Ladies'  Department  of  the  Univer¬ 
sity.  In  the  year  1868,  Rev.  Wm.  M.  Ferry,  of  Fair  Haven,  Michigan,  made  a  be¬ 
quest  to  the  University  of  about  $35,000,  a  large  portion  of  which  was  given  upon 
the  condition  that  a  Seminary  for  Young  Ladies  should  be  opened,  and  that  a 
building  for  the  purpose  should  be  erected.  But  as  the  fund  so  donated  would 
not  be  available  for  ten  years,  Mr.  D.  J.  Lake,  one  of  the  Board  of  Trustees, 
started  a  subscription,  and  raised  the  sum  of  $10,000,  and  in  view  of  this  Mr. 
Ferry,  the  executor  of  the  estate,  was  induced  to  appropriate  the  sum  of  $15,000 
at  once  to  assist  the  erection  of  the  building  which  so  appropriately  bears  his 

Ferry  Hall  was  built  and  furnished  at  an  expense  of  about  $60,000.  it  is  a 
commodious  brick  edifice,  well  arranged  for  the  purposes  of  a  Young  Ladies 
Seminary,  and  completely  furnished  throughout  in  the  finest  style.  It  contains 
a  gymnasium,  an  art  gallery  and  music  rooms,  especially  adapted  to  and  fitted 
up  for  these  several  departments.  This  spacious  and  elegant  edifice  is  warmed 
throughout  by  steam,  and  lighted  with  gas,  and  thus  completed  it  is  all  that 



means  and  skill  can  provide  for  the  comfort  of  the  young  ladies  in  their  course 
of  study.  It  contains,  beside  the  above,  a  spacious  dining  room,  kitchen, 
laundry,  parlors,  recitation  rooms,  an  elegant  school  room  and  chapel,  and 
thirty-nine  rooms  for  the  use  of  teachers  and  pupils,  which  are  all  furnished, 
warmed  and  lighted. 

In  the  Fall  of  1869,  Hon.  E.  P.  Weston,  then  of  Maine,  took  charge  of 
the  seminary,  under  a  special  contract  with  the  Trustees,  with  Miss  Noyes  as 
Assistant  Principal  and  an  able  corps  of  teachers.  Mr.  Weston  contracted  to 
act  as  Principal  of  the  seminary  until  the  Summer  of  1876,  and  under  his 
care  the  school  became  firmly  established  as  one  of  high  order,  and  was  well 
patronized.  The  first  graduates  of  the  seminary,  the  class  of  1871,  were  four. 
There  have  been  seven  classes  graduated  in  this  course  of  study,  numbering 
forty  in  all. 

In  the  Fall  of  1876,  Mr.  Weston  retired  from  the  management  of  the  school, 
and  Miss  M.  H.  Sprague  was  appointed  Principal,  and  now  fills  this  place, 
associated  with  a  very  able  corps  of  instructors. 

The  teachers  in  Latin,  French,  German,  painting  and  music  are  especially 

Prof.  Emil  Leibling  is  one  of  the  finest  pianists  in  the  country  and  is  un¬ 
surpassed  as  an  instructor,  and  Prof.  Bigelow  is  one  of  the  finest  artists  in 
Chicago,  and  is  highly  satisfactory  as  a  teacher  in  drawing  and  painting.  The 
number  of  pupils  in  the  school  is  about  eighty. 

Ferry  Hall  is  not ,  as  has  been  represented,  a  mixed  school,  conducted  on 
the  principle  of  “  co-education.’'  Only  young  ladies  are  permitted  to  enjoy  its 
privileges,  although  it  is  under  the  direction  of  the  same  Board  with  the  other 
departments  of  the  university.  Parents  may  rest  assured  that  their  daughters 
will  be  as  well  guarded  and  cultured  in  this  institution  as  in  the  very  best  sem¬ 
inaries  at  the  East. 

The  original  design  for  the  Collegiate  Department  of  the  university  was 
not  entered  upon  until  the  year  1876.  ■ 

In  the  year  1869,  the  Trustees,  deeming  the  possession  of  unproductive 
lands  an  obstacle  to  the  progress  of  their  plans,  accepted  a  proposition  from  a 
company  of  gentlemen  for  the  sale  of  nearly  all  their  remaining  lots,  at  a  low 
rate.  The  company  erected  a  building  on  the  lake  shore  for  a  hotel,  at  an 
expense  of  about  $80,000.  After  an  experiment  of  two  years,  the  hotel  was 
found  to  be  unprofitable  ;  and  in  the  Summer  of  1875,  the  company  proposed 
to  deed  it,  with  the  grounds,  to  the  Board,  for  the  remainder  of  their  indebted¬ 
ness,  which  was  then  a  little  less  than  $40,000.  This  offer  was  accompanied 
by  a  proposition  from  certain  gentlemen  to  endow  one  professorship,  provided 
$50,000,  including  this  amount,  should  be  speedily  subscribed  by  responsible 
persons  for  the  endowment  of  the  college ;  and  provided,  also,  that  the  Colle¬ 
giate  Department  should  be  opened  at  an  early  day.  Within  a  few  weeks,  the 
additional  $20,000  was  subscribed  by  responsible  parties  in  Lake  Forest,  and 



the  offer  of  the  company  was  accepted.  In  the  course  of  another  month,  two 
Professors  were  appointed,  and  the  same  year  a  President  was  elected ;  and  in 
September,  1876,  a  Freshman  class  was  organized,  consisting  of  twelve  mem¬ 

The  college  building  is  a  fine  wooden  structure,  situated  on  the  shore  of 
the  lake,  a  little  more  than  a  mile  from  the  railroad  depot.  It  contains  sixty 
rooms  for  students,  besides  parlor,  library  and  chapel,  recitation  rooms  and  din¬ 
ing  room  and  kitchen,  with  many  other  conveniences.  The  present  college 
grounds  embrace  twelve  acres.  The  park  for  the  site  of  the  future  university 
building  contains  nearly  forty  acres.  Near  the  present  college  building  there 
is  a  fine  artesian  well,  from  which  an  ample  supply  of  water  is  obtained,  both 
for  the  college  and  the  Ladies’  Seminary. 

The  College  Department  now  consists  of  two  classes,  Freshman  and  Sopho¬ 
more,  embracing  about  eleven  members  in  each,  and  two  Professors,  beside  the 
President,  viz. :  Rev.  John  H.  Hewitt,  Professor  of  the  Latin  and  Greek  Lan¬ 
guages,  and  E.  P.  Morris,  A.  M.,  Professor  of  Mathematics.  The  President  is 
Rev.  R.  W.  Patterson,  D.  D. 

There  are  two  courses  of  study  in  this  department,  viz.  :  The  Classical  and 
Scientific,  which  are  substantially  co-extensive  with  the  courses  in  Yale  College. 

A  good  beginning  has  been  made  in  a  library,  numbering  between  three 
and  four  thousand  volumes,  which  is  open  to  all  the  departments  of  the  LTni- 
versity.  The  instruction  in  this  department  is  unsurpassed  by  that  of  any  Of 
our  older  institutions.  Young  ladies  are  admitted  to  the  classes  on  the 
same  conditions  as  young  gentlemen,  but  only  gentlemen  board  or  room  in  the 
college  building.  The  utmost  care  is  exercised  in  the  supervision  of  the 
students.  It  is  hoped  and  believed  that  this  young  College  will  command  the 
patronage  and  beneficence  of  the  friends  of  Christian  education  in  all  this 
portion  of  the  Northwest. 

It  is  worthy  of  congratulation  and  of  thanksgiving  that  within  the  last  two 
years  handsome  donations  to  the  funds  of  this  University  have  been  pledged  by 
several  reliable  friends  of  education. 

The  property  of  the  University  now  consists  of  University  Park,  40  acres  ; 
Academy  Park,  10  acres,  with  buildings  ;  Seminary  Park,  12  acres,  with  build¬ 
ings  ;  building  occupied  by  College,  with  12  acres  of  ground ;  all  together 
worth  about  $185,000  ;  other  property  valued  at  $45,000 ;  permanent  endow¬ 
ments,  $70,000;  total,  $300,000. 

This  is  but  a  fair  beginning.  It  is  the  hope  and  purpose  of  the  Trustees  to 
make  the  University  at  Lake  Forest  an  educational  center  for  the  Northwest, 
especially  for  the  churches  of  the  Presbyterian  denomination,  that  have  no  other 
College  for  whose  endowment  and  patronage  they  are  deemed  responsible. 

It  remains  to  be  seen  whether  the  friends  of  Christian  education,  especially 
the  Presbyterians,  in  the  cities  of  Chicago  and  Milwaukee,  and  of  the  North¬ 
west,  will  co-operate  in  this  last  effort  for  the  thorough  education  of  our 



own  sons  and  daughters  in  an  institution  planted  and  sustained  as  a  home 

The  First  Presbyterian  Church,  in  Lake  Forest,  was  organized  by  the 
Presbytery  of  Chicago,  July  24,  1859,  and  embraced  twelve  members.  On  the 
same  day,  Mr.  Samuel  F.  Miller  and  Dr.  Charles  H.  Quinlan  were  elected  and 
installed  Elders  of  the  church. 

The  first  members  of  the  church  were  as  follows  :  Samuel  F.  Miller,  Mrs. 
Charlotte  H.  Miller,  Charles  H.  Quinlan,  Mrs.  Ruth  E.  Quinlan,  James 
Anderson,  James  H,  Wright,  Mrs.  Eunice  Wright,  Mrs.  Eliizabeth  H.  Bald¬ 
win,  Harvey  L.  House,  Mrs.  Jessie  House,  Hugh  Samuel,  Mrs.  Elizabeth 
Samuel,  Miss  Elizabeth  Disencamper,  Miss  Mary  Lynch,  Mrs.  Sarah  B. 

Divine  worship  was  held  for  the  first  three  years  of  its  history  in  the  chapel 
of  the  Academy.  Rev.  Wm.  C.  Dickinson  assumed  the  duties  of  Acting  Pas¬ 
tor,  October  2,  1859.  This  relation  continued  until  July  13,  1862,  when  Rev. 
A.  H.  Post  became  the  stated  supply  for  one  year.  July  19,  1863,  Rev. 
Wm.  C.  Dickinson  resumed  his  connection  with  the  church  as  stated  supply, 
and  in  the  Spring  of  1864,  accepted  a  call  to  become  in  form  its  Pastor,  and 
w-  s  duly  installed  May  10  of  the  same  year. 

In  July,  1862,  the  Chapel  (in  size  thirty  feet  by  sixty)  now  occupied  by 
the  church  was  opened  for  divine  worship. 

Rev.  Mr.  Dickinson  was  dismissed  as  Pastor  in  June,  1867.  In  June, 
1868,  Rev.  James  H.  Taylor  became  Pastor,  and  dismissed,  at  his  own  request, 
June,  1875.  Rev.  Wm.  R.  Brown  became  Pastor,  October  1,  1877,  and  is 
the  present  Pastor. 

There  was  a  Catholic  building,  of  logs,  in  this  town,  built  near  Wm.  Dwyer’s, 
about  1839.  It  was  abandoned  about  1845.  There  is  now  a  very  fine  Catholic 
church  edifice  at  Lake  Forest,  built  in  1875.  There  is  also  a  Catholic  church 
in  the  southwest  part  of  this  town,  a  very  fine  brick  building.  This  super¬ 
seded  a  church  building  of  logs,  built  in  1839,  near  Michael  Yores’,  in  what  is 
now  the  town  of  Deerfield. 

The  African  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Lake  Forest  was  organized  in 
1866  by  Elder  J.  B.  Dawson,  minister  in  charge.  This  church  grew  out  of  a 
Sunday  School  which  was  organized  in  1865  by  Mrs.  H.  M.  Thompson  and 
Miss  Webster,  and  was  held  in  the  brick  school  house  with  four  scholars. 

The  church  was  organized  by  electing  Alexander  Marshall  and  Siman  W. 
Smith  Trustees.  Charles  Taylor  was  first  class  leader.  This  church  is  con¬ 
nected  with  the  Conference  of  the  A.  M.  E.  Church  of  the  State  of  Illinois. 

Their  house  of  worship  was  erected  in  1870,  and  dedicated  in  1875,  and 
cost  $900.  The  present  Board  of  Trustees  are  Peter  Williams,  Samuel  Dent 
and  Smith  Hayes.  The  Stewards  are  Samuel  Dent,  Henry  Burr  and  Henry 
McIntosh.  The  present  Pastor  is  Aaron  Perkins. 

There  is  a  good  Sunday  School,  with  about  twenty  scholars. 


Lake  Bluff,  otherwise  known  as  the  Lake  Bluff  Camp  Meeting  enterprise,  is 
situated  in  this  township,  on  Lake  Michigan,  a  short  distance  north  of  Lake 
Forest,  east  of  Rockland  Station,  on  the  Northwestern  Railroad.  A  plat  of 
this  place  was  laid  out  and  completed  February  24,  1877. 

Like  Lake  Forest,  the  native  trees  on  the  ground  have  been  preserved-,  and 
the  place  has  been  rendered  very  attractive  by  its  rustic  bridges  and  winding 
avenues.  It  is  designed  not  only  for  religious  camp  meetings,  but.  as  Mr. 
Thatcher,  President  of  the  Association,  expresses  it,  as  a  place  of  u  summer 
resort,  similar  in  character  to  Martha’s  Vineyard  and  Ocean  Grove,  where, 
without  the  expense  and  weariness  of  a  long  journey,  rest  and  change  mav  be 

The  place  is  the  property  of  an  organized  association  known  as  the  “  Lake 
Bluff  Camp  Meeting  Association  of  the  Methodist  EpiscopalChurch.”  The 
officers  of  the  association  are  as  follows :  Solomon  Thatcher,  Jr.,  President, 
Thatcher  Park,  Ill.;  Hon.  D.  N.  Cooley,  Vice-President,  Dubuque,  Iowa;  S. 
A.  Kean,  Treasurer,  100  Washington  street,  Chicago;  Rev.  C.  G.  Truesdell. 
Secretary,  51  La  Salle  street,  Chicago ;  Rev.  Robert  D.  Sheppard,  Cor¬ 
responding  Secretary,  1023  West  Monroe  street,  Chicago. 


This  as  a  Congressional  Township  is  known  as  Township  43,  north  Range 
11  east. 

Much  that  pertains  to  the  early  history  of  this  town  has  already  been  given 
under  the  head  of  the  county  at  large.  To  dwell  thereon  here,  at  any  very  con¬ 
siderable  length,  would  be  but  a  repetition  of  what  has  already  been  said. 

Among  the  early  settlers  of  this  town  were  Capt.  Daniel  Wright,  Asahel 
Talcott,  Clark  Knights,  William  Easton,  Seth  Washburn,  John  Herrick,  John 
and  Robert  Easton,  Theron  Parsons,  Hiram  Kennicott,  Mathias  Mason,  Andrew 
S.  Wells,  Elisha  Gridley,  John  A.  Mills,  Rufus  Soules,  R.  E.  and  J.  M.  Wash¬ 
burn,  James  Chambers,  Alonzo  Cook,  Henry  Wells,  John  Gridley,  Thomas 
Bradwell,  Wm.  Wigham  and  Moses  Putney. 

In  this  portion  of  the  country  was  commenced  the  first  settlement  of  the 
county  ;  hence,  as  a  general  thing,  the  first  occurrences  of  every  kind  arising 
in  human  affairs  transpired  in  what  now  comprises  this  township. 

Here,  in  1834,  was  built  the  first  habitation,  by  Capt.  Daniel  Wright. 
Here  occurred  the  first  marriage  and  the  first  death.  Here,  in  1835,  settled 
the  first  lawyer,  Hiram  Kennicott,  who  was  also  the  first  Justice  of  the  Peace. 
Here  also  was  built  the  first  saw-mill  and  sawed  the  first  lumber,  and  here  was 
erected  the  first  framed  building,  or  building  constructed  of  sawed  material. 
Here  was  established  the  first  Post  Office  and  the  first  store  of  goods,  and  here 
was  taught  the  first  school.  With  most  of  these  first  occurrences  is  associated 



the  name  of  Hiram  Kennicott.  He  was  the  first  lawyer  in  the  county,  the  first 
Justice  of  the  Peace,  married  the  first  couple,  tried  the  first  law-suit,  built  the 
first  saw-mill,  opened  the  first  store  of  goods  and  built  the  first  framed  building 
in  the  county,  all  of  which  occurred  in  this  town.  It  may  be  added  that  the 
first  election  in  what  is  now  Lake  County  was  held  at  the  house  of  Hiram  Ken¬ 
nicott,  in  this  town. 

There  was  a  warm  contest  among  the  inhabitants  in  adopting  a  name  for 
this  town.  The  petitions  and  communications  to  the  Commissioners  having  the 
matter  in  charge,  on  the  subject,  were  quite  numerous.  Many  of  the  inhabit¬ 
ants  at  that  time  being  from  Rome,  in  the  State  of  New  York,  desired  that 
name  as  the  name  of  the  town,  and  so  expressed  their  wishes  by  petition,  and 
at  a  public  meeting.  This  was  opposed  by  others,  who  came  from  some  other 
locality.  The  name  of  Half  Day  was  urged  by  many  of  the  older  inhabitants 
who  had  became  attached  to  that  name  from  early  associations.  This  was 
opposed  by  others,  partly  because  it  was  not  deemed  a  very  appropriate  name, 
and  because  no  satisfactory  account  could  be  given  of  its  origin.  The  com¬ 
missioners  finally  disregarded  all  the  names  proposed,  and  selected  the  name  of 
AYrnon,  from  Alt.  ATernon,  the  home  of  AVashington. 

Of  the  early  settlers  of  this  town,  Alatthias  Mason,  the  first  County  Treas¬ 
urer,  still  survives,  and  remains  a  resident  here.  He  came  to  Chicago  about 
the  year  1833,  and  there  worked  at  blacksmithing  until  he  came  to  this 
county.  It  is  remembered  that  in  the  Spring  of  1835,  he  had  his  shop — a 
log  building — on  the  corner  of  Lake  and  Dearborn  streets,  opposite  the 
Tremont  House. 

Elisha  Gridley,  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  this  town,  came  here  when  quite 
young.  He  is  still  a  resident  of  the  town.  He  has  served  several  terms  as 
Supervisor  of  the  town,  and  has  been  a  Representative  in  the  Legislature. 

The  first  town  meeting  in  this  town,  under  township  organization,  was  held 
at  Half  Day  ALllage,  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850.  Matthias  Alason 
presided  as  Aloderator,  and  Robert  M.  Hamilton  acted  as  Clerk.  The  follow¬ 
ing  persons  were  elected  as  the  first  town  officers:  Capt.  James  Aloore,  Super¬ 
visor;  Orange  Brace,  Town  Clerk;  Philander  Stewart,  Justice  of  the  Peace; 
Elisha  Gridley,  Assessor ;  IT.  H.  Hawkes,  Job  AY.  Tripp  and  Irwin  Ruth, 
Commissioners  of  Highways ;  J.  AY.  Ayres,  Constable  and  Collector ;  Robert 
Hamilton,  Overseer  of  the  Poor. 

The  assessed  value  of  property  in  this  township  for  the  year  1850  was 
$110,418.00;  the  amount  of  tax  computed  on  the  same  was  $1,368.08. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  1877  was  $393,173.00. 

The  Alethodist  Episcopal  Church  commenced  work  in  this  town  at  an  early 
day.  About  the  year  1837,  a  class  was  formed  at  Half  Day,  of  which  AAnlliam 
Hamilton  was  Leader,  and  Joseph  E.  Kennicott,  Steward.  Some  of  the  mem¬ 
bers  of  this  class  were  as  follows :  David  Hamilton  and  wife,  Alary  A.  Hamil¬ 
ton,  Andrew  S.  YV ells  and  wife,  Airs.  John  Gridley  and  her  daughters,  Eliza- 


beth  and  Mary  A.  Gridley,  Hiram  Parsons,  Warren  Sprague  and  Elbert  How¬ 
ard  and  wife. 

The  Congregational  Church  of  Half  Day  was  organized  November  20,  1841. 
Rev.  Elbridge  G.  Howe  was  the  first  minister.  He  was  succeeded  by  Rev. 
Joseph  H.  Payne  in  January  following. 

The  names  of  members  at  the  time  of  the  organization  were  :  Joshua  Pelton 
and  wife,  Susanna  Pelton;  Sarah  Hawkes,  Joshua  Pelton,  Jr.,  and  wife,  Esther 
Pelton;  Thomas  Pelton,  Levi  Walker,  Jane  B.  Walker,  Lyman  Wilmot, 
Clarissa  Wilmot,  Jesse  Wilmot,  Luther  Farnham,  Mary  Cook,  Silas  Stevens, 
Selina  Stevens. 

The  building  of  a  house  of  worship  was  commenced  at  Half  Day  in  1844, 
and  completed  in  a  year  or  two  thereafter. 

The  Presbyterian  Church  was  organized  April  24,  1870,  by  J.  H.  Trow¬ 
bridge,  from  Chicago.  Number  of  members,  22.  The  present  minister  is  Rev. 
S.  R.  Dale.  The  present  church  building  at  Half  Day  was  built  in  1876. 

The  Evangelical  Association  was  organized  at  Long  Grove  about  1845. 
Rev.  C.  Kopp  was  the  first  minister.  The  first  members  were  as  follows : 

Christian  Erb,  Sr.,  and  wife;  Martin  Fehlman,  Sr.,  and  wife  ;  Henry  Knopf 
and  wife;  Adam  Knopf  and  wife;  John  Knedles  and  wife,  and  four  daughters 
and  one  son,  Harrison  ;  James  Morse  and  wife. 

A  house  of  worship  was  built  in  1860.  The  present  minister  is  Henry 
Muir.  Number  of  members,  about  45. 

The  Lutheran  Protestant  United  Congregation  at  Long  Grove  was  organized 
in  1847.  The  first  regular  appointed  minister  was  Mr.  Simon  Damsen  ;  before 
him  Mr.  Francis  A.  Hoffmann,  formerly  banker  in  Chicago,  preached  there  a 
few  times.  The  first  members  were  : 

Jacob  Clump,  Philip  Schmitz,  John  Goswdler,  Martin  Goswiller,  Caspar 
Seigwalt,  Jacob  Link,  Jacob  Barbross,  Jacob  Schnaibele,  John  Heller,  David 
Hans,  George  Ruth,  Henry  Sandman,  Frederick  Wickersheim,  John  Leinhardt, 
Adam  Degen,  Jacob  Muir,  John  Bent,  Henry  Knigze,  Henry  Auckermann. 

A  house  of  worship  was  built  in  1848.  Present  number  of  members, 
about  110. 

The  St.  Mary’s  Roman  Catholic  Church  was  formed  at  Buffalo  Grove  in 
this  town,  in  1848.  Rev.  Mr.  Fordmann  was  the  first  Priest.  This  church  is 
near  the  county  line,  and  a  portion  of  the  members  live  in  Cook  County,  lliere 
were  at  first  about  10  members  ;  now  about  450.  The  present  Priest  is  Rev. 
Joseph  W.  Goebbels.  A  church  edifice  was  built  in  1852,  and  destroyed  by  lire 
in  1854.  It  was  rebuilt  in  1856. 





This,  as  a  Congressional  Township,  is  known  as  Township  45,  north  Range 
11  east. 

The  first  settlement  ot  this  town  was  commenced  in  1885,  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  Des  Plaines  River.  Much  of  the  early  history  of  this  town  is  a  part  of  the 
general  history  of  the  county,  which  is  hereinbefore  related  under  the  head  of 
the  county  at  large. 

Among  the  early  settlers  were  Samuel  Brookes,  Thomas  McClure,  Amos 
Bennett,  L.  Vs .  Craig,  'Ezekiel  Boyland,  Leonard  Gage,  George  Gage,  George 
A.  Drury,  Avery  Esty,  Moses  Esty,  William  Lovejoy,  Abram  Marsh,  William 
Ladd,  George  A.  Drury,  Willard  Jones,  Orange  Smith,  Orlin  B.  Smith,  David 
Gilmore  and  Amaziah  Smith. 

The  name  of  this  town  was  given  by  the  Commissioners  in  accordance  with 
the  wishes  of  the  inhabitants  as  expressed  at  a  public  meeting  called  for  that 
purpose,  a  copy  of  the  proceedings  of  which  is  here  given,  as  best  showing  the 
circumstances  attending  the  selection  of  the  name  : 

“  At  a  meeting  held  pursuant  to  notice,  at  the  school  house  in  School  District 
Number  One,  Township  Forty-five,  Range  Eleven  (11)  east,  third  principal 
meridian,  for  the  purpose  of  selecting  a  name  for  said  town.  Amos  Wright  was 
chosen  Chairman,  and  Phillip  Blanchard,  Secretary.  The  meeting  being  or¬ 
ganized,  it  was  resolved  that  the  name  that  should  receive  the  highest  number 
of  votes  should  be  the  name  for  said  town  as  the  first  choice,  and  that  six 
names  should  be  selected  as  the  first,  second,  third,  fourth,  fifth  and  sixth 

“  The  meeting  then  proceeded  to  vote  for  names,  whereupon  the  name  of 
Warren  was  chosen  as  the  first  choice,  Leroy  was  chosen  as  the  second  choice, 
Milton  was  chosen  as  the  third  choice,  Lebanon  was  chosen  as  the  fourth  choice, 
Genesee  as  the  fifth  choice,  Hudson  as  the  sixth  choice.  Motioned  and  carried 
that  Asa  Pratt  convey  the  proceedings  of  this  meeting  to  the  Commissioners.” 

Amos  Wright  and  Alexander  Druse,  wdio  lived  in  the  western  part  of  the 
township,  were  from  the  town  of  Warren,  in  Herkimer  County,  in  the  State  of 
New  York.  They  w^ere  solid  in  their  demand  for  this  name.  Mr.  Druse  was 
an  old-fashioned  man,  of  comprehension  and  ideas  in  proportion  to  the  advan¬ 
tages  of  his  surroundings.  He  had  spent  most  of  his  days  in  the  town  of  War¬ 
ren,  from  which  he  emigrated,  seldom  going  beyond  its  limits  during  the  time. 
To  him,  the  town  of  Warren  was  nearly  the  whole  world,  and  its  name  pos¬ 
sessed  a  peculiar  charm.  He  canvassed  the  township  in  the  interest  of  this 
name  with  as  much  zeal  as  if  the  destiny  of  the  country  had  been  at  stake. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  the  name  was  carried  in  the  meeting,  not  by  a  ma¬ 
jority  vote,  but  through  the  ingenious  plan  devised  in  determining  the  result, 



it  being  agreed  beforehand  that  the  highest  out  of  six  names  voted  for  should 
be  taken  as  the  choice  of  the  meeting. 

The  town  of  Warren,  in  the  State  of  New  York,  was  so  named  in  honor  of 
Gen.  Joseph  Warren,  who  fell  at  the  Battle  of  Bunker  Hill,  in  the  beginning 
of  the  American  Revolution. 

Ancient  mounds  are  found  in  this  town,  along  the  Des  Plaines  River,  like 
those  alluded  to  in  Newport  and  Wauconda. 

The  first  school  house  in  this  town  was  built  about  1838,  a  log  building,  in 
the  northern  part  of  the  town,  near  where  Peter  Strang  now  lives.  James 
Alvoid  taught  the  first  school  in  town  in  this  house,  about  the  year  aforesaid. 

This  township  was  the  home,  in  early  days,  of  three  individvuals  who  are 
remembered  for  occurrences  attending  each.  It  was  the  home  of  William  Love- 
joy,  who  drove  the  first  mail  stage  through  the  county,  between  Chicago  and 
Milwaukee  ;  of  Ezekiel  Boyland,  who  was  the  first  man  in  the  county  on  whom 
judicial  process  was  ever  served,  as  has  before  been  related;  and  of  Amos  Ben¬ 
nett,  a  colored  man,  who  declared  on  a  certain  occasion  that  he  was  “  the  first 
white  man  that  ever  planted  corn  in  Lake  County.” 

The  first  town  meeting  held  in  this  town,  under  township  organization,  was 
convened  at  the  school  house,  near  the  O’ Plain  House,  on  the  first  Tues¬ 
day  in  April,  1850.  Nathaniel  Yose,  Esq.,  was  chosen  Moderator,  and  Ben¬ 
jamin  Schauber,  Clerk.  The  following  persons  were  elected  the  first  town 
officers :  Havelia  Whitney,  Supervisor ;  Benjamin  Schauber,  Town  Clerk ; 
Nathaniel  Yose,  Jr.,  Assessor;  George  A.  Drury,  Overseer  of  the  Poor;  Levi 
Stafford,  Collector;  A.  M.  Pearsons,  Alfred  1).  Whitmore  and  Marcus  S. 
Marsh,  Commissioners  of  Highways ;  Philip  Blanchard  and  Havelia  Whitney, 
Justices  of  the  Peace. 

In  1850,  at  the  beginning  of  the  township  organization,  this  town,  in  point 
of  wealth,  ranked  the  second  in  the  county. 

The  assessed  value  of  property  for  the  year  1850,  including  both  real  and 
personal,  was  $114,989.  The  amount  of  tax  computed  on  the  same  for  collec¬ 
tion  was  $1,932.16. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  1877  was  $304,612. 

The  first  religious  meetings  in  this  township  were  held  in  the  school  house 
in  the  northern  part  of  the  township,  before  mentioned. 

About  twenty  years  ago,  the  Disciples  organized  a  society  in  this  town,  and 
have  since  held  their  meetings  for  worship  in  the  school  house,  at  the  Aux 
Plaines  bridge. 

In  January,  1877,  a  class  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  was  organized 
at  Stafford’s  school  house,  under  direction  of  Rev.  A.  Wakeman,  of  Evanston, 
comprising  about  seventeen  members. 

There  is  a  prosperous  Grange  of  the  Order  of  Patrons  of  Husbandry  in  this 
town,  who  have  a  commodious  hall,  built  about  two  years  ago,  at  what  is  known 
as  Whitmore’s  Corners. 




Wauconda  is  one  of  those  fractional  townships  upon  the  west  line  of  the 
county.  It  is  bounded  upon  the  north  by  Goodale  ;  on  the  east  by  Fremont  ; 
on  the  south  by  Cuba,  and  on  the  west  by  McHenry  County.  As  a  Congres¬ 
sional  township  it  is  known  as  Township  44,  north  Range  9  east. 

Among  the  early  settlers  were  Justus  Bangs,  Elisha  Hubbard,  Mark  Bangs, 
Peter  Mills,  A.  J.  Seeber,  D.  II.  Sherman,  John  C.  Wooster,  Daniel  Martin, 
W.  H.  Hawkins,  Thomas  F.  Slocum,  Stephen  Rice  and  R.  R.  Crosby. 

The  township  is  watered  by  Bangs’  Lake,  Slocum’s  Lake  and  two  or  three 
small  ponds  not  named.  Bangs’  Lake  takes  its  name  from  Justus  Bangs,  Esq., 
who  was  the  first  settler  in  the  vicinity,  and  Slocum’s  Lake  from  Thomas  F. 
Slocum,  who  was  likewise  an  early  settler  in  that  vicinity.  The  lands  were 
originally  mostly  woodlands  and  oak  openings.  It  has,  however,  a  small  prairie, 
formerly  known  to  some  extent  as  Rice's  Prairie,  lying  immediately  south  of 
the  village  of  Volo,  containing  an  area  of  about  600  acres. 

From  the  abundant  supply,  of  timber  in  this  township,  it  has  become  quite 
thickly  settled,  the  population  being  made  up  of  an  intelligent  and  industrious 
class  of  farmers.  It  has  two  very  flourishing  villages — Wauconda  and  Yolo. 
The  former  is  located  in  the  south  part  of  the  township,  upon  the  west  side  of 
Bangs'  Lake,  on  the  Chicago  and  McHenry  road.  The  latter  is  located  in  the 
north  part  of  the  town,  upon  the  route  of  the  old  Lake  and  McHenry  plank 
road.  It  affords  two  stores,  a  hotel,  and  such  mechanics  as  are  usually  found 
in  like  country  villages. 

Limestone  is  found  in  abundance  in  the  vicinity  of  Yolo,  and  the  burning 
of  lime  at  this  place  has  been  a  source  of  considerable  profit  to  individuals  who 
have  engaged  in  the  business. 

The  village  of  Yolo  was  originally  called  Forksville,  from  its  being  situated 
at  the  forks  of  the  McHenry  and  Chicago  and  Little  Fort  roads.  Before  any 
house  was  built  here,  this  spot  became  known  as  the  Forks. 

Justus  Bangs  built  the  first  house  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Wauconda,  in 
1836,  on  the  bank  of  the  lake  which  thereafter  became  known  as  Bangs  Lake. 
The  first  school  in  this  township  was  taught  by  Mrs.  Euphemia  Yalentine,  in 
the  Fall  of  1839,  in  a  house  built  for  purposes  of  a  school  by  R.  R.  Crosby 
and  E.  S.  Johonnott,  in  the  northeast  part  of  the  town,  on  Section  1. 

A  Post  Office  was  established  in  this  township,  before  the  village  of  Wau¬ 
conda  was  commenced,  at  Slocum’s  Lake,  called  Cornelia.  After  the  village  of 
Wauconda  commenced  to  grow  up,  the  office  at  Cornelia  was  discontinued,  and 
an  office  was  established  at  Wauconda.  The  name  of  Wauconda  was  selected, 
it  is  said,  by  a  young  man,  then  a  school  teacher  at  that  place,  who  had  been 
reading  an  Indian  story  wherein  this  name  occurred,  and  to  which  he  for  some 
reason  took  a  strong  fancy. 



The  name  of  TV  auconda  was  given  to  the  township  by  the  Commissioners, 
in  accordance  with  the  wishes  of  the  inhabitants  as  expressed  by  a  petition  to 
the  Commissioners,  unanimously  signed,  and  to  which  there  was  no  remon¬ 
strance,  in  the  following  words  : 

“  We,  the  inhabitants  of  Township  44,  Range  9,  in  the  county  of  Lake, 
solicit  your  consideration  to  the  propriety  of  selecting  the  name  of  Wauconda 
for  the  above  township,  it  being  the  name  of  the  most  important  post  office  in 
said  town.” 

The  first  town  meeting  held  in  this  town  under  the  township  organization 
was  convened  at  the  village  of  Wauconda,  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1850. 
Jonathan  Wood  was  chosen  Moderator,  and  La  Fayette  Mills  acted  as  Clerk. 
The  following  persons  were  elected  as  town  officers : 

Peter  Mills,  Supervisor ;  La  Fayette  Mills,  Town  Clerk ;  James  S.  Davis, 
Assessor;  E.  L.  Huson,  Collector;  A.  J.  Seeber,  Andrew  Cook  and  J.  T.  Mc¬ 
Kinney,  Commissioners  of  Highways;  Hazard  Green  and  J.  H.  Wesscher, 
Justices  of  the  Peace  ;  E.  L.  Huson  and  Seth  Hill,  Constables. 

The  assessed  value  of  property  for  the  year  1850,  including  both  real  and 
personal,  was  $61,907.00.  The  amount  of  tax  computed  on  the  same  was 
$827.18.  The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  1877  was  $252,631. 

Ancient  mounds,  the  repository  of  human  bones,  were  formerly  visible  in 
various  parts  of  this  township.  One  of  these  remained  for  some  time  undis¬ 
turbed,  in  the  central  portion  of  the  village  of  Wauconda. 

In  1856  ,  an  association  was  organized  for  building  and  conducting  an  academy 
in  the  village  of  Wauconda,  who  procured  a  lot  and  erected  a  very  commodious 
building  for  that  purpose.  In  1857,  the  association  became  incorporated  by  a 
special  act  of  the  Legislature,  procured  through  the  exertions  of  Hon.  TV.  M. 
Burbank,  then  the  Representative  from  Lake  County.  The  following  persons 
were  chosen  as  Trustees:  Justus  Bangs,  Andrew  Cooke,  Thomas  F.  Slocum, 
J.  R.  Wells  and  Dr.  TV.  M.  Burbank,  who  employed  Benton  Rogers  as  prin¬ 
cipal  teacher.  The  institution  continued  in  successful  operation  for  about  ten 
years,  when  it  was  discontinued  and  the  building  was  rented  to  the  district  for 
a  public  school. 

Mr.  H.  B.  Burritt,  an  enterprising  citizen  of  the  place,  becoming  one  of  the 
District  Directors,  urged  the  propriety  of  a  purchase  of  this  building  by  the  dis¬ 
trict  and  making  it  a  graded  school.  In  the  Spring  of  187 1,  it  was  accordingly 
purchased  by  the  district,  and  thoroughly  repaired,  and  has  since  been  used  for  a 
graded  school,  accommodating  a  large  number  of  scholars  from  other  townships 
and  adjoining  counties.  Prof.  C.  A.  Allen  is  the  present  principal  teacher, 
whose  reputation  as  a  teacher  is  of  the  first  order. 

The  First  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Wauconda  was  organized  Septem¬ 
ber  3,  1853,  under  the  direction  of  Rev.  Charles  French,  preacher  in  charge. 
The  following  persons  were  chosen  as  the  first  Trustees,  viz.  :  Cyrus  Bowen, 
Richard  Bonner,  Nathan  Wells,  Lewis  II.  Todd  and  Charles  Fletcher.  The 



first  minister  was  Rev.  Robt.  Beattie.  A  house  of  worship  was  built  at  Wau- 
conda  in  the  Fall  and  Winter  of  1855-6.  The  present  Trustees  are  Richard 
Bonner,  L.  H.  Todd  and  George  Hubbard. 

A  church  edifice  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  is  being  built  at  the  village 
of  Wauconda,  and  will  be  completed  and  dedicated  in  November,  1877.  It  is  a 
fine,  commodious  building.  The  Trustees  are  James  Murry,  Clias.  Davlin, 
Felix  Givens,  Hugh  Davlin  and  Owen  McMahon. 

The  first  Baptist  Church  organization  of  Wauconda  was  in  the  Fall  of 
1838,  by  Elder  Joel  Wheeler  of  McHenry.  Meetings  were  held  at  the  house 
of  Mark  Bangs,  at  Wauconda,  and  Zebina  Ford’s,  two  and  one-half  miles 
east  of  Wauconda,  until  1856,  when  the  church  called  the  Methodist  Church 
was  built  in  common  by  all  sects,  and  occupied  by  the  Methodists  and  Baptists 
on  each  alternate  Sabbath,  until  February  28,  1870,  when  the  Baptist  Church 
and  Society  reorganized  and  elected  a  Board  of  Trustees,  consisting  of  G.  R. 
Wells,  A.  P.  Werden,  Thos.  Rawson,  H.  B.  Burritt  and  A.  C.  Bangs;  and  in 
the  Summer  following,  built  a  church,  at  a  cost  of  about  $5,500,  which  was 
dedicated  on  the  20th  of  October,  1870,  free  of  debt — Rev.  G.  L.  Brooks, 
Pastor  from  1855  up  to  1874. 

The  house  of  worhip  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  at  Yolo,  in  this 
township,  was  built  in  1872.  The  present  Trustees  are  John  Gale,  Ambrose 
Wrought,  Albert  Wrought,  B.  T.  Huson  and  D.  C.  Townsend. 

There  is  also  at  Yolo  a  German  Catholic  Church  building,  which  was  first 
built  about  1869.  It  was  destroyed  by  fire  before  it  was  completely  finished, 
and  afterward  rebuilt. 

The  village  of  Wauconda  became  incorporated  as  a  municipal  incorporation, 
under  the  general  laws  of  the  State,  August  18,  1877.  The  following  were 
elected  the  first  Trustees:  J.  A.  Hubbard,  Robert  Harrison,  Daniel  Oaks, 
Peter  Johnson,  A.  C.  Bangs  and  P.  S.  Swenson.  The  following  w~ere  chosen 
officers  for  the  ensuing  year  :  President,  Robert  Harrison  ;  Clerk,  A.  Calkins  ; 
Street  Commisioner,  Stebbins  Ford ;  Constable,  Henry  Golding. 

The  population  of  the  village  is  about  325.  The  plat  of  the  village  was 
laid  out  February  6,  1850.  Its  business  and  growth  have  continued  to  advance, 
year  after  year,  until  it  has  become  one  of  the  most  flourishing  villages  in  the 


This  township  lies  upon  Lake  Michigan,  and  is  known  as  Township  45, 
north  Range  12  east.  The  most  important  share  of  the  early  history  of  this 
township  is  comprised  in  that  of  the  county  at  large,  which  has  already  been 
given.  To  avoid  repetition,  so  much  only  will  be  given  here  as  was  not  prop¬ 
erly  included  under  the  head  of  the  county  at  large. 



Among  the  early  settlers  of  this  township,  before  the  city  of  Waukegan  had 
a  beginning,  were  Thomas  Jenkins,  Samuel  Pellifant,  Charles  S.  Cary,  James 
G.  Cary,  Elmsley  Sunderlin,  Peleg  Sunderlin,  Paul  Kingston,  James  B.  Gor¬ 
ton,  Henry  Knapp,  Hezekiah  Bryant,  D.  S.  Dewey,  Dr.  David  Cory,  Burleigh 
Hunt,  Daniel  Walters,  Cornelius  Yeiley,  Edward  Snyder,  Erastus  Blakesley, 
Tlios.  B.  Benjamin,  W.  B.  Benjamin,  James  McKay,  Arthur  Patterson,  Capt. 
Morris  Robinson  and  D.  0.  Dickinson. 

The  first  settlement  in  this  township,  as  has  been  stated,  was  in  1835. 
During  this  year,  Thomas  Jenkins,  of  Chicago,  and  others  commenced  the  con¬ 
struction  of  a  building  in  which  to  open  a  store  of  goods.  In  1836,  a  stock  of 
merchandise  was  opened  in  this  building  by  Mr.  Jenkins.  This  building  was  a 
two-story  frame  structure,  about  twenty  by  forty  feet  in  dimensions,  and  situ¬ 
ated  under  the  bluff  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river,  immediately  east  of  the 
present  track  of  the  Northwestern  Railroad.  This  was  the  first  framed  build¬ 
ing  and  the  first  stock  of  goods  in  the  township.  In  the  course  of  a  year,  Mr. 
Jenkins  abandoned  his  undertaking  and  returned  to  Chicago.  Soon  there¬ 
after,  James  B.  Gorton  came  with  a  stock  of  goods  ;  but,  a  controversy  arising 
as  to  the  right  of  occupancy  of  the  land  upon  which  he  had  settled,  he  removed 
his  stock  out  to  the  O’Plain  Bridge,  on  the  Milwaukee  road,  where  he  remained 
until  the  title  became  settled  by  the  re-location  of  the  county  seat,  in  1841. 

About  the  year  1838,  Burleigh  Hunt,  formerly  of  Canada,  came  and  built 
a  house  on  the  south  side  of  the  river,  near  where  is  now  the  residence  of 
Judge  Blodgett,  at  the  southwest  corner  of  State  and  Liberty  streets,  in 
Tiffany’s  Addition  to  Waukegan. 

The  place  at  this  point,  as  has  been  mentioned,  was  then,  and  had  been 
from  the  beginning  of  the  settlement  of  the  Northwest,  known  as  Little  Fort. 

Mr.  Hunt  soon  after  built  a  dam  across  the  river,  near  the  present  site  of 
State  street  bridge,  on  the  west,  the  remains  which  are  still  visible,,  and  built 
a  saw-mill  there ;  to  which,  in  1840,  he  added  a  grist-mill. 

About  the  same  time,  Dr.  David  Cory  came  and  made  a  claim  of  Govern¬ 
ment  land  on  the  northeast  quarter  of  Section  21,  and  built  a  house  of  hewn 
logs  near  the  present  residence  of  I.  R.  Lyon,  on  State  street,  just  north  of 
Clayton  street.  He  was  the  first  physician  who  settled  in  this  township.  It 
is  proper  to  remark,  in  this  connection,  that  Mrs.  Cory,  widow  of  Dr.  David 
Cory,  who  still  lives  in  Waukegan,  is  now  the  oldest  resident  in  the  city,  in 
point  of  time  of  residence. 

The  next  settler  after  Dr.  Cory  at  this  point  was  Dennis  S.  Dewey,  from 
Chicago,  who  came  a  few  months  thereafter.  He  built  a  house,  and  settled  at 
the  place  where  is  now  the  elegant  residence  of  Dr.  C.  V.  Price,  on  Grand 
avenue,  near  the  north  branch  of  the  Little  Fort  River.  He  made  a  claim  of 
Government  land  on  the  northwest  quarter  of  Section  21,  on  which  he  built  his 
house.  Following  this  he  built  a  dam  across  the  stream,  and  erected  a  chair 
and  furniture  factory. 



The  object  in  view  by  the  early  settlers  at  this  point  was  to  build  up  a  town 
on  the  lake,  and  make  it  an  important  one  for  shipping  and  trade.  But  the 
make  of  the  country  being  such  as  not  to  bring  it  upon  the  line  of  any  important 
thoroughfare,  its  progress  wras  slow,  and  the  prospect  rather  discouraging  ;  and 
hereupon  arose  the  agitation  of  the  subject  of  the  removal  of  the  county  seat 
from  Libertyville  to  this  place,  a  pretty  full  account  of  which  has  already  been 

In  pursuance  of  a  vote  of  the  people,  the  county  seat  was  removed  and  located 
at  Little  Fort,  April  13,  1841.  This  was  a  great  day  for  the  inhabitants  of  the 
surrounding  country. 

At  this  time,  the  habitations  at  the  point  known  as  Little  Fort  were  five  in 
number.  The  day  was  fine,  and  everybody  for  miles  around  turned  out  to  wit¬ 
ness  the  ceremony  of  the  event. 

The  ground  which  is  the  site  of  the  present  city  was  at  that  time  covered 
with  forest  trees  and  underbrush.  That  where  is  now  the  business  portion  of 
the  city,  extending  to  the  bluff,  was  covered  with  what  appeared  to  be  a  second 
growth  of  trees,  confirming  the  assertion  so  often  made,  that  this  had  once  been 
a  place  of  some  importance  as  a  trading  post. 

The  usual  mode  adopted  by  Commissioners  in  early  days,  in  organizing  new 
counties,  in  designating  the  precise  locality  determined  upon,  was  to  put  down 
a  stake  or  post  at  the  point  selected.  For  the  purposes  of  this  occasion,  Mr. 
Dewey  had  turned  out  at  his  manufactory,  and  painted  in  neat  style,  a  post  of 
red  cedar,  which  he  presented  to  the  County  Commissioners  to  sec  in  the  ground 
as  marking  the  particular  spot  where  the  county  seat  should  be  located — in 
other  words,  where  the  Court  House  should  be  erected.  This  post  was  set  on 
what  was  considered  the  highest  point  of  ground  at  Little  Fort.  This  was 
before  the  town  plat  was  laid  out,  consequently  the  place  could  not  be  designated 
with  reference  to  streets  or  blocks.  But  wThen  the  town  plat  was  surveyed 
immediately  thereafter,  this  stake  came  about  upon  the  east  line  of  the  block 
where  the  Court  House  wTas  afterward  built,  which  was  reserved  as  a  public 

The  work  of  building  up  the  town  of  Little  Fort  immediately  commenced, 
and  it  has  continued  in  its  growth  until,  in  1877,  it  contains  about  six  thou¬ 
sand  inhabitants. 

A  post  office  wTas  established  at  Little  Fort  by  that  name  in  the  summer  of 
1841,  and  Joseph  Wood  appointed  Postmaster. 

The  first  lawryer  wdio  settled  at  this  place  wras  Isaac  Hopkinson,  wdio  came 
in  May,  1841,  and  was  employed  by  the  County  Commissioners  as  counsel  in 
making  their  first  sale  of  lots,  being  at  public  sale  during  that  month. 

The  first  school  taught  in  Little  Fort,  or  what  is  now  the  township  of  Wau¬ 
kegan,  was  by  E.  M.  Haines,  in  the  Winter  of  1841-2  ;  it  was  in  the  upper  story 
of  the  dwelling  house  of  Andrew  Rice,  situated  on  State  street,  a  short  dis¬ 
tance  south  of  Madison  street,  and  about  where  the  present  residence  of  S.  I. 



Bradbury  now  is.  It  was  a  private  school,  sustained  by  subscription  of  the 
patrons,  and  continued  three  months. 

About  the  year  1850,  an  appropriation  was  made  by  Congress  of  §15,000 
to  commence  the  construction  of  a  harbor  at  Bittle  Fort.  The  work  was  com¬ 
menced  in  18o3,  under  the  charge  of  Capt.  Gamble.  The  sum  was  soon  -ex¬ 
hausted,  and  as  no  further  appropriation  could  be  obtained,  nothing  more  was 
done,  and  the  work  performed  went  to  waste. 

The  first  town  meeting  held  in  the  township  of  Waukegan,  under  township 
organization,  was  commenced  at  the  Court  House,  in  Waukegan,  on  the  first 
Tuesday  in  April,  1850.  Daniel  Brewer  presided  as  Moderator,  and  Nathaniel 
P.  Dowst  acted  as  Clerk.  The  following  persons  were  chosen  as  town  officers  : 
James  B.  Gorton,  Supervisor;  George  Wood,  Town  Clerk;  S.  H.  Flinn,  As¬ 
sessor;  Jeremiah  Porter,  Overseer  of  the  Poor ;  William  B.  Benjamin,  Jacob 
Montgomery  and  Eber  Hinkston,  Commissioners  of  Highways ;  John  L. 
Turner  and  Phillip  King,  Justices  of  the  Peace ;  L.  Belshaw  and  Harley  Sage, 
Constables ;  Harley  Sage,  Collector.  The  number  of  votes  cast  was  302. 
The  township  has  a  school  fund  of  $3,600.40 

The  assessed  value  of  property  for  the  year  1850,  including  both  real  and 
personal,  was  $365,639.  The  amount  of  tax  computed  on  the  same  for  collec¬ 
tion  was  $5,756.25. 

The  total  assessed  value  of  property  for  1877  was  $800,132. 

The  following  article,  which  appeared  in  a  newspaper  published  here,  March 
4,  1845,  called  the  Little  Fort  Porcupine ,  being  the  first  paper  and  the  first 
number  thereof,  published  in  Waukegan,  is  interesting  in  contrasting  the  city 
of  Waukegan  with  the  present  day,  and  as  affording  a  pretty  fair  idea  of  its 
progress : 

“  The  village  of  Little  Fort  is  situated  upon  the  shore  of  Lake  Michigan, 
forty-five  miles  down  the  lake  from  Chicago,  nine  and  a  half  miles  south  of  the 
north  line  of  the  State,  and  sixteen  up  the  lake  from  Southport.  There  is 
nearly  one-half  section  of  land  laid  out  into  lots,  a  great  portion  of  which  are 
sold  and  improved.  A  court  house,  the  best  in  the  State,  has  been  constructed 
the  past  season,  and  sixty-one  other  buildings,  among  -which  we  enumerate  a 
brick  block,  of  three  stories,  by  D.  S.  Dewey  ;  a  fine  tavern  house,  by  Michael  Du- 
lanty ;  a  large  addition  to  Dickinson  &  Co.’s  warehouse;  and  a  warehouse, 
100x24  feet,  two  and  a  half  stories  high,  by  A.  B.  Wynkoop. 

“  The  place  contains  452  inhabitants,  three  commodious  public  houses,  seven 
stores,  two  groceries,  two  blacksmith  shops,  one  tin  and  sheet-iron  factory,  two 
shoe  shops,  three  tailor  shops,  one  chair  and  cabinet  factory,  one  watchmaker, 
one  gunsmith,  two  wheelwrights,  one  plow  manufactory,  three  warehouses,  one 
pier,  and  a  second  being  constructed  by  A.  B.  Wynkoop.  The  timber  is  now 
being  framed  for  a  steam  flouring-mill.  There  is  good  clay  and  two  yards, 
where  brick  is  made,  of  a  superior  cpiality.  The  facilities  of  this  place  for  a 
heavy  produce  and  lumber  business  are  not  surpassed  by  any  place  on  the  west- 



ern  shore  of  the  lake,  north  of  Chicago.  It  is  backed  up  by  the  best  wheat- 
growing  country  in  Illinois,  and  must  become  a  town  of  considerable  impor¬ 
tance  ere  it  gets  to  its  teens.'’ 

For  the  first  ten  or  twelve  years  of  the  existence  of  Waukegan,  it  was  a 
place  of  much  importance  as  a  shipping  port  on  the  lake.  The  trade  of  the 
place  extended  back  into  the  country  for  a  distance  of  forty  miles.  But  after 
the  lapse  of  about  twelve  or  fifteen  years  this  trade  became  materially  reduced 
by  the  construction  of  railroads  through  the  country. 

When  Little  Fort  had  reached  a  population  of  about  2,500  inhabitants,  it 
became  incorporated  for  municipal  purposes  as  a  village,  by  an  Act  of  the 
Legislature  approved  February  12,  1849 ;  in  the  act  of  incorporation  was  a 
provision,  that  at  the  first  election  for  Town  Officers  the  inhabitants  might 
change  the  name  of  the  town  to  Waukegan  ;  which  election  was  held  on  the 
second  Monday  in  March,  1849,  at  which  the  following  persons  were  elected  as 
officers  : 

President,  D.  0.  Dickinson  ;  Trustees — First  Ward,  W.  C.  Tiffany  and  H. 
Hugunin ;  Second  Ward,  Jas.  B.  Gorton  and  A.  Dougherty;  Third  Ward,  E. 
S.  L.  Bachelder  and  Ransom  Steele. 

By  a  unanimous  vote  of  the  inhabitants  at  the  same  election,  the  name  of  the 
town  was  changed  to  Waukegan ,  it  being  the  Indian  word,  in  the  Pottawattomie 
language  for  Fort. 

The  name  of  the  Post  Office  was  also  changed  accordinglv. 

The  Court  House  spoken  of,  an  account  of  the  building  of  which  was  given 
in  the  fore  part  of  this  history,  under  the  head  of  the  county  at  large,  was 
destroyed  by  fire  about  two  years  ago,  and  at  the  last  meeting  of  the  County 
Board  of  Supervisors  a  new  Court  House  was  ordered  to  be  built,  on  the  public 
square,  on  the  site  of  the  former  building,  to  cost  about  $38,000,  the  work  of 
which  is  now  rapidly  progressing. 

Since  the  completion  of  the  railroad  through  Waukegan,  and  the  excellent 
facilities  afforded  by  the  frequent  running  of  passenger  trains,  this  place  and 
vicinity  have  become  a  place  of  summer  residence  for  business  men  and  others 
of  Chicago  ;  besides,  a  large  number  of  permanent  residents  of  Waukegan  carry 
on  a  regular  established  business  in  Chicago. 

Waukegan  is  further  made  a  point  of  attraction  in  the  summer  season  from 
its  being  in  the  vicinity  of  the  great  cluster  of  small  and  beautiful  lakes  lying 
in  Lake  County. 

(For  particular  account  of  the  City  of  Waukeg  m  and  its  institutions ,  see  page  4^0.) 






WEBB,  ALBERT,  Antioch  Township  Farmer  •  P  O  R '  L 

was  born  7™  4.  iQno  •  o  •  ,  ‘  ’  ^  »  tuekory ;  owns  1G5  acres; 

was  00111  Jan.  4,  1809,  m  Providence,  R.  I;  married  Peh  8  l s-w 

born  Anvil  94.  isia  ;  a  .  «  , ,  ’  ’  reD-  ;  wife  was 

children— -Nancy  M„  born  Marl"  19,  i844  ;  {vTJe  H„  1‘IT  M  ^  184^ 
James  A.,  born  May  14,  1849;  John  A„  born  March  16,  1854. 

J.  R.  Rowland,  Waukegan,  should  be  J.  L.  Rowland. 

Andrew  Gartlety,  in  Shields  Township,  should  be  Andrew  Gartley. 

John  Pearson,  in  Waukegan  Township,  should  be  John  Fearon 

In  °l  Shields’  the  amoUnt  ™sed  *  subscription  for  the  huild- 

.  8  of  the  Academy  should  be  $3,800  instead  of  $38,000. 

Philipp  Siegele,  of  Deerfield  Township,  should  be  Philipp  Seigeie. 


Adv . 

agt . 

Bapt . 

bkpr . 

bwr . 


carp . 

Cath . 

elk . 

Oli . 

Co . 

com.  mer. 

('ong . 

Dem . 

dir . 

JgSt . 

Evang .... 

Ind . 

I.  V.  I . 

I.  Y.  C . 

I.  Y.  A.... 
far . 

HR  li  E  ~V  I  ^Y  T  I  (>  N  S . 

. Adventist 

. agent 

. Baptist 

. bookkeeper 

. brewer 

. bricklayer 

. carpenter 

. Catholic 

. clerk 

. Chnrcli 

. Company  or  County 

. commission  merchant 

. Congregational 

. Democrat 

. ' 

.  . druggist 

. Episcopal 

. Evangelist 

. Independent 

.Illinois  Volunteer  Infantry 
..Illinois  Volunteer  Cavalry 
Illinois  Volunteer  Artillery 
. farmer 

tdry . foundry 

pro . grocer 

Mph . Methodist 

m*r . manufacturer 

ni  “ch . machinist 

ni'ir . maker 

mech . mechanic 

m®r . merchant 

. minister 

Phot . photographer 

phys . physician 

Fresh . Presbyterian 

Pr . printer 

Ptr . painter 

prop .  proprietor 

Rep . Republican 

Rev . Reverend 

sec . section  or  secretary 

slsmn . salesman 

Spir . Spiritualist 

supt . superintendent 

treas . treasurer 


BBOTT,  MARTIN,  grocer;  P.  0. 

ADAMS,  GEO.  K.  ,  lumber  merchant ; 
Waukegan  ;  born  in  Lake  Co.,  Ill.,  April 
3d,  1846. 

Adams,  Dan,  bookkeeper;  P.O.  Waukegan. 
Ackenback,  Ernst,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Allen,  T.  N.,  loan  agent;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Allen,  Wm.,  clerk;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Alford,  W.  D.,  clerk;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Arnold  W.  H.,  mfr.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Arno,  John  B.,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Austin,  Perry  L.,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Avery,  E.  W.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Avery,  J.  A.,  local  ed.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Arnold,  D.  W.,  lime  dir.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Andreas,  Dan’l,  tailor;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Armstrong,  Wm.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Atchison,  W.  D.,  M.  E.  minister;  P.  0. 

Adams,  Geo.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Adams,  C.  E.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Ackley,  G.  N.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Avery,  N.  S.,  grocer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 


Allen,  Alex.,  farmer  and  speculator;  P.  0. 

Adam,  David,  farmer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Arnold,  W.  B.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Berry,  Patrick,  laborer;  p.  o. 


BROWN,  O.  B.,  of  firm  of  Beard 
&  Brown,  photographers;  Waukegan; 
born  in  Lake  Co.,  Ill.,  1855;  Rep.; 


firm  of  Beard  &  Brown,  photographers; 
Waukegan  ;  born  in  Bristol,  Eng.,  1855; 
Rep.;  Epis. 

Berry,  A.  C.,  merchant;  P.O.  Waukegan. 
Bell,  John,  sailor;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Besley,  Wm.,  brewer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Besley,  Wm.  B.,  brewer;  P.O.  Waukegan. 
Besley,  E.  D.,  brewer;  P.O.  Waukegan. 
Besley,  Geo.  W.,  dgst.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Besley,  John,  W.,  City  Clerk;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Becker,  August,  min.;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 




Beauman,  Wm.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan,  j 

Benedict,  Andrew,  loan  agent;  P.  0.  W au 

BERRY,  H.  S.,  Of  H.  S.  Berry  & 
Co.,  millers ;  Waukegan ;  born  in  Frank 
lin  Co.,  N.  Y.,  1816;  settled  in  Wauke¬ 
gan  in  1845;  married  twice;  first  wife 
Miss  Eliza  Caple,  second  wife  Miss  Helen 
Montgomery ;  four  children — Albert  C., 
Fred  C.,  Helen  M.  and  Lawrence  C. 

Bishop,  L.,  salesman;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Biddinger,  Peter,  shoemaker;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Biddinger,  N.,  tailor;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Biddinger,  J.,  tailor;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Biddlecom,  Milton  P.,  capitalist;  P.  0. 

Biddlecom,  J.  C.,  mer.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Billings,  Chas.,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bilhartz,  Joseph,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bilhartz,  Otto,  cabinet  maker ;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Biddinger,  Mich’l,  mer.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
BOWER,  A.  C.,  lumberman;  Wau¬ 
kegan;  born  in  New  York  State,  1843, 
and  came  to  Waukegan  in  1867 ;  Rep.; 
Epis.;  married  Miss  Carrie  A  elie  in  1867; 
has  four  children — Jennie,  Alida,  Geo. 
W.  and  Albert  L.;  held  office  of  Aider- 
man  in  Waukegan. 

Barker,  James  S.,fdry.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Ballentine,  David,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Baker,  John  C.,  vocalist;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Baker,  J.  A.,  vocalist;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bangs,  L.  D.,  broom  maker;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Bauer,  Adam,  laborer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Barker,  Wm.,  mason;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Barnum,  H.  P.,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Barker,  W.  G.,  student;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Barker,  W.  C.,  phys.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bacon,  L.  C.,  mfr.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Barker,  Walter,  clerk;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Badger,  E.,  contractor;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bachelder,  E.  S.  L.,  merchant;  P.  0. 

Baker,  E.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Baker,  G.  E.,  vocalist;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Beard,  Harry,  phot.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Badaker,  Casper,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Baird,  Alex.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bassett,  F.  C.,  clerk;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Barker,  D.  N.,  salesman ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Belden,  Ephraim,  far.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Belden,  E.  C.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Benjamin,  W.  B.,  far.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bedall,  Jno.,  farmer,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Berry,  A.  C.,  merchant;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
BLANCHARD,  PHILIP,  farmer ; 
Secs.  3  and  4;  P.  0.  Waukegan;  born 
in  N.  Y.  1804  and  came  to  Lake  Co.  in 
1837  ;  was  engaged  in  teaching  school  in 

N.  Y. ;  owns  90  acres,  worth  $100  per 
acre ;  Rep.;  Meth.  A  society  of  a  hundred 
families,  formed  for  the  purpose  of  emi¬ 
grating  west,  appointed  an  agent  who 
came  west  and  made  claim  on  several 
thousand  acres  of  land.  The  families 
came  and  settled,  and  through  poor  man¬ 
agement  they  became  involved  in  trouble 
and  were  broken  up.  Married  Miss 
Hannah  Frost,  of  N.  Y.,  born  1807y 
married  1829;  seven  children — Martha 
Ann,  John,  Arthur,  Hannah,  James, 
Sarah  E.  and  Mary,  all  living;  lost  one, 
Levi.  Belonged  to  Co.  I,  47th  Ill.  Y.  1.  *T 
enlisted  in  1861 ;  was  taken  sick  with  ty¬ 
phoid  fever,  and  died  at  Savannah,  Ga.r 
March  25,  1862. 

Biddenger,  Mathias,  tailor ;  P.  0.  Wauke¬ 

Botsford,  R.  S.,  commission  merchant;  P. 

O.  Waukegan. 

Botsford,  A.  B.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Botsford,  R.,  grocer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Boyland,  Wm.,  capitalist;  P.  0.  Wauke¬ 

Boyland,  E.,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Boiler,  Fred,  carriage  manufacturer ;  P.  O. 

Boucher,  Fred,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bohn,  John,  carpenter;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bohn,  Fred,  tailor;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bower,  J.  K.,  planing-mill ;  P.  0.  Wauke¬ 

Bower,  A.  C.,  lumber;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bodwell,  A.  J.,  slsmn.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Boyington,  E.  E.,  slsmn.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Buell,  C.  G.,  ex-Sheriff;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
BISHOP,  JOHN,  farmer ;  Sec.  9 , 

P.  0.  Waukegan;  born  in  Genesee  Co.r 
N.  Y.,  July  2,  1822;  came  to  Lake 
Co.  October,  1843;  Dem.;  liberal  in  re¬ 
ligion  ;  married  twice ;  first  wife  Lucy 
Viley,  of  N.  Y.,  born  July,  1824,  died 
April  28,  1854;  second  wife,  Matilda 
Irish, of  N.  Y.;  she  was  born  July  18, 
1830;  has  one  child,  Lorenzo  B.,  born 
May  27,  1848  (married  Nellie  Arnold, 
of  Waukegan).  His  father’s  name  is 
H.  B.  Bishop,  of  N.  Y.,  born  January, 
1797;  was  killed  by  a  falling  tree  May, 


1832.  His  mother  was  Jolettie  Law¬ 
rence,  born  Sept.  14,  1802,  and  died 
April  2,  1877.  Wife’s  father  was  John 
Irish,  born  Sept.  5,  1797,  died  Nov.  5, 
1857 ,  mother  was  Betsey  Jennings 
born  May  25,  1804,  died  Feb.  2,  1866’ 
Buell,  W.  A.,  hostler;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Buell,  Abram,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Bubb,  Geo.,  wagon  mfr.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Burk,  David,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Burk,  Eberhart,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Burk,  D.,  laborer;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 
Burk,  E.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Burk,  John,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Burns,  Thomas,  laborer ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Burns,  Henry,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Bullock,  J.  B.,  phys.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Butterfield,  Hiram  A.,  laborer;  P.  0. 

Butterfield,  Isaac,  janitor;  P.O. Waukegan. 
Butler,  Greo.,  carpenter;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Butler,  Wm.,  machinist;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Burtis,  Melvin,  brklayr.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Burling,  Jos.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Burnett,  G.  H.,  gunsmith;  P.  0.  Wauke- 

Burton,  J.  C.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Burton,  Victor,  clerk;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 


TA,  farmer;  Sec.  19;  P.  0.  Wauke 
gan;  born  in  Prussia,  Germany,  1838, 
and  came  to  America  August,  1857 ; 
married  Feb.  7, 1858,  to  B.  Buboltd,  at 
Waukegan.  Her  husband  belonged  to 
13th  U.  S.  Inf.;  he  died  in  the  South. 
Came  to  Lake  Co.  in  1857;  five  chil¬ 
dren — Amelia,  born  Dec.  19,  1858; 
Ephraim,  Aug.  25,  ’60;  Mary,  Jan.  4, 
68,  John,  Sept.  25,  ’63;  and  Emma, 
June  20,  ’65. 

Brown,  J.  D.,  tea  dealer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Brown,  M.  J.,  lumber;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Brown,  Jno.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brown,  J.  M.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 


Waukegan ;  born  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Nov. 

8,  1828;  apprenticed  to  printing  busi¬ 
ness  in  that  city  Nov.  8,  1842;  came  to 
Waukegan  (then  Little  Fort)  Nov.  25, 
1847 ;  married  Mary  A.,  daughter  of 
Luther  and  Charlotte  Spaulding,  of 
Spaulding’s  Corners,  Nov.  25,  1851; 
three  children — Frances  M.,  Dewitt  H. 
and  Samuel  H.;  sons  both  printers ;  has 
been  engaged  in  the  publishing  business 
in  Waukegan  for  the  best  part  of  thirty 


years;  now  owns  and  edits  the  Lake 
County  Patriot  (the  lineal  descendant 
of  the  Little  Fort  Porcupine ,  the  first 
paper  published  in  Lake  Co.),  indepen¬ 
dent  on  all  subjects ;  like  Andy  Johnson, 
has  been  u  Alderman  of  his  village-  sev¬ 
eral  years ;  says  his  ambition  is  confined 
to  publishing  the  best  paper  in  the 
county,  and  to  serving  the  interests  of 
the  people  of  Lake  Co.  to  the  best  of 
his  ability. 

Brown,  Norman,  collector;  P.  0.  Wauke¬ 

Brown,  A.,  physician;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brown,  Frank,  hostler;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brown,  V.  J.,  painter;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brewster,  Dan  1,  harness;  P.  0.  Whukegan. 

Brewster,  J.  L.,  harness ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brand,  P.  P.,  barber;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bray,  Wm.  A.,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
BLODGETT,  A.  Z.,  agent  C.  &  N. 

W.  By.,  coal  and  grain  dealer,  buys  and 
sells  fine  stock ;  Waukegan ;  born  in  Du 
Page  Co.,  Ill.,  1837;  Bep  .;  came  to  Lake 
Co.  in  1854;  married  Miss  Mary  E. 
Porter,  of  Canada,  in  1857;  has  five 
children— Henry  P.,  Cyrus  E.,  John  H., 
Frank  P  and  Lewis  D. 

Bradbury,  Andrew,  pr. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brewer,  Dan’l,  atty.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brewer,  Chas.,  salesman  ;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 

Brewer,  Dan’l,  tailor;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brain,  H.,  gardener;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bryant,  M.  A.,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Bruce,  C.  G.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brogan,  Jno.,  scale  mkr.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Blanchard,  Arthur,  far.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Blanchard,  Jas.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Blodgett,  H.  W.,  Judge  U.  S.  Dist.' Court; 
P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Blowney,  B.  G.,  harness  maker;  P.  0. 

Blows,  Chas.,  carpenter;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Breischack,  Geo.,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brown,  S.  S.,  sewing  machine  agent;  P.  0. 

Blanchard,  W.  S.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
BARBOUR,  JOHN,  P.  0  Gurney; 
born  in  Scotland,  1841 ;  came  to  Amer¬ 
ica  in  1862;  liberal  in  politics;  Chris¬ 
tian;  works  270  acres  of  land;  married 
Miss  Jane  Dilley,  of  Pa.;  have  two  chil¬ 
dren— James  C.  B.,  born  July  28, 1872, 
and  Meyrta  A.,  born  April  16,  1875; 
works  farm  belonging  to  Henry  J.  Sligh- 
field,  of  Waukegan. 



Baxter,  Wm.,  saloon;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Baxter,  R.  A.,  saloon;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Biddlecom,  Z.  L.,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Boyington,  T.  M.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Baker,  E.  H.,  minister;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Boening,  Lewis,  phys.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Bradbury,  D.  H.,  pr  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Beuckmann,  Frank,  scale  mkr.;  P.  O.Wau 

Brown,  0.  L.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Buckman,  Henry,  mechanic;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Baskerfield,  Richard,  tailor;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Barnum,  C.  A.,  slsmn.;  P.  0.  Waukfgan. 
Burns,  Peter,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Brown,  Edwin,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Burns,  Henry,  Jr.,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Bell,  Robt.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Barker,  E.  W.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Burris,  Sam’l,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Burris,  0.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Burris,  Wm.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Brown,  W.  J.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Beauman,  Fred,  mech.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Bierhaus,  Fred  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Barker,  F.  M.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Beck,  G-eo.  B.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Brown,  W.  J.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

COMPTON,  ROBT.,  speculator ;  P.  0. 

Cole,  E.,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Cole,  W.  S.,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Colburn,  N.  E.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Conners,  J.  W.,  slsmn.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Colgrove,  Geo.,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Coman,  B.  A.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Cawler,  David,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Cochrane,  Wm.,  wagon  maker;  P.O.  Wau¬ 

Chamberlin,  Wallace,  laborer ;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Cheever,  A.  R.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Clark,  Edward,  drayman;  P.O.  Waukegan. 
Clark,  Jas.  B.,  drayman;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

CLARKSON,  DR.  R.  W.,  Dentist, 
Waukegan ;  born  in  N.  Y.  Dec.  1,  1822  ; 
graduated  at  the  Baltimore  college  in 
1846 ;  came  to  Lake  Co.  (then  McHenry) 
1838;  married  Miss  Julia  Lytle  1872; 
two  children — Maud  May  and  John  Gor¬ 

Clark,  Geo.,  carpenter  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Clarkson,  John  E.,  baggage  master;  P.  0. 

Clement,  Stephen,  capitalist;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Crapo,  Walter,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Crell,  Julius,  piano  tuner;  P.  0.  Wauke¬ 

Cromer,  John,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Crooker,  W.  W.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Crossley,  J.  P.,  produce  dealer;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Cronan,  Jerry,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Cutter,  S.  R.,  carpenter;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Curtis,  Jno.  L.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Curtis,  E.  H.,  Presb.  min.;  P.  0.  Wauke¬ 

Cunningham,  P.  W.,  harness  maker ;  P.O. 

Curtiss,  Clinton,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Crawford,  E.  C.,  Principal  high  school;  P. 
0.  Waukegan. 

CLARKE,  FRAN  CIS  E.,  attorney ; 
W aukegan ;  commenced  the  practice  of 
law  in  1856 ;  born  in  Williamstown,  Vt.. 
March  4,  1828;  graduated  at  the  Dart¬ 
mouth  College,  N.  H.,  in  1851 ;  set 
tied  in  Waukegan  same  year;  Rep.; 
held  office  of  County  School  Commis¬ 
sioner  from  1853  to  1860 ;  was  Principal 
of  the  Waukegan  academy  for  five  years ; 
married  Hannah  C.  Scott,  of  Mass.,  Jan. 
13, 1858;  have  three  children — MaryE., 
Helen  C.  and  Lucy  H. 

Case,  W.  M.,  prod,  dir.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Case,  Chas.  M.,  commission  salesman;  P. 
0.  Waukegan. 

Cain,  Thomas,  saloon;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Calkins,  Smith,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Connolly,  Michael,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Connolly,  R.  A.,  civil  engineer;  P.  0. 

Cone,  Sam’l,  supt.  “  Phoenix  Hall ;”  P.  0. 

Cone,  E.  S.,  capitalist;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Cory  B.  S.,  Sr.,  phys.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Cory,  D.  A.,  salesman;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Cory,  B.  S.,  Jr.,  adv.  agt.;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 
Cook,  Homer,  attorney;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Colls,  R.  K.,  Justice  of  the  Peace;  P.  0. 

Conrad,  Henry,  cooper;  P.O.  Waukegan. 
CRABTREE,  L.,  proprietor  ‘‘  Pioneer 
Carriage  Mfy.;”  Waukegan;  born  in 
N.  Y.  in  1829 ;  came  to  Illinois  in  1840  ; 
farmed  in  McHenry  Co.  eight  years; 
came  to  Waukegan  in  1848;  engaged  in 
blacksmithing  until  1855,  when  he  com¬ 
menced  the  manufacture  of  carriages 




wagons,  etc.;  manufactures  for  States  of 
Iowa,  Michigan,  Illinois  and  Wisconsin  ; 
value  of  manufactory,  $30,000 ;  Rep.  ; 
married  twice ;  first  wife  Miss  Margaret 
E.  JVIcClay,  of  Vermont,  in  1854  (who 
died  in  1856),  second  wife  Sarah  E.  Slew- 
man.  of  Massachusetts,  in  1876. 

COYKENDALL,  GEO.  W.  ,  farm¬ 
er;  Sec.  19;  Waukegan;  born  in  N.  Y. 
Oct.  16,  1834;  moved  to  Cass  Co., 
Mich.,  1861,  and  remained  there  en¬ 
gaged  in  salt  manufactory  until  1865, 
when  he  came  to  Lake  Co.;  farms  40 
acres,  value  $4,000 ;  left  Lake  Co.  for 
Dakota  Territory  in  1867,  and  settled 
in  Union  Co.,  D.  T.;  owned  170  acres  of 
land ;  was  one  among  the  many  who  suf 
fered  from  the  grasshoppers;  returned 
to  Lake  Co.  in  1873;  married  Mary  E. 
Haggart,  born  Oct.  10, 1837 ;  (widow  of 
E.  Haggart,  of  N.  Y.,  who  was  killed  in 
the  battle  of  Chickamauga,  Ga.,  Sept.  18, 
1863;  belonged  to  Co.  D,  96th  Ill.  V. 
I.;  enlisted  Aug.  6,  1862;  was  the  first 
man  that  was  shot  who  belonged  to  the 
96th  Ill.  V .  I. )  The  maiden  name  of  Mrs. 
Coykendall  is  Mary  E.  See,  daughter 
of  A.  A.  D.  See.  Her  father  was  born 
Jan.  15,  1813,  died  Nov.  30,  1862. 
Her  mother  was  O.  A.  Clark,  born  May 
13,  1815,  died  1864.  Mrs.  Coykendall 
has  five  children — Ella  A.,  born  1865, 
Eva  A.,  1867,  Herbert  L.,  1869,  Her¬ 
man  L.,  1871,  and  John  A.,  1860. 
Meth.;  Rep. 

Collins,  W.,  minister;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 

Cain,  John,  laborer;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 

Culver,  Edward,  P.  O.  Waukegan. 

Connolly,  Patrick,  clerk ;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 
CORY,  JAMES  Y.,  Postmaster;  j 
Waukegan;  Rep.;  Epis.;  born  in  Cana¬ 
da  Oct.  12,  1828;  settled  at  Waukegan 
Aug.  21,  1844;  married  Miss  Eliza  P. 
Kellogg,  of  Maine,  Oct.  12,  1852;  two 
children  living — James  Stewart  and  Kate 
Thomson ;  was  appointed  Postmaster 
by  President  Lincoln  in  1861;  was  re 
appointed  by  President  Grant  in  1874, 
which  office  he  still  holds. 

Cawley,  Dennis,  laborer;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 

CHILDS,  D.  T.,  merchant;  Wauke¬ 
gan;  born  in  Middlehadam,  Ct.,  Aug. 
1832;  married  Miss  M.  E.  Dolan,  of 

N.  Y.;  have  three  children — James  T., 
Nellie  C.  B.  and  Hattie  T. 

Crain,  H.  A.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Clark,  E.  J.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Chapin,  I  rank,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Caulley,  John,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan, 

Connor,  John,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Chamberlin,  Sidney,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

COOK,  HOMER,  attorney;  Wauke¬ 
gan;  Rep.;  Meth.;  born  in  Stamford, 
Vt.,  Jan.  5,  1832;  came  to  Lake  Co.  in 
1840;  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1861, 
and  has  practiced  law  in  Chicago  and 
Lake  Co.  ever  since ;  owns  40  acres  land, 
value  $5,000;  married  Miss  Annie  Sim¬ 
mons;  four  children — Minnie  L.,  Lucy 
M.,  Carrie  E.  and  Jessie  A.  His  father, 
Andrew  Cook,  was  born  at  Stamford. 
Vt.,  Nov.  5,  1801;  came  to  Lake  Co. 
in  1840. 

DADY,  ROBERT,  farmer;  P.  O. 

DODGE,  WM.  B.,  firm  of  Dodge 
&  Watrous;  Waukegan;  Rep.;  Epis.; 
born  in  Seneca  Co.,  N.  Y.,  1824; 
settled  in  Waukegan  Dec.  1846;  is  one 
of  the  prominent  men  of  Lake  Co.;  is 
now  the  Mayor  of  Waukegan ;  has  been 
a  member  of  the  Legislature  and  County 
Supervisor;  married  Miss  Harriett  S. 
Getty,  of  N.  Y.,  Nov.  1850;  one  child 
— Wm.  H. 

Dady,  J.  R.,  carriage  mfr. ;  P.O.  Waukegan. 
Darrah,  A.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan." 
Darrah,  Robt.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Dewey,  Geo.,  prod,  dir.;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 
De  Hart,  Jos.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Devlin,  Michael,  police.;  P.  6.  Waukegan. 
Dennison,  A.  J.,  commission  merchant  ;  P. 

O.  Wauke  gan. 

Derrick,  S.  N.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Dennison,  S.  P.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Dickinson,  Jos.,  painter;  P.O.  Waukegan. 
Dickinson,  Chas.,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Dickinson,  A.  E.,  broom  maker;  P.  0. 

Dickinson,  D.  C.,  commission  merchant: 

P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Deitmeyer,  J03.,  saloon;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Deitmeyer,  John,  saloon ;  P.O.  Waukegan. 
Deitmeyer,  F.,  saloon;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Deitmeyer,  Henry,  drayman;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Diver,  Geo.  H.,  clerk;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

DOUGLAS,  ROBERT,  proprietor 
Waukegan  Nursery;  Waukegan;  born 
in  England  April  20,  1813;  settled  in 
Waukegan  June  21, 1844;  married  Miss 



Sylvia  Wheeler  May  12,  1843  ;  have 
four  children — Alice  J.,  Robert  John, 
Chas.  W.  and  Thomas  H. 

Douglas,  Thos.  H.,  nursery  man;  P.  0. 

Douglas,  J.  R.,  nursery  man  ;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Douglas,  C.  W.,  Sr.,  shoemaker ;  P.  0. 

Douglas,  Charles  W.,  nursery  man  ;  P.  0. 

Douglas,  A.  R.,  hostler ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dodge,  W.  H.,  mer. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dorsett,  L.  C.,  asst.  P.  M.;  P.  0.  Wauke¬ 

Dow,  W.  H.,  mfr.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dowst,  Henry  W.,  telegraph  operator; 
P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dorans,  T.,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dougherty,  John,  gardener ;  P.  0.  Wan- 

Dolan,  J.  E.,  salesman  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dolan,  C.  G-.,  harness  maker ;  P.  0. 

Donhauser,  John,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

kegan  ;  representative  from  the  8th 
District;  was  born  in  New  Jersey,  in 
1822 ;  is  a  tobacconist  by  occupation  ; 
came  to  Illinois  when  Chicago  was  a 
village,  in  1834  ;  has  voted  the  Demo¬ 
cratic  ticket  34  years;  was  lighthouse 
keeper  under  President  Pierce,  and  P. 
M.  under  Buchanan  ;  was  elected  repre¬ 
sentative  in  1876  as  a  Dem. ;  received 
5,964  votes. 

Drew,  Richard,  blacksmith;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Dunning,  G.,  blacksmith;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Dugan,  John,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dugan,  Michael,  lab.:  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dugan,  Dennis,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dulanty,  Michael,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Duffy,  Paul,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Duffy,  Patrick,  laborer ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Duffy,  Ross,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dugdale,  Edward,  sailor;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dugdale,  Thomas,  far.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dunlay,  Wm.,  blacksmith;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Dumond,  James,  scale  maker;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

D welly,  Hiram ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dodge,  Charles  H.,  far.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Drummond,  Victor,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dugan,  M.  H.,  laborer;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 
Dwyer,  Patrick,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Doubrara,  Jos.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Deitmeyer,  F.  J.,  teamster;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Drew,  Stephen,  blacksmith;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Davenport,  Thos.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Durkee,  H.  0.,  scale  works;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Davlm,  John  H.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Davlin,  John,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Dougdale,  Henry,  hostler;  P.  0.  Wauke¬ 

Dennison,  A.  J.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

EARLL,  R.  C.,mer.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Earll,  Edward,  student;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Edwards,  Wm.,  clerk  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Effinger,  M.,  tailor;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Ellis,  Chas.,  constable;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
ELLIS,  W.  H.,  Waukegan ;  clerk 
of  Lake  Co.;  born  in  Washington  Co., 
Vt.,  Dec.  14,  1823 ;  came  to  Lake  Co., 
Sept.,  1851;  was  elected  Co.  clerk  in 
1865  ;  which  office  he  still  holds  ;  Rep.; 
married  Miss  Amanda  Pettingill,  of 
Vermont,  Oct.,  1846 ;  have  two  child¬ 
ren — Warren  H.  and  Nellie. 

Ely,  D.  S.,  salesman;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Emerson,  Ruben,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Emery,  Gr.  W.,  mason  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Erb,  E.  W.,  painter;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Erskine,  Sr.,  D.  M.,  real  estate  and  ins.; 

P.  O.  Waukegan. 

Ester,  T.  C.,  P.  0.  Waukegan, 

Evans,  Moses,  physician;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Evans,  H.  A.,  reporter  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Evans,  J.  0.,  mechanic ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Edmonds,  Henry,  far.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Edmonds,  Wm.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Ellerton,  Geo.,  farmer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Erskine,  Samuel,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Emrich,  Aug.,  tailor;  P.O.  Waukegan. 
Edwards,  C.,  clerk  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

FARROW,  JOHN,  farmer;  P.  0. 

Fay,  Geo.  W.,  banker;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Fay,  John,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Fay,  W.  H.,  bank  teller ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Farrell,  Thos.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Farrell,  James,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Farrell,  James,  Jr.,  farmer:  P.  0.  Wau¬ 
kegan  . 



Farrell,  Patrick,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
PEARSON,  JOHN,  farmer ;  Sec.  5 ; 
P.  0.,  Waukegan;  born  in  Ireland  about 
1805;  came  to  America  in  1843  ;  owns 
80  acres,  valued  at  $75  per  acre ;  married 
Miss  Elizabeth  McGavacock,  born  in 
Antermon  Co.,  Cavin  Castle,  Ireland,  in 
1828  ;  married  in  Waukegan,  July  1, 

Fenkell,  E.  B.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Fenkell,  J.  W  ,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Fenkell  Ernest,  teamster;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Fenkell  E.  L.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Ferguson,  Geo.,  harness  maker;  P.  0. 

Ferguson,  A.  0.,  carriage  mfr. ;  P.  0. 

Ferguson,  G.  A.,  farmer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Fehls,  Carl,  carpenter ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Field,  Hubbard,  slsmn. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Finney,  James,  mason ;  P.  0  Waukegan. 
FOX,  CHAS.  H.,  Waukegan;  firm 
of  Steele  &  Fox,  dry  goods  and  general 
mdse. ;  born  in  Marsville,  Madison  Co., 
N.  Y.,  Sept.  18,  1829;  Hep.;  Baptist; 
married  Miss  Georgiana  A.  Steele,  of 
Illinois,  June,  1861  ;  have  three  chil¬ 
dren — Annie,  Chas.  H.,  and  Edgar  H. 

Fleming,  Thos.,  elk.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Fleming,  Arthur,  teamster;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Flinn,  S.  H.,  assessor;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Flood,  Edward,  lab. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Flogg,  Chas.  B.,  elk.  ;  P.  0.  Waukpgan. 

Fleischman,  Michael,  maltster ;  P.  0. 

Flanders,  Nathan,  carp. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Flood,  Win.,  lab. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Foy,  Patrick,  lab. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Foy,  John  H., gardener;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Fowler,  A.  E.,blksmth. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Forsyth,  J.  F.,  scale  works;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

FERGUSON,  MRS.  A.  B.,  Wau¬ 
kegan  ;  farming  Section  31  ;  is  the  wid¬ 
ow  of  the  late  A.  B.  Ferguson,  who  was 
born  in  Glasgow,  Scotland,  in  1821,  and 
came  to  America  in  1848  ;  married  Miss 
Jane  Leitch,  of  Scotland,  who  was  born 
in  1821,  and  married  in  1843;  Mr.  F. 
died  on  the  farm  in  1873  ;  own  120 
acres  of  land,  worth  $7,200 ;  have  four 
children — Geo.  A.,  born  in  New  York, 
August  24,  1852  ;  John  B.,  born  in 
Glasgow,  Scotland,  in  February,  1844  ; 

enlisted  in  1861,  in  the  late  war,  in  Co. 
C,  37th  I.  Y.  I.;  died  at  Carlton,  La  , 
1863  ;  Annie,  born  1845,  married  A.  B. 
Richey;  Jane  W.,  born  in  Lake  Co.,  in 

Fort,  J.  S.,  slsmn  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Frike,  Chas.,  loan  agt.  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Frank,  Heniy,  lab.  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Frank,  Michael,  tanner  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Freeman,  Win.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Fredrick,  Chas.,  basket  maker ;  P.  O. 

Fulton,  Wm.,  sash  and  blind  maker;  P. 
0.  Waukegan. 

Fallon,  Jas.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Finney,  Andrew,  mason ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Flagg,  B.  L.,  com.  agt. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
FORSYTH,  J.  F.,  President  Forsyth 
Scale  Works,  Waukegan  ;  born  in  Phila¬ 
delphia,  Pa.,  August  6,  1839;  married 
Adaline  Augusta  Cheeney,  of  Ver¬ 
mont,  born  Dec.  20,  1838;  father,  A. 
T.  Cheeney,  and  mother,  Anne  Miller  ; 
Orion  Forsyth,  Elizabeth  E.  Frederick, 
father  and  mother  of  J.  F.  Forsyth  ; 
three  children — Anne  E.,  born  July  23, 
1868  ;  Bessie  M.,  born  Dec.  29,  1870  ; 
Susie,  born  Oct.  29,  1875. 

Finer,  F.,  sewing  machine  agent ;  P.  0. 

Fort,  C.  H.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Felton,  Eugene,  lab. ;  P.  0  Waukegan. 
Foy,  John,  retired  farmer;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Fango,  Sam’l,plow  mfr  ;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 
Farrell,  Michael,  farmer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Farrill,  John,  farmer;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 
Frayer,  R.  H.,  lab.  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Felton,  Homer,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

aAVIGAN,  THOMAS,  lab.;  P.  O 

Gavigan.  Patrick,  lab. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
GILLEN,  JACOB,  Waukegan  ;  born 
in  Germany,  1810;  Dem. ;  Catholic; 
owns  two  houses,  valued  at  $8,000 ; 
settled  in  Waukegan  in  1867;  proprie¬ 
tor  Lake  House,  No.  60  State  street, 

Gage,  E.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Gage,  J.,  physician;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gallagher.  Jas., drayman;  P.  0  Waukegan. 
Gamash,  Frank,  fishrmn.;  P.  O.  Waukegan. 
Garvin,  Michael,  lab. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gail,  T.  D.,  farmer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gavin, E.W.,  Cath. priest;  P.  0. Waukegan. 



Gamash,  Jas.,  fisherman  ;  P.  0. Waukegan. 
Gamash,  A.,  fisherman  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gamash,  Sami.,  fisherman  ;  P.  0.  Wauke¬ 

George,  C.  B.,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Garrity,  James,  lab. ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gilchrist,  Thos.,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gilbert,  A.  A.,  carpenter ;  P.  0. Waukegan. 
Ginley,  Patrick,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Ginley,  Martin,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gilmore,  David,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Gilmore,  Frank  B.,  ptr.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gleason,  Hiram,  farmer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gliss,  Fred,  carpenter;  P  0.  Waukegan. 
Gorton,  J.  B.,  farmer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gorman,  Matthew,  lab  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gorman,  Michael,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Goneau,  Jos.,  laborer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Goneau,  Alex.,  farmer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Golden,  John,  moulder;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gray,  W.  A.,  clerk  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gray,  Chas.  T.,  printer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Green,  Webster,  carp.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Green,  R.  C.,  mason;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Green,  Wm.,  farmer ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Graham.  Andrew,  tailor  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Greenleaf,  S.  S.,  shoemaker;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Griffith,  Albright,  clerk ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Griggs,  Sami.,  whitewasher ;  P.  0.  Wauke- 

Griggs,  R.  B.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Griswold,  Henry,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Grogan,  John,  laborer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Grover,  David,  teamster  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Graham,  Edward,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gunn,  Ed.  D.,  house  mover;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Graham, Walter,  teamster ;  P.  0. Waukegan. 
Granger,  James  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gilbert,  Ashley,  printer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Green,  James,  printer;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gurnee,  L.  J.,  abstract  of  titles;  P.  0. 

Goneau,  Lewis,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Goodbodv,  Richard,  far.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Grady,  Patrick,  far.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Green,  G.  G.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Grimes,  Thos.,  laborer  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Gail,  W.  S.,  broom  mkr  ;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Grady,  James,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Grimolby,  J.  W.,  blacksmith  ;  P.  0.  Wau¬ 

Gibble,  J.  A.,  P.  0.  Waukegan.' 

Gibbons,  Timothy,  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Gail,  H.  S.,  broom  mkr.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 

Helmholtz,  henry,  p.  o. 


HAGEN,  HERMAN  L.,  Wan- 

kegan  ;  born  in  Prussia,  in  1813;  far 
mer,  Section  32 ;  sailed  for  America  in 
1851;  settled  and  bought  the  farm  he  now 
lives  on,  in  Lake  County,  May  16, 1851. 
Father,  H.  L.  Hagen,  farmer  in  Prussia, 
died  in  1832,  68  years  old.  Married 
Miss  Catherine  Bomcamp,  of  Prussia, 
in  1851 ;  have  one  child,  George,  born 
June  20,  1863  ;  owns  140  acres  of  land, 
worth  $14,000  ;  Dem. ;  Catholic. 
Henneman,  Chas.,  lab.;  P.  0.  Waukegan. 
Heydecker,  C.  T.